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8-3*5 I73W 







This issue of WILDLIFE REVIEW is devoted to i 
1937 - December 1930. 


Special notices 1 

Subject index 2 

Author index 
Statistics . 


Complete sets can not be furnished to individuals but a few are avail- 
able for libraries. 

Requests for the publications abstracted, other than Wildlife Research 
and Management (BS) Leaflets, should be sent, not to the Biological Survey, but 
to the address given in the bibliographic citation to the particular paper 

Readers are urged to send separates of, or references to, articles which 
they think should be abstracted in WILDLIFE REVIEW. 

Exchange with related periodicals is invited. 


Washington, D. C. 

No. 18 


January, 1939 

Nos. 8-17, April 1937 - December 1938 

The classification used in the index is primarily from the wildlife 
management point of view, major headings being much the same as have been regu- 
larly used in WILDLIFE REVIEW. Subordinate grouping depends usually on the key 
word, which may be preceded by a preposition, article, or other trivial term. 
Federal agencies are arranged alphabetically under U. S. Government. 

[Numbers, as 12-41, refer to the issuo and page J 


Animal nutrition, current American 

textbooks, 12-41 
Biological journals, 8-33 
Botanical journals, 8-35 
Conservation department organs, 12-4 
Museum periodicals, 8-36 
Society periodicals, 8-36 
Sporting magazines, 12-42 
Biological field stations, locations 

mapped, 16-15 
Biological surveys: 

Alaska, Mount McKinley National 

Park, 15-2 
Arizona, Natural vegetation, 12-44 
Canada, Big game, 17-2 
Louisiana, Birds of, 16-2 
Missouri, Zoogeographic regions, 

New Jersey, Birds of Cape May, 12-44 
New York, Birds of the Cat ski 11 

Mountains, 14-30 
New York, Birds of the northern 

boundary of, 14-30 
Ohio, Game mammals of, 17-28 
Pennsylvania, Pyma tuning State 
Refuge, 16-30 

(and Identification) J 
Anatidae of Wisconsin, 16-20 
Bird feathers, Key to, 14-28 
"■roast feathers of the orders of 
paretic birds, Key to, 16-36 
ner rails, 10-2 

notus (lizards), 16-2 
squirrels, 15-2 
nmon, 11-3 
15-2, 16-2 

Key to, 14-28, 16-34, 

Classif ication-r-Continued 

Najas (pondwoeds), 8-2 

Predators, Identification of by 
their work, 17-35 

Quail, Mountain, 8-2 

Tooth marks, Identification of, 

Abuse of polo traps, 9-2 . 

American Game Protective and Propa- 
gation Association, History, 18-32 

Antelope, 17-22 

Boars, Brown, 11-35 

Bibliography, 12-43, 13-7, 14-3, 

Big game, Canada, 17-2 

Bighorn, 17-4 

Bighorn, Desert, 13-3 

Birds, 16-2 

In California, 10-2 
In Europe, 14-2 

Birds of proy, 11-31, 11-32, 14-28 

Bobwhite, 9-3 

In British Empire, 8-42 

Condor, California, 8-39 

Crow, 11-2 

Duck, Wood, 17-22 

Elk, Olympic, 9-11 

Elk, Roosevelt, 8-17 

Entomology in relation to, 16-2 

Esthetics, 14-2 

Federal aid to States in wildlife 
restoration, 10-29, 13-19, 17-26 

Flood control in relation to, 8-2 

Fur animals, 9-2, 10-33, 12-2, 
12-15, 15-2, 15-3, 17-2 

Fur animals, Canada, 17-26 

Fur laws, 11-35 

General, 9-2 

Grouse , Sage , 8-18 




January, 1939 

Conservation — Continued 

Guano birds, Mexico, 17-2 
Hawks, 9-2, 9-3, 9-39, 11-2, 14-2 
History, North Carolina, 16-3 
History, Wisconsin, 9-3, 10-3, 

10-11, 11-3, 15-3 
On Indian reservations, 8-40, 8-42 
International migratory bird pro- 
tection, 17-3 
International parks, 12-18 
International wildlife protection, 

In Mexico, 12-2, 17-2 
Migratory Bird Treaty with Mexico, 

Moose, European, 15-23 
In national parks, 16-3 
A national program, 12-2 
Natural areas, 16-3 
Nature preserves throughout the 

world, 10-3 
Need of in British Empire, 15-4 
Non-toxic shot, 11-9, 16-36 
Oregon's wildlife resources, 8-2 
Otter, Sea, 15-6, 16-22 
Owls, 11-3 
Peat land in relation to wildlife, 

Pelican, Brown, 11-2 
Pole traps outlawed, Wisconsin, 

Principles, 12-10, 15-4 
Of public interest, 16-3 
Raccoon, Illinois, 13-13 
In South Dakota, 9-3 
Taylor Grazing Act, 12-2 
Theory, 14-3 

Threatened species, 12-3 
Vanishing species, refuges, 9-38 
Water birds, 14-4 
Waterfowl, 9-3, 9-39, 10-4, 12-4, 

13-16, 15-5, 16-12 
Canada, 12-3, 17-3 
Mexico, 17-3 

United States, 12-3, 17-3 
Waterfowl situation: 1937-38, 15-42 
Whales, International action, 10-30 
Wildlife, 16-4 
Canada, 12-4 
Finland, 15-32 
Maine, 16-4 


Conserration — Continued 
Wildlife— Continued 

Missouri, 9-12 

North Carolina, 15-32 
Willet, 16-23 
By Women's Clubs, 12-4 
Control, 9-2, 11-2, 12-9 

Aggressive methods, 15-42, 17-3 
Eased on food habits, 17-36 
Bear, Black, 11-16 

By electric fence, 16-4 

In national parks, 15-25 
Bird damage to cherries, 11-4 
Birds in California, 10-2 
Elackbird damage to rice, 11-35 
Bounties, 11-20 

Defended, 10-12 

Evils of, 9-3, 9-4, 9-5, 9-39 

Finland, 15-32 

Pennsylvania, 8-3, 10-4, 10-33, 
15-16, 16-18 

Wisconsin, 12-43 

Wolf, in Ontario, 8-6, 8-10 
Burro, 13-3 
Cats, 15-27, 16-27 

Should be licensed, 15-39 
Control operations in relation to 

fur animals, 15-3 
Cottontail damage to orchards, 

Coyote, 11-4, 11-26, 15-18 
Crow, 11-2, 16-5 

In relation to waterfowl, 10-10, 
Cultural methods, 15-42, 17-3 

Damage to gardens, 9-4 

Damage to jack pine, 14-11 

By electric fence, 13-2 

Repellents, 14-30 
Defensive methods, 15-42, 17-3 
Dogs, 15-27, 15-34, 16-27 
Eagles, California, 8-4 
Electric fence, 13-2, 13-11, 14-4 

Vs. bears, 16-4 

Vs. deer, 14-30 
Fish predators, 8-4 
Fire ants, 14-20, 17-35 
Ground squirrels in relation to 
quail, 14-4 


January, 1939 

Control — Continued 

Hawks (blue darters), 15-34 
Insect end plant pests in relation 

to wildlife, 17-29 
Insects damaging wildlife food 

plants, 13-23, IS -2 
Insect r use of vertebrates in, 8-5 
Jays in California, 9-5 
Mam ma l destruction of planted acorns, 

Merganser, American, 10-12 

Field, 8-4 

House, 8-33 

In Switzerland, 10-4 
Mountain lion, 11-26, 15-23 
Muskrat, 11-29, 14-24, 15-35 
Owls, 11-3 
Porcupine, 11-20 
Predator, 9-26, 11-32 

By providing Qscaja cover, 8-30, 
10-29, 15-16, 15-25, 17-23 

Use of poison, 12-15 

On cottontail, 17-23 

On mule deer, 17-24 

In national parks, 16-3 
Protecting orchard trees from deer, 

Rabbit, European, in Australia, 9-4 
Rat, 15-42 
Raven, 16-5 

Research in methods, 9-36, 12-20 
Rodent damage to orchards, 14-26 

In game management, 8-5 

In Montana, 9-4 

As plague carriers, 12-6 

On the range , 10— * 
Side hunts, 9-5 
Skunk, 11-18 
Snakes, 13-19 
Sparrow, English, 16-35 
Starling roosts, 8-33 
Turtle trapping, 9-5 
"Vermin", 8-4, 8-5, 9-5, 9-21, 11-4 

Effects of, 8-5 
Wolves, Ontario, 8-6 
Cycles, 8-6, 8-11, 11-5, 11-10, 11-36, 
12-4, 13-20, 13-21, 13-28, 17-38 

Cycles — Continued 

Arctic animals, 13-2 

Bob white, 9-7 

Climatic as indicated by tree 

rings, 10-5 
Cottontail, 8-19, 13-2 
Fur animals, 17-26 
Game, New York, 9-7, 10-33, 17-37 
Grouse, 14-6 
Grouse, Ruffed, 9-30, 13-29, 15-33, 

Hare, Snow shoe, 8-6, 9-6, 10-16, 
11-5, 13-4, 14-4, 14-14, 15-5, 
15-8, 16-8, 16-9, 17-5 
Lynx, 11-5 

New York, 9-7 
Norway, 9-6 
Norwegian studies, 9-6 
Partridge, Hungarian, 13-3 
Rat, Cotton, 12-10 
Refuges in relation to, 9-7, 10-33 
Shrike, Northern, 8-6 
Squirrel, Gray, 13-13, 14-13, 17-19 

or levels, 12-4 
Wolves, Ontario, 8-6 
Destruction, 16-3, 16-4 
Antelope, 17-22 

Arsenical baits, Effects of, 11-5 
Arsenical sprays, Effects of, 11-6, 

Be-r, Grizzly, in California, 16-5 
Big game, Canada, 17-2 
Bighorn, 17-4 
Bighorn, Desert, 13-3 

In California, 10-2 
In Europe, 14-2 
Gone, by severe winter, 8-7 
Vanished or vanishing, 8-6, 
Birds of prey in mouse control cam- 
paigns, 10-4 

By clean farming, 9-21 
Winter killing, 9-7, 11-28, 
Buffalo, 16-22 
By burning, marsh, 15-26 
Caribou, Woodland, 10-5 



January, 1939 

Destruction — Continued 

In Missouri, 8-18 

By winter losses, 10-10 
Fur animals, 10-14, 11-12, 12-2, 

15-3, 17-2 
Grouse, Sage, 17-20 . 
Habitat for wildlife, Ifrifl 
By insecticides, 12-12, 13-3, 17-29 
Lead poisoning, 12-5 
Muskrats, 11-6, 12-16 
Otter, Sea, 15-5, 15-24 
Owls, 11-3 ) 

Partridge, Hungarian, Wisconsin, 

Pelican, Brown, 11-2 

By climatic conditions, Oregon, 

By hay cutting, 9-7 

In Iowa, 17-7 

Nest mortality, 9-20 
Poisoning campaigns in relation to 

game birds, 17-34 
Prairie chicken, 16-5 
.Quail, Valley, 17-34 
Water birds by oil, 16-32 
Waterfowl, 13-15 

By drought, 14-5 

On great plains breeding area, 
Whales, 13-14 
Wild fowl, in migration paths and 

winter ranges, 17-3 
Wildlife, 14-23 

Canada, 12-4 

Finland, 15-31 

Missouri, 9-12 

North Carolina, 15-32 

.Of the world, 15-4 
Wildlife exploitation, 9-27 
Winter killing: 

Bobwhito, 14-5 

Pheasant, Iowa, 17-7 
Winter losses: 

Deer, 13-32, 17-32 

Pheasants, 13-31 
Diseases and parasites: 
Actinomycosis, 12-6 
Allasogonoporus marginalis n. sp. # 

Diseases and parasites— Continued 
Amphimerus olongatus, 13-28 
Anemia, Tick-host, 15-6 
Anoplura on marmots, 16-6 
Arthropod, 13-22 
Arthropod carriers, 16-2 
Asonridea lineata in ruffed grouse, 

Autopsies, 9-8 
Bang's disease, 12-6 
Of bcavor, 11-9, 15-9 
Of bighorn, 9-19, 13-25, 17-3 
Blackhead: 4 / 

In bobwhite, 15-8 

In Chukar partridge, 16-9 

In quail, 13-4 
Blood parasites, 9-10, 14-6 

Of birds: 

Iowa, 16-6 

Nebraska, 11-7, 15-6 
Probable vectors, 13-4 
Of bobwhite, 0-9, 11-9, 13-27 
Botulism, 11-9, 13-20, 16-35, 17-4 
Brachylaemus percmysci n. sp. , 16-9 
Of buffalo, 16-22 
Cassia tor-' seeds poisonous, 15-34 
Cestodos of English sparrow, 10-5 
Chastek paralysis, 10-8, 15-8, 16-8 
Choanot.-.o-nia in birds, 11-7 
Choanotaonia passerina n. sp. f 10-5 
Clinostomum, 14-26 
Coccidia in reptiles, 11-7 

In birds, 11-6 

In European partridge, 15-40 

In fox, 15-6 

In muskrat, 16-6 
Common diseases of wildlife, 9-8 
Common to livestock and wildlife, 

12-6, 13-21 
Control of botulisn, 17-4 
Control in captive game birds,. 11-8 
Borynebacterium ovis, 16-7 
Of cottontail, 12-12, 13-32, 15-7 


Vs. Baird's sparrow, U-19 

Vs. Oven-bird, 10-15 
Decreased by dispersal of animals 

induced by salting, 15-28, 15-35 
Of deer in Arizona, 16-17 



January, 1939 

Diseases and parasites — Continued 
Deer in relation to tick fever of 

cattle, 10-31, 11-8 
Of door, whi to-tailed, 13-32, 15-33, 

Door lungworm, 14-27, 14-28 
Diasia podilymbao n. sp. , 16-9 
Dioctophyme renale, 14-26 
Disoaso as a factor in g-^iao fluctua- 
tions, 11-36 
Distemper, Fox, 10-8, 12-6 
Dog tick, 15-7 
Of ducks, 14-26, 16-7 
Ectopar- sites in relation to bird 

diseases, 13-4 
Eelgrass, 8-7, 9-8, 10-23, 15-7, 

15-42, 16-7 
Eimoria, in flying squirrel, 9-8 
Eimoria glaucomydis n. sp., 9-8 
Enlarged spleen in deor, 17-4 
Euryhclinis nlonorchifl n. sp., 16-9 
Fasciclopsis magnum, i4-27 
Fleas in relation to tularemia, 16-0 
Foot-and-mouth disease, 12-6, 17-6 
Foot- and -mouth disease saryiors, 

Foot-and-mouth disoaso, wild animals 

in relation to, 10—3 
Of fur animals, 10-6, 13-27 
0:' , simple trc 3, 

Of gpmo birds, upland, 10-9 
Gapes, differential mortality of 

soxes from, 11-8 
Genoral, 11-2 
Of grease, 14-6 
Of grouse, ruffed, 9-9, 13-29, 13-30, 

15-9, 15-33 
Of grouse, sharp- tailed, 15-28 
Kaemoproteus in black duck, 14-6 
Haemoproteus archilochus n. sp. , 

Haemoproteus quiscalus n. sp., 15-6 
^Hasstilesia tricolor, 15-29 
[ Hemorrhagic septicemia, S-7, 17-4 
'Of hare, snowshoe, 10-7, 11-5, 11-9, 

13-4, 14-14, 15-5, 15-8 
Hippoboscid flies, 13-4 
Increased by concentration induced 

by feeding, 15-28, 15-29 


Diseases ana parasites — Continued 

Interrelationships of parasites of 

wild and domestic animals, 12-6, 

13-21, 14-7 
Introduction, Danger of, with 

cottontails, 15-7 
Isospora, in birds, 16-8 
Kingfisher trematodes, 10-6 
Lead poisoning, 12-6, 12-20, 13-4, 

Leeches infesting waterfowl, 9-8 
leuchloridium, 14-26 
Leucocytozoa, 13-20 

Catalog of species, 9-10 
ftpeataent for, 9-10 
Loucccytozoon anatis, 14-27 
Leucocytozoon bouasae, 15-9 
Leucocytozoon coccyzus n. sp., 15-6 
Leucocytozoon iowense n. sp. , 16-6 
Liver fluke, 13-21 
Lungwo-ms, 16-8, 17-4 
Malaria, Bird, 10-7, 11-7, 13-20, 

Malignant edema in deer, 17-5 
I.lauge in squirrels, 16-6 
Microfilaria,. periodicity in crow, 

Mi nk-wo rm , 11-8 
Of mouse, pine, 15-24 
Of muskrat, 15-9, 15-24 
Of muskrat, in Great Britain, 10-6 

30SiS, 12-20 
Myiasis, 11-9, 14-7 

Of cormorant, 11-10 
Of pigeon, 10-7 
Necrotic stomatitis, 12-6 
Nematode classification, Tricho- 

strongylus, 10-7 
Nomatodo infection in Hungarian 

partridge, 15-8 
Nose fly, 14-11 

Orchipedum tracheiola n. sp. , 15-10 
Ornithobilbarzia lari n. sp. , 11-10 
Oxyspirura potrowi, 13-28 
Papillomatosis in cottontail, 8-8, 

13-20, 16-ro 
Paramphistomum castori n. sp. , 15-9 
Parasites of rodents, Minnesota, 




January, 1939 

Diseases and parasites — Continued 
Pasteurolla, 15-9 
Persimmon wilt, 13-5 
Of pheasant; 13-27, 13-31 

In marmots, 9-9 

Rodent carriers of, 1-1-24 
( Sylvatic, 12-6 , 
Pneumonia ' in bighorn, 15-8 
Poisonous plants, 14-28 
Of prairie chicken,' 13-27 , 13-28 
Prevention, non- toxic shot, 11-9, 

Of propagated game ,• 13-32 
Protocalliphora, 13-5, 16-2 
Protostrongylus ccburni , 13-29 
Pseudobilharziella querqueuulae n. sp 

Pseudotuberculosis, 13-20, 16-7 
Quail disease, '10-8 
Q,uail malaria, 10-7 
Rabies, 12-6 
Of rat, wood, 13-10 
Roup, 8-8 • 
Salamander parasites, 9-9 

In otter, 16-8 

In quail, 8-8, 9-9 
SarcOcystis in ducks, 16-6 
Sarcosporidiosis, 17-5 
Scabies, : 12-6, 17-4 
Schizostomids, 11-10 
Screw-worm, 14-7 
Of sheep, mountain, 13-10 
Shock disease, 8-6, 10-8, 11-9, 
13-4, 13-20, 13-21, 14-5, 15-8, 
16-8, 16-9, 17-5 
Silicon poisoning, 14-7 
Of sparrow, song, 11-21 
Spotted fever, 11-10, 15-7 
Of squirrel, gray, 14-13 
Strongylus, cla'ssif ication, 10-8 i 
Of swan, whistling, 16-10 
Tanaisia pelidnae n. sp. , 15-10 
Of teal, blue-winged, 13-9 
Tick fever, 11-8, 11-10 

Deer in relation to, 17-6 
Tick parasites, 13-4, 13-20 
Ticks, 13-20, 16-6, 16-9 

Of British Columbia, 15-9 

Of Oregon, 11-10 
Relation to grouse cycle, 16-5 

Diseases and parasites — Continued 

In deer mouse, 16-9 
In mi;ik, 16-9 

In pied-billed grebe, 16-9 
Trematode s: 

Of birds, 15-10 

Cf kingfisher, 10-6 

Plagiorchidae, classification, 

Plagierchis, life histories, 
Trichostrongylus, classification, 

.Tuberculosis, 12-6, 13-20 

In voles, Great Britain, 10-8 
Tularemia, 9-9, 11-9, 11-10, 13-20, 
15-7, 15-8, 16-6, 16-8, 16-9, 

Pulmonic, 16-8 
Ulcerative enteritis, 13-20 
ter birds, 11-10 
fttMrfOWl, 13-15, 13-27, 13-28 

In winter concentrations, 12-20 
Of wildlife, 13-21, 13-28, 13-32 
Of woodcock, 17-22 
Worm parasites vs. wildlife, 9-10 
Of Zapus, 16-24 
Zygocotylo lunatum, 13-28 
Distribution, rodents, in Montana, 

mapped , 9-4 

Acorn consumers, inter-relations, 

12-11, 12-21 
Acorn distribution by squirrels, 

Animal checks on oak reproduction, 

Animal relations to soils, 8-9, 

9-11, 12-7 
Basis for management, 12-21 
Be'avor, 15-21 
Beaver moadowa, 16-21 
B3es in relation to planting pro- 
grams, 15-11 
Biotic provinces, 14-26 
Birds and man in Europe, 14-2 
Birds of Quaker Run Valley, N. Y. , 

Bobwhite, 15-25, 17-23 
Browse availability, Minnesota, 



January, 1939 

Ecology — Continued 

Of burns, 11-23, 14-7, 17-10, 17-11 

Carrying capacity, 8-30, 11-31, 


Big game, 15-11, 17-14 

Bobwhite, 9-21, 11-19 

Doer yards, 11-18 

Grouse. Ruffed, 8-10, 9-30, 

Range, 12-14 
Causes of game scarcity, 11-10 
Census nethods, 11-11, 16-36 

Bibliography, 16-11 

Big game, 14-25, 15-11, 17-24 

Birds, 10-9 

Birds, woodland, 8-9 

Bobwhitu, 12-8, 12-21, 16-11, 

Deer, 13-28, 16-10 

Deer, whito-tailod, 17-32 

Driving, 10-32 

Duck nests, 17-18 

Farm wildlife, 15-13 

Grouse, Ruffed, 13-26 

Hare, Snowshoo , 11-5, 13-4, 16-8 

Mammals, Small, 12-10, 14-26, 

Pheasant, 17-7 

Prairie chickens, 17-38 

Review of, 16-11 

Squirrel, Fox, 14-9, 17-18 

Squirrels, 10-20, 17-38 

Jaterfowl broods, 15-11 

./oodcock, 17-22 
Census-taking, 14-11 
Clean-up work in relation to wild- 
life, 8-10 
Climographic analysis as a guide to 

stocking, 17-31 
Competitors of valley quail, 17-34 
Conifer planting, effects on gone, 

Coot, 15-22 

Correlation in numbers of jack rab- 
bits and prairie chickens, Texas, 
Cottontail, 11-34, 17-16 
Counts, waterfowl, Oregon, 8-3 
Cover mapping, 14-11, 16-56 
Cover values: 

Bobwhite, 12-9 

Cottontail, 17-17 


Scology — Continued 
Coyote, 13-25 
Crane, Sandhill, 16-31 
Crow-watorfowl relationships, 10-9, 

12-7, 17-18 
Cruising radius, 15-16 

Beaver, 16-21 

Cottontail, 13-28, 17-17 

flare, Snow shoe, 11-5 

Mammals, Small, 14-27 

Mice, in Great Britain, 10-23 

Mouse, Field, 9-19 

Muskrat, 11-35 

Predators, 13-28 

Rat, Wood, 13-10 

Sheep, Mountain, 13-10 

Squirrel, Fox, 14-9, 17-18 

Zapus, 16-24 
Cultivation in relation to wild- 
life, Finland, 15-31 
Cutting operations in relation to 

deer, 11-34 
Davis Mts. , Texas, 14-27 
Decline in cottontail habitat, 8-20 

In Ontario, 8-10 

Range, 13-28 

In relation to forests, 12-12 
Doer, Whi to-tailed: 

Pennsylvania, 16-32 

In winter, 13-31 

Deer foods, Minnesota, 17-16 

Great Plains environment by 
man, 17-29 

Squirrel environment, Texas, 
De smod iun , 14- 2 9 

Drainage operations, 10-29, 11-2, 
11-11, 11-14, 12-15, 15-12, 16-11 
16-12, 16-13, 16-14, 17-7, 17-8, 
Drought, effects on: 

Bighorn, 13-3 

Cottontail, 13-2 

Partridges, Hungarian, 14-8 

Waterfowl , 14-5 

Wildlife, 8-15, 8-42, 17-8 
Duck nesting cover, 17-9, 17-10 
31k, Olympic, 9-11 
Farm gazoo, 13-28 
Farm wildlife, 15-13 


January, 1939 

Ecology — Continued 

Firo as an agent in, 16-14 

Floods in relation to nuskrats, 11-6 
Forests and wildlife, 13-5, 17-10 
Fur aniuals, Missouri, 9-12 
Game, Finland, 15-32 
Game, Missouri, 9-12 
Geographic races, 14-26 
Grazing in relation to: 
Duck nesting, 12-8 
Succession on burned areas, 14-8 
Grazing vs. sage grouse, 17-21 
Groundhog dens used by cottontails, 

Grouse, Ruffed, 14-28 

• Cover requirements, 17-12 
Grouse, Sago, 10-16 
Grouse, Sharp-tailed, 11-21 
Habitat destruction, 12-5 
Hare, Snowshoe , 10-16 
Hedgerows harboring beneficial 

insects, 16-28 
Huntington Forest, IT. Y. , 14-50, 

Insects reducing wildlife cover and 

food, 11-6 
Interrelations, birds and insects, 

Illinois, 13-27 
Irrigation in relation to wildlife, 

Lake surveys, Wisconsin, 15-14 
Land animals, community studies of, 

Limiting factors on: 
Game birds, 14-25 
Pheasant, 16-14 
Magpies, 10-14 
Mammals in relation to game birds, 

Mammals, Small, 12-9 
Mapping vegetation, 11-11 
Marsh in relation to waterfowl, 14-9 
Measuring range utilization, 9-11 
Mice, Pocket, 15-24 
Mosquito control, muskrat, in rela- 
tion to, 15-16 
Mosquito control operations, 13-22, 

14-6, 14-9, 15-12, 16-2, 16-11, 

16-12, 16-13, 16-35, 17-7, 17-8 
Muskrat, 12-13, 15-24 
Muskrats affecting marsh plants, 


Ecology — Continued 

Niobrara Game Preserve, 8-10 

Oklahoma, 14-27 

Openings, 16-15 

Oven-bird, 10-15 

Overbrowsing, 15-11, 16-31, 17-27, 


Overgrazing, 12-18, 16-11 

In relation to range biota, 

In relation to squirrels, 17-30 

Vs. prairie chicken, 16-6 

Overpopulations, 13-13, 17-33 

Beaver, 16-21 

Deer, 16-27 

Deer, Kaibab, 17-24 

Deer, Minnesota, 11-11 

Deer, North Carolina, 17-27 

Doer, Pennsylvania, 10-10, 

10-18, 16-31 
Deer, Whlte-tallod, Montana, 

Elk, 15-29 

, Michigan, 13-28 

Owl, Horn. 


Partridge, Hungarian, Wisconsin, 


aasant, Illinois, 13-26 
Pheasant nes -1 . Wisconsin, 9-7 
PhotoporioGist:, 8-11, 11-12 
it groath regions, 16-29 

As affected, by predation, 11-32 

Animal, of grasslands, 8-9 

Boar, Grizzly, 16-5 

Beaver, 13-28, 15-21 

Big game, national forests, 

Birds, 10-9 
Birds, Ohio, 11-13 
Birds, woodland, New York, 8-9 
Bobwhite, 13-26, 15-25, 17-23 
Bobwhite, Texas, 11-34, 12-8, 

12-9, 12-21 
Brant, California, 11-13, 13-6 
Correlations, bird and insect 

numbers, 13-27 
Cottontail, 13-28 
Crow roosts, Nov/ York, 15-14 



January, 1939 

Ecology — Continued 

Populations — Continued 


Inyo Forest, Calif., 16-10 
Modoc Forest, Oalif., 16-10 
Wisconsin, 16-87 


Red, 14-13 
White-tailed, 17-27 
White-tailed, Pennsylvania, 

Duck nests, 17-18 

Farm game , 13-28 


Pheasant, 12-19 
Valley quail, 17-35 

Fur animals, 14-28 

National forests, 11-13 
Trends, Missouri, 11-12 


Ruffed, 13-30, 16-31, 17-20 
Sage, 17-21 

Hare , Snowshoe , 11-5 , 14-4 

Jays in Calif ornia, 9-5 

Mammals, Small, 14-27, 14-31 

Merganser, Aiuuriceri, 10-11 

Microtus, New York, 9-7 
jkrat, New Jersey, 12-16 

National forests, 12-16 


European, 8-li, 13-6, 15-23 
Hungarian, 12-13, 13-27, 

Pheasant, Iowa, 17-7 
Prairie chicken, 13-26 
Prairie chicken, ^.ttwater's, 

Texas, 11-34 
Raccoon, 16-30 
Rat, Wood, 13-10 
Regulatory factors, 14-3 
Review of work upon, 13-5 
Saturation point, pheasant, 8-27 
Seal, Far, 11-25 
Skunk, 13-28 

Fox, 13-28, 14-9, 17-18 
Cray, 14-13 
Wildlife, Missouri, y-12 
Wren, House, 8-11 
Wren- tit, 15-15 
Predator-prey relationship, 9-5 

Ecology — Continued 

^uail, Mountain, 15-36 
Quail, Valley, 14-23 
Range biota, 12-9 
Range essentials, 15-15 
Reclamation in relation to wild- 
life, 17-11 
Role of short-eared owl in a plague 

of voles, 15-20 
Salinity affecting plant distribu- 
tion, 11-14 
Salt marshes of Louisiana, 11-13 
Sampling insect populations, 8-12 
Skunk, Striped, 16-23 
Soil and wildlife conservation, 

Squirrel, Gray, 17-19 
Squirrels, Toxas, 10-20 
Tallying vegetation in browse 

studies, 11-17 
Teal, 31ue-wingod, 13-9 

Cottontail, 12-12, 17-17 

Deer, Red, 14-13 

Hare, Snowshoe, 8-18 

Magpies, 10-14 

Oven-bird, 10-15 

Sparrow, Song, 11-21 

Willet, 15-23 

Wren-tit, 15-15 
Trees and shrubs producing food 

for wildlife, 8-16, 16-29 
Turkey, Wild, 14-27 
Vegetation survey methods, 14-9 
Waterfowl environment, 14-28 
'Wild vs. domestic animals, 14-27 
..ild boar, 16-23 

Favillc Grove, Wisconsin, 14-29 

In relation to forests, 15-15 

In relation to tree planting, 

On a sanctuary, Michigan, 14-26 
./ildlifo and man, 14-2, 14-4 
Willet, 16-23 

Winter range of big game, 17-13 
J:>ody plants in wildlife management, 

8-16, 14-27, 16-29 
uoody plants, utilization by wild- 
life, 17-15 
Wren-tit, 15-15 



January, 1939 


Alaskan wildlifo, 8-13 

Beaver, 8-27, 11-34, 12-10 

Beaver fur, 13-28 

Beaver, value of its dans, 11-14 

Buffalo, 16-22 

Cost of hunting, Great Britain, 

English sparrow, 16-35 
Forest g-mc , 16-28 
Forest wildlife, 13-12 
Fox, Red, value of in Iowa, 9-28 
Fur, Ui ino, 1928-35, 16-4 
Fur, Wisconsin, 1936-37, 13-6 
Far animals, 15-2, 17-2 

California, 10-14 

Cmada, 12-4 

Finland, 15-32 

Illinois, 13-26 

Inyo For- st, Calif., 16-11 

Michigan, 9-12 

Missouri, 11-12 

Ohio, 14-10, 17-28 

Pennsylvania, 15-16 

Vermont, 17-27 
Furs, values of, variation in, 9-27 

Finland, 15-32 

Maine, 1936, 16-4 
Game mammals, Ohio, 14-10 
Hunter expenditures, 10-32 
Hunting and fishing, South DakJta, 

Leasing shooting rights, 8-19, 1^-17 
Muskrat, 14-24 

Iowa, 16-13 

Maryland, 10-10 

New Jersey, 15-16 
Otter, Sea, 15-24 
Of pheasant management, Wisconsin, 

Rabbit skins, utility of, 11-14 
Rat, House, destructivencss, 8-13 
Seal, Far, 11-25 
Seals, Newfoundland, 10-18 
wildlife, 8-3 
Education, 9-27 

Agricultural colleges in relation to 

wildlife management, 9-13 
Birds of Pennsylvania, 16-15 

Eluc ;tion--CcntinuL.d 

Censer ition, 10-11, 12-4, 14-11 
Bibliography, 16-15 
In 4-H Clubs, 13-6 
Fur animals, ±2-15 
New York, 10-33 
Review of the field, 16-15 
In United States, 9-14 
University of Wisconsin, 8-2 
Courses at Corloton College, Minn., 
bearing on wildlife :. i - mont, 
Demonstration of wildlife manage- 
ment , 12-11 

Michigan, 16-15 

Ru suits of research to the 

public, 9-54, 9-38 
sfildlifo conservation, 14-23 
rfildlifo r tion, 12-11 

Forest wildlife management , 9-13 
t-E Club work, Illinois, 14-10 
History nd significance of wild- 
life", 14-E3 
Landownors, to r.Ded of wildlife 

. 9-34 
Landowners, on wildlife problems, 

Nature stud;. ,10-11 
Ornithology, U-14 

In principles of conservation, 12-10 
The public in wildlife restoration, 

Thrashes and mimids of New Jersey, 

Training in wildlife management, 

Value of, 9-13 
Wildlife management: 
In colleges, 11-35 
Field and laboratory technic 

in, 16-36 
South Dakota, 8-13 
. j i Id life management and related 

eubjects, Texas, 10-33 
Wisconsin ecological demonstration, 

European game conditions, 8-24, 
8-28, 8-41 



January, 1939 

Food habits i 

Acorn consumers, 12-11, 12-21 

Amount of food consumed it winter 
feeding stations, Wisconsin, 9-32, 
Arctic birds and mammals, 15-17 
Arizona animals, 12-43 
Armadillo, 17-38 
Badger, 9-14, 17-34 

Black, 9-15 

Black, depredations, 11-15 

Grizzly, 16-5 
Bears vs. boes, 16-4 
Beaver, 8-17, 15-17, 15-21, 16-16, 

Bighorn, 13-25 

Desert, 13-3 

... oming, 9-19 
Bird damage: 

To almonds, 10-12, i -24 

To cherries, ±^ - 

To longleaf pine reproduction, 
Bird destruction of pir.j seeds, 15-19 

Iowa, 11-6 

Montana, 11-17 

Utah, 11-15 
Birds of prey, 16-21 
Birds that feed on: 

B-.rberries, 14-15 

Mulberries, 10-23, 14-32 
Birds vs. : 

Beet loaf hopper, 11-15 

Boll weevil, 11-26 

Bet-flic s, 14-11 

Chinch bug, 11-26 
Blackbirds, 16-20 

7s. plant lice, 15-34 

Vs. rice, 11-35 
Bobcat, 14-30 

Bobwnite, 9-21, 9-23, 11-26, 13-" . 
13-26, 14-17, 14-18, 15-17, 15-25, 
15-30, 16-20, 17-6, 17-23 

Vs. be-in leaf beetle, 15-34 

Vs. potato beetle, 15-34 
Browse preferences, methods of 

study, 17-36 
Buffalo, 16-21, 16-22 
Buteo hawks, 15r-17 

Food habits — Continued 

Cattle proferoncos among range food 

plants, 15-34 
C msumption of winter-fed grains by 

game, 11-30 
Cottontail, 12-12, 14-17, 17-13, 
Browse , 8-16 
Browsing habits, Pennsylvania, 

Damage to pine plantings, 8-14 
Coyote, 9-5, 13-25, 15-18, 17-34, 

Crane, Sandhill, 16-31 
Crow, 10-10, 14-17, 14-24, 15-14, 

Crow, Wbstorn, 10-12 
Crews vs. cutworms, 15-34 

Tobacco worms, 15-34 
Dnmaga to corn by wildlife, 9-15 
Doer, 9-15, 13-23, 15-29, 17-13 
Arlsona, 16-17 
.annesota, 11-11 
Modoc Forest, Calif., 16-11 
Pfc] nia, 16-32 


31i ck- tailed, 13-9 
Mulo, 3-15, 15-28, 17-24 
Lto-tailed, 14-12, 17-27, 

Browse preferences, 13-32 
Browsing habits, Pennsyl- 
vania, 11-16 
Minnesota, 17-15 
Missouri, 8-18 
North Carolina, 12-12 
Deer, nutritional studios, 

11-18, 13-32, 16-16 
Deer browse, 8-13, 11-18 
Adirondack, 11-17 
Kaib-b, 12-11 
Deer browsing: 

Effects on forest type, 14-30 
Vs. reforestation, Psnnsyl- 
i ., 17-39 
Deer damage, 16-27, 16-32 
To gardens, 9-4 
To jack pine, 14-11 
To orchards, 15-42 
Differential action of crops and 
gizzards, 15-19 



January, 1939 

Food habits — Continued 

Dove, Mourning, 9-23, 15-17, 16-19, 

Duck, wood, 17-21 
Eagle, Bald, 16-16 
Eagles, California, 8-4 
Edibility of fruits improved by 

winter exposure, 14-15 
Elk, 9-15, 13-25, 15-29, 17-14 

Olympic, 9-27 

Roosevelt, 8-17 
Elk browse, 15-18 
Farm gome, 13-28 
Farm wildlife, Michigan, 15-13 
Feed patch plants, comparative 

values, 11-29 
Fish-eating birds, 8-13, 9-35 
Flicker, 14- 

Flicker, Rod-shoftad, 10-12 
Forest wildlife, 15-15 

Gray, 14-29 

Rod, 9-5, 9-23, 10-13 
Iowa, 8-15 
Michigan, 8-15 
Fur animals: 

California, 10-13 

South Dakota, 17-34 

Study of, 17-36 
Game birds vs. weed seeds, 14-25 
Grit consumption, pheasant, 14-11 
Ground squirrels, 15-2, 17-34 
Grouse, 15-29 

Franklin's, 16-22 

Richardson's, 16-22 

Ruffed, 13-8, 13-28, 13-29. 
15-33, 16-22 

Sage, 8-18, 10-16, 17-21 

Sharp-tailed, 11-21, 13-28, 16-20 
Hare, Snowshoe, 10-16, 14-14, 15-8 
Gull, Great black-backed, 16-33 
Hawk : 

Broad -winged, 15-18 

Cooper's, 11-16 

Marsh, 9-2 

Pigeon, 16-18 

Rcd-shouldored, 15-18 

Red- tailed, 15-18 

Rough-legged, 9-2, 15-18 

Sparrow, 16-18 

Swainson's, 12-9, 15-18 

Food habits- -Continue 1 

Hawks, 9-39, 15-37, 16-21 

Hawks, Pennsylvania, 10-12, 14-2 

Hawks and owls, Pennsylvania, 16-18 

Horned toads, 15-19 

House cat, feral, 17-34 

Jay, Blue, 12-11, 3 2-21 

Jay, California, 10-12, 14-24 

Kingfishor, 16-17 

Lizards vs. boot leaf hopper, 11-15 

•pies, 10-14 
Mammals, Iowa, 11-6 
Moodowlork, 15-17, 16-19 
Morgansor, Amorionn, 10-11 
>rganso», Red-breasted, 16-18 

• ., Hold, 8-4 
Mink, 17-34 
MOOSQ, 13-24 

Mountain lion, 15-23 

Mouse, Pino, 15-1 

I.loueo, Pocket, 9-17 

Muskrat, 12-16, 15-17, 15-24, 16-18 


Animal , 14-24 
Mink, 14-24 

..hi te- tailed doer, 14-24 
Nutritional aspects of budding, 

Nutritional requirements, deer, 

Nutritional requirements, white- 
tailed deer, 13-32 
Nutritive vnluo of: 

"Brush" for snowshoe hare, 

15-8, 16-8 
Game bird food items, 11-33 
Maize, 9-36 
Opossum, 14-30 
Otter, 15-29 
Otter, Sea, 13-8, 16-22 

Great hornod, 11-15, 13-24, 

Short-oarod, 15-20 

In captivity, 16-19 
Owls, 11-3, 15-20, 15-38, 16-21 
Palatability of grains used in win- 
tor feeding, Wisconsin, 9-32, 9-35 
Palatability ratings: 

Browse plants, 12-12 
Idaho, 15-11 



January, 1939 

Food habits— Coi.tinuoij 

Palatability ratings — Continued 

D or too Is: 

Ariz na, 16-17 

NortJ Carolina, 17-27 

Herbivore foods, 9-1C 

Winter-fed grains for bobWiiito, 

Europe-... 1! - n 5-1S 

Grey , 13- 7 , 

Rod-lcgg 1, 13-7, 10-19 
Poll can, Eroi n, 11-2 
Fallot formation in 3wls, lo-19 
Pheasant, 9-16, 3J.-29, 10-5, 10-7, 

10-06, 14-2 
Phoa sunt , wi sc on sin , 8- - 
Phersar.t ••. _ asylvania, 12-17 

Porcupine, 11-20 

Porcupino iaiaago to forests, 16-36 
Prairie chicken, 10-28 
Predators, 10-28, 13-00 
Protein requirements <tf r^- ; sant, 


Scaler: , 1-33 

Valley, 14-: 
Rabbit damage: 

To Sc tcl pino, 14-1 

To trees, Oklahoma, 9-. 
Raccoon, 14-30, 17-34 
Rat, Cotton, 12-9 
Rat, Wood, 10-10 

Damage tc redwood transplants, 
Robin, 8-9, ] 1-17 
Rodent browse, 8-16 
Rodent 3 cover, 8-l r > 

Rodents in rc._-.ti. reforestation, 

Salt require. . . + ;, leer, Arizona, 

Sapsuekar, Yell., -bellied, 17-9 
Seal, Far, 8-14, 1C-12 
Siicep, Mountain, 13-10 
Stunk, 9-5, 9-18, 11-17, 11-13, 12-2, 

13-28, 14-30, 10-20, 17-18, 2 7-34 

Bull, 17-21 

Chicken, 16-28 
Snakes, 13-19 

Food habj te— Oo I 

Baird's, 11-19 
English, 16-35 

n, 14-9, 17-19 
Or ay, 13-14 

Cono-piling, 9-18 
i ging mrO , 9-18 
Tuft-eared, 10-20 
Squirrels, 15-10 

Squirrels distributing acorns, 15-10 
Te. 1, Blue-win; I, 10-9 
Toad, Giant, 8-0 
Turkey, Wild, £-33, 14-17 
Utilization of: 

3rowse by rrailc leer, 17-24 
Brc lants, Kaibab, 12-12 

Farm gone foods, Michigan, 9-16 
tfoody plants, 16-29, 17-15 
Value of plants to birds a. d 
i.-'. ( ' .. Illinois, 13*27 
rtebrate3 vs. Insects, 3-5 
Waterfowl, 13-28 
. eel, 9-3, 17-34 ' 

ales, 15-14 
Wild boar, 16-23 
Winter feeding, comparative values 

of grains, 14-29 
Wolf, 10-09 
Woodcock, 17-2J 

ecJser, California, 10-12 
Zulus, 16-24 

Birch cock, 10-19 

Clinographic analysis as a guide 

to," 17-31 
Grouse, Red, 3-17 
Muskr&t, 11-29, 14-24, 15-05 
Finland, 15-31 
Great Britain, 8-11 

Ohukar, 8-17, 14-12 
-• rian, 13-3 , 14-29 
Phe a sant , Reeve s ' , 10-02 
iuail, Msiican, 11-19, 11-25, 17-2 
Rabbit, European, Australia, 9*4 
Squirrel, Oray, Oreat Britain, 
8-11. 13-8 



•y, 1939 

Life histories: 

Age oriteila, doer, California, 

Antelope, 17-2*3 
Bear, Grizzly, 16-5 
Beaver, 3-17, 12-28, 15-21, 16-21 
Bighorn, 9-19 
Birch cock, 10-19 
Birds of prey, 9-21, 16-23 
Bobwhite, 11-19, 12-9, 15-24, 17-9 

Productivity, 12-9 
Caribou , Wood land , 13-24 
Coot, 15-22 

Cottontail, 1-19, 8-20, 12-12, 
13-28, 17-9, 17-16, 17-17, 17-23 

Breed in-:, 16-22 
Coyote , 11- - 

Reproduce Lve cycl , ■ -22, 17-17 
Crune, Sandh: LI, 13- . . 3-31 
Crow, 11-2 

Arizona, 16-17 

Baibab, 11-26 

Black-tailed, 13-9 

Male, lb -10, 17-24 

Red, 14-13 

White- tailed, 8-18, 11-18, 12-12, 
13-24, 13-32, 15-33, 17-27 
Desmodiuu, 14-29 
Dove, Mourning, 14-28, 17-19 

Ruddy, 17-9 

.food, 17-21 
Duck nesting, 14-12, 17-17 
Elk, Roosevelt, 8-17 
Farm gams, 13-29 
Flight speed or birds, 9-19 

Gray, 14-29 

Red : 

Movements, 9-20 
Survival, 9-20 
Far aninals: 

California, 10-13 

Illinois, 13-2G 

Mississippi, 11-20 
Goose, Canada, 11-19, 11-20 
Grouse, 16-22 

Dusky, 15-29 

Franklin's, 15-29, 16-22 

Life historj es — Continued 
Grouse— Conti nn .1 

Ricn: rdson' s, 16-1 
Ruffod, 9-50, 13-13, 13-20, 
13-29, 15-29, 16- 

Ccver requj ' J B, 17-12 
Productivity, 17-19 
3- JO, 8- 18, 10-15, 17-20 
Sharp-tailed, 11-21, 13-24, 
Hare, SnowsLoo, 3-13, 11-5, 15-4, 

13-24, 14- 
Hybridization, 14-26 
tar. oo ,14-26 
Lea, 10-14 

, . mil , Now York, 14-31 
Moi ' B - . -- - i '••. , 10-11 

:. 1 -27 

,Jild ■ oy, ] 1-S ' 

CO, PO 5; a , 

rotuft, Ll-20 
Moo so, 15- 

, Siropc - , 1J -22 
Mountai ; lio l, 15-23 

Fioid, ?-±? 

Pine, 15-24 
Muskrat, 11-35, 12-15, 15-23 

Breodin , 10-15 
Otter, 15-34 
Otter, Go a, 15-2--, 16-22 
/en-bird, 10-15 
P irtrid*;c: 

Chukar, 3-13, 14-12 

European, 15-23 

Hud ;arian, 14- J 

, 12-13 
Physiology of gaue birds, 14-27 
PiieasJ ;', 13-27, 14-29, 16-14, 17-9 

Product. . 9-20 
Porcupine, 11-20 
Prairie chicken, 13-24, 15-26, 

15-28, 14-23 
Predators ir New York, 11-32 

Mountain, 15-36 

Valley, 14-23 

Cotton, 12-9, 14-30 

Wood, 1l3-x0 



January, 1939 

Life histories— Continued 
Redhead, 17-9 
Robin, 14-17 
Sex ratio: 

Antelope, 17-22 
Beaver, 12-20, 15-21 
Cottontail, 6-19, 16-22 
Deer, 13-28 

Inyo Forest, Calif., 16-10* 
White-tailed, 17-27 
ahite- tailed, Pennsylvania, 
Grouse, Ruffed, 13-30, 15-33, 

Hare, Snowshoo, 8-18, 10-16, 

Bftiskrat, 11-21, 15-24 
Sparrow, Song, 11-21 

Fox, 14-9, 14-17, 17-1G 
Gray, 13-14, 14-13, 17-19 
She op, Mountain, 13-9 
Skunk, 13-23 

In winter, 9-20 
Striped, don ecology, 16-23 
Snakes, 13-: 

Baird' s, 11-19 
English, 16-35 
Song, 11-21 
Speed of mammals, 10-16 

Fox, 13-23, 14-27, 17-18 
Gray, 14-13, 17-1S 
Squirrels, Texas, 11-54 
Sterling, 8-35 
Swan, Trumpeter, 13-25 
Teal, Blue-winged, 15-9 
Turkey, Wild, 8-19, 8-33, 14-27 
Utilization of cover by ducks, 17-18 
Water birds, 14-4, 14-! 
Wild boar, 16-23 
Wildlife, 14-25 
Willot, 16-23 
Wolf, 13-10, 15-39 
Woodcock, 12-21, 17-22 
Wren- tit, 15-15 
Zapus, 16-23 


Antelope, 17-22 

Boavor food supplies, 16-16 
Bobwhito habitot, 17-6 
Forest wildlife environment, 

Pheasant food sun lies, 13-5 
Of rnngo, 15-16 
Waterfowl environment, 14-28 
.- praising available browso, 15-11 
'tificial feeding increasing 
disease, 15-28 
Artificial lakes, 13-25 
Barberry eradication, 14-14 
Based on research, 11-22, 11-33, 

Basing open season on life history, 

mourning dove, 17-19 
Beers in national parks, 15-25, 

Bibliogr* phy, 14-19 
Ei ie, 17-25 


Desert, 13-3 
,]y^ ij\ •, 9-19 
Bobwhito, 0-18, 8-19, 11-28, 15-11, 
13-14, 13-15, 15-25, 17-22 
In Maryland, 9-23 
In Now Jersey, 14-15 
In Tex .:, 9-21 
Bobwhito, to offset winter losses, 

Brusli-cutting, 9-22 
Burning, 8-18, 8-19, 11-23, 13-11, 
13-23, 15-2J, 14-9, 14-29, 15-26, 
16-2, 16-14, 17-10, 17-11 
Clearin ;, 16-24, 16-25 
Compensation far damage by v/ildlife, 

Finland, 15-32 
Control of plant succession for 

bobwhito, 12-8 
Controlled shoctii a 8-20, 8-21, 
9-36, 10-53, 13-28, 16-25, 16-28, 
17-24, 17-26, 17-33 
Germany, 8-24 
Ohio, 9-26, 13-13, 17-19 
Of ruffed grouse, 9-31 

-2 6- 


Management- -Continued 

Of livestock and wildlife 

interests, 15-34 
Of mosquito control with wild- 
life nanageixnt, 17-7, 17-0 
Of wildlife Management with: 

Accepted land uses and prac- 
tices, 17-33 
Agriculture, 14-29 
Other land uses, 14-28 
Cottontail, 8-19, 8-20, 9-22, 10-32, 

12-12, 13-20,' 17-17, 17-23 
Cover, 9-28, 9-30, 9-35, 10-32, 

11-25, 11-27, 11-20, 12-12, 13-12, 
13-14, 13-25, 13-20, 14-11, 14-13, 
15-27, 17-9, 17-23, 17-25 
Cover, Artificial, for cottontails, 

8-19, 8-20 
Cover and food plants for Sandhill 

Region, Nebr. , 8-16 
Cover plants, 3-13, 8-19, 8-22 
Cover plants relatively immune to 

rodent damage, 8-16 
Crane, Sandhill, 16-30 
Deer, 13-28 

Dispersing concentrations, 11-23 
Kaibab, 17-24 
Minnesota, 11-11 
Weights and measurements in 
relation to management, 12-13 

Black- tailed, 13-9 
White-tailed , 12-12, 17-32 
Pennsylvania, 16-31- 
Definition, 9-27 
Demonstration, 9-27 
Illinois, 13-25 
Lake States forest, 14-27 
Michigan, 8-20, 14-28 
Demonstration" areas, Wisconsin, 9-14 
Demonstration to landholders, 17-33 
Demonstrations", 12-11 
Dens, Providing, 16-20 
Dove', Mourning', 3-13,- 14-29 • 
Duck, Wood, 17-21, 17-22 ■ 

Nest boxes for, 8-24 
Dust, Providing, 10-27 
Electric fence in, 13-2, 13-11, 14-4 
Elk, 15-28 
Elk, Olympic, 9-11 


Management --Continued 

Environmental improvement, 9-22 

Farm game, 9-23, 9-24, 9-27, 10-33, 
11-23, 11-24, 11-26, 13-12, 13-20, 
13-29, 14-15, 14-18, 15-26, 15-27, 
16-J.6, 16-25, 16-27, 16-28, 17-33 

In Farm Security Administration, 

Farm wildlife, 12-17 

Farmer- sportsman relationship, 3-20, 
0-21, 0-22, 9-24, 9-36, 10-17, 
10-33, 11-19, 11-23, 11-24, 12-13, 
13-12, 13-23, 14-16, 14-17, 16-16, 

Feo shooting, 14-16 

Feed patches, 0-18, 8-20, 3-24, 
8-25, 9-22, 9-23, 9-27, 9-32, 
10-10, 11-26, 11-27, 11-29, 11-34, 
13-14, 13-15, 14-11, 14-15, 14-16, 
14-17, 14-29, 15-25, 15-27, 15-33, 
16-20, 17-21, 17-23, 17-25, 17-28 

Feed patches, Wisconsin, 10-34 

Feeding causing pauperization, 15-23 

Fence rows, 15-27, 17-24 

Fertilizing to improve browse, 14-25 

Flushing bar, 8-22, 9-7, 10-17, 
10-18, 14-15 

Forest management in relation to 
wildlife management , 8-22, 8-23, 
9-25, 9-26, 10-33, 11-24, 11-34, 
13-5, 14-20, 14-29, 14-31-, 15-30, 
15-31, 15-33,- 16-26- ~ • 

Forest game , 0-22, 8-23, 9-24, 
12-14-, 17-25- • - • 

Forest plantations, 13-25 

Forest wildlife,- 8-40, 9-13, 9-25, 
9-26, 13-12, 13-13, 14-16, 15-20, 
15-29, 15-31, 16-25, 16-26 

Fox, Red, 9-28 

Fur animals, , 9-12,. 10-33., 11-2, . 
14-11, 16-11, 17-2 . - • 
Canada, 17 .-25 - 
Mississippi, 9-27 

Fur resources, 12-14 

General, 0-3, 8-23, 3-28, 10-3, 
11-2, 11-25, 14-23 

Germany, 8-^24 , —'"--, 

Massachusetts, 10-27 , . 

Wisconsin, 14-29 

Grazing, control, 10-32, 11-25, 

12-18, 15-27, 16-28, 17-25, 17-38 



January, 1939 

Management — Continued 
Goose, Canada, 11-19 
Grit, Providing, 10-17 

Ruffed, 9-30, 13-29, 14-29 
Sage, 10-16 
Harvesting, 12-10 

Beavers, Utah, 11-34 
Bobwhite, 11-25, 12-9 

Percentage killed, New 
Jersey, 14-15 

California, 11-25 

Kaibab, 11-26 

Lake Statos, 17-32 

Minnesota, 12-32 

Pennsylvania, 16-32 

Wisconsin, 11-26 

White-tailed, Vomont, 17-26 
Effects of hunting on nunber of 

doer, 16-27 
Elk, Oregon, 6-3 

Finland, 15-32 

Mississippi, 9-27 

New York, 15-33 

Ore -o:., 0-3 
Fur onlnnlsi 

California, 10-14 

Inyo Forest, Calif., 16-11 

Mississippi, 11-20 

Ohio, 14-10, 17-2G 

Vermont, 17-27 

Finland, 15-32 

New York, 15-33 

Oregon, 0-3 

Pennsylvania, 16-26 
Gane mammals, Ohio, 14-10, 17-20 
Muskrats, 12-16 
Opossum, Illinois, 13-13 
Pennsylvania game crop, 1935, 

Phoasent, Pennsylvania, 12-16 

bbits, Ohio, 9-26 
Raccoon, Illinois, 13-13 
Seal, Fur, 11-25 
Seals, Newfoundland, 10-10 
Squirrel, Fox, 14-17 

Ohio, 17-10 
Squirrel, Gray, Ohio, 17-19 

Management- -Continued 
Harvesting- -Continued 

Ohio, 9-26, 13-13 
Texas, 17-30 

Chippewa National Forest, 

On public shooting grounds, 
Whales, 13-14 

Yield of nuskrats, New Jersey, 
Herd regulation, 9-29, 13-13, 14-16, 
15-29, 16-11, 16-27, 16-32 
Kaibab, 11-26 
Pennsylvania, 10-10 
Herd regulation: 
Deer, 16-27 ■ 

Kaibab, 17-24 
Wisconsin, 11-26 
Deer, White-tailed, North 

Carolina, 17-27 

Olympic, 9-27 
Wyoming, 9-19 
History, 0-23, 9-27 
Hunting pressure, effects on ruffed 

grouse, 13-30 

Bird refuges, Canada, 9-29 
Necessity of, 12-14 
State, 10-20 
Inventory, 9-26, 12-10, 15-16 
Big game, 17-24 

National forests, 11-12 
Bobwhite, Iowa, 16-11 
Deer, Inyo Forest California, 

Deer, White- tailed, 17-32 
Elk, Yellowstone, 17-24 
Food supply, ruffed grouse, 

Fur animals, 13-24 
Illinois, 13-27 
Inyo Forest, Calif., 16-11 
National forests, 11-13 
Grouse, Ruffed, 9-30 
Minnesota, 13-24 
Huntington Forest, N. Y. , 14-30 
Partridge, Hungarian, Michigan, 

Pheasant, Iowa, 17-7 
Sea lions, California, 10-9 
Seal, Fur, 11-25 



January, 1939 

Management-- Continued 
Inventory — Continued, 

Walker County, Texas, 12-21 

ishtonaw County, Mich. , 14-27 
Waterfowl, 9-36, 12-3, 17-3 
Chippewa National Forest, 

Illinois, 13-27 ' 
Improvement of environment for 

ruffed grouso, 14-29 
Inproving far.': environment, 9-27 
Insecticides in relation to wildlife, 

13-22, 13-23 
Land planning for wildlife, 9-13, 
9-2S, 10-30. 12-5, 12-11,' 12-10, 
13-12, 14-10, 14-23, 16-4, 17-11, 
Marten, 15-29 
Miscellaneous, 11-26 
Muskingun Watershed, Ohio, 17-20 
Muskrat, Maryland, 10-10 
In national forests, 12-16 
In national parks, 12-16 
Nature preserves, 14-3 
Nesting, 14-11 

Non-toxic shot, 11-9, 13-21, 16-36 
Openings, Maintaining, 16-15, 16-26 
Otter, 15*54 
Partridge : 

European, 10-19, 13-7, 15-10 
Hungarian, in Europe, 15-33 
Pheasant, 0-21, 9-56, 10-22, 17-30 
Pennsylvania, 12-16 
South Dakota, 13-7 
Pheasant nesting, Iowa, 9-20 
Planning, 14-23 

Planting for wildlife, 0-23, 0-24, 
0-25, 9-27, 9-20, 10-10, 10-32, 
11-23, 11-25, 12-10, 13-11, 13-14, 
13-15, 13-24, 13-33, 14-15, li-17, 

Black locust, 11-27, 14-10 

Coverts, 14-10 

Cuttings, methods of rooting, 

Drought resisting species, 17-9 
Fence rows, 15-27, 16-20, 17-25 
General principles,. 12-17 
Hawthorns, 15-34 
Legur.ios, 16-20 , 

Lespodeza, 11-27 

Manugement — Continued 

Hinting for wildlife — Continued 
In Massachusetts, 10-20 
In Nebraska, 11-27 
Nursery methods, 10-33 
Nursery practice, Great Plains, 

Ponds, 15-26 
Reflooded land, Minnesota, 

Species suitable for Great 

Plains, 17-29 
In Wisconsin, 10-34 
Hand borders, 11-20 
Planting for wildlife and erosion 
control, 11-23, 11-27, 11-35, 
12-17, 13-14, 13-15, 15-26, 16-20, 
16-29, 16-31 

Bibliography, 16-29 
I o nd ir.ip r o n t , 9-20 
Tends, 0-25, 12-10 

Making and planting, 11-35 
Prairie chicken, 13-26 
Tublic hunting grounds, 0-20, 9-36, 

10-17, 10-33, 14-15, 17-30 
Public hunting grounds, Ohio, 16-20 
Public vs. private, 0-20, 12-17 

[ountain, 15-36 
Valley, Wisconsin, 16-31 
Raccoon, 16-29 

Illinois, 13-13 
Range, 9-20, 12-9, 12-14, 12-10, 
13-15, 14-16, 14-19, 14-25, 15-34 
Bibliography, 14-19 
For browso plants, 12-12 
Rang© Plant Handbook, 10-19 
Refuges, 0-25, 0-25, 8-26, 9-26, 
, ,.-28, 10-3, 10-20, 10-32, 10-33, 

11-2, 11-22, 12-2, 12-3, 12-16, 
13-12, 13-15, 13-26, 14-9, 15-4, 
15-27, 15-42, 16-5, 10-14, 16-27, 
16-28, 16-30, 16-36, 17-11, 
17-28, 17-29, 17-30, 17-33' 
Administration of, 10-2, 10-3 
.Bird, Canada, 9-29 
Bobwhito, 9-21, 13-11 
Canada, 12-4 
Cottontail, 9-22, 17-23 
Deer,. 17-25 
Easement projects, 17-29 



January, 1939 

Managenont-- Continued 
Refuges- -Continued 

European uoose, 15-22 

Farn game, 8-21, 8-22, 9-36, 
10-17, 11-23, 11-24 

Federal big gane, 11-35 

Fur aninal, 12-2 

Massachusetts, 10-27 

Mexico, 12-18, 17-2 

Migratory bird, U. S. , 9-29 

Minnesota, 11-29 

On national forests, 11-28 

New York, 15-33 ' 

Niobrara Gane Preserve, Nebr. , 
8-10, 15-42 

Ohio, 13-13 

Fhoasaat, in Ohio, 8-21, 9-36 

Prairie chicken, 16-6 

Pyna tuning State Refuge, Pa., 

Snail, Pennsylvania, 17-33 

Snail, for waterfowl, 12-4 

South Dakota, 9-3 

Value of, 9-7, 10-33 

Vanishing species areas, 9-38 

Water impoundment on, 8-2 

Wisconsin, 16-30 
Regulation of aninal populations by 

hunting, 9-29 
Regulation of grazing, 9-35 
Restoration, 17-26 

Beaver, 17-26 

Of environment , 13-24 

Of habitat, 12-5 

Of narshes, 14-9 

Massachusetts, 10-28, 10-32 
Salting, 16-30 
Salting to localize big gane, 15-28, 

Sanctuary on the sane area can be 
safely given to both carnivores 
and herbivores, 15-40 
Seal, Fur, 11-24 

Acid treatnent of black locust, 

Scarification, 9-31 

Storage, aquatic plants, 8-26 

Treatnent, a£ tor- ripening, 14-19 
Sexing beavers, 9-31 

Managenent- -Continued 

Soil conservation in relation to 

wildlife conservation, 11-35 
In Soil Conservation Service, 12-18 
Song birds, 14-27 
Squirrel, Fox, 17-18 
Squirrel, Gray, 14-13, 17-19 
Squirrels, 11-26 

Feeding and caring for, 8-33 
Texas, 10-20, 12-18, 17-30 
Stand improvement, 8-12, 8-22, 9-22, 
9-23, 9-25, 9-26, 10-32, 13-28, 
16-26, 16-28 
State parks, 11-22 
Statistics as an adjunct, 10-20 
Stocking, 9-26, 16-28, 17-28 
Beaver, 8-27, 9-29 

Missouri, 15-17 
Bobwhite, 10-33, 11-19, 11-28, 
Results, Pennsylvania, 

Texas, 9-21 
Clinographic analysis, as a 

guide to, 17-31 
Cottontail, 8-19, 9-22, 17-23 
Deer, White-tailed, 15-36, 17-26 
Elk, 15-28 

Exotic gone birds, 13-33 
Gane birds, Upland, in Cali- 
fornia, 10-20 
Geese, Canada, 17-30 
Grouse, Ruffed, 13-30 
Mallard, 13-31 

Muskrat, 11-29, 15-34, 15-35 
Partridge, Chukar, California, 

9-32, 12-19, 14-12, 14-19 
Partridge, Chukar, Wisconsin, 

15-35, 16-31 
Partridge , Hungarian,, Wi scons in, 

Pheasant, 8-27, 11-29, 13-30 
Pennsylvania, 12-17, (re- 
sults) 17-31 

Elliott's, California, 9-32 
Mongolian, California, 9-32 
Reeves', California, 9-32 
Reeves', Now York, 12-19 
Ring-necked, California, 9-32 
Ring-necked, Vernont , 12-19 



January, 1939 

MMjagenont— Continued 
Stocking — Continued 

pheasants ( several kinds) , 
Wisconsin, 15-35, 16-31 
Quail, Valley, 13-33, 16-31 
Raecoon, 13-33 

Turkey, Wild, 8-33, 13-33, 17-35 
Missouri, 12-19 
Wisconsin, 16-31 
Upland gone birds: 
California, 9-31 
Oregon, 8-3 
Teal, Blue -winded , 13-9 
Technology, 'Wildlife, 10-23 
Timber butting, 13-29 
Transplantin ;j 

Beavers, 11-li, 12-10, 13-84, 

Moo so, 13-S8 

Antolopo, 9-32 
Beaver, 8-17, 8-27 
Bobwhite, 11-28 
Deer, White-tailed, 15-35 
Fur animls, 10-33 
Inprovenent in methods, 12-2 
Moose, 13-28 
Muskrat, 11-29, 15-35 
Theascnt, 11-29 
Pole traps, abuse of, 9-2 
Steel trap, condemnation, 9-3 
Turtles, 9-5 
Water supplies, 8-28, 15-35, 15-36, 

16-28, 17-22 
Waterfowl, 13-15 
Waterfowl food plants, 11-2 
v Watering, 10-21 

as a crop, 12-11 
In Missouri, 9-12 
By the TVA, 15-35 
Winter feeding, 8-29, 9-32, 10-21, 
10-32, 11-26, 11-30, 12-18, 13-24, 
14-11, 14-29, 15-27, 17-28 
Doer, 10-33, 13-32, 14-24 
Squ i r re 1 , Pox , 14-9 
Waterfowl, 12-20 
Woodcock, 12-21 
Menageries, Regulation of, 9-38 

Natural history: 
Arizona, 8-29 
Check- List of Birds of National 

Parks, 14-31 
Check-List of Marsh and Aquatic 

Plants, 8-32 
Distribution, small mammals, 

Illinois, 13-27 
Distribution naps, forest trees of 

the U. S. , 15-43 
Fauna, Big Bend National Park 

project, 13-25 
Gum in Finland, 15-31 
Ger.etics of fur animals, 10-21 
Knowing trees, 12-44 
Native woody plants of the U . S. , 

Natural vegetation of Arizona, 12-43 
Nesting birds of Iowa, 14-32 
Plant names indicating utilization 

by wildlife, 12-22 
Plant survey of Great Smoky 

Mountains, 13-25 
Predators In Now York, 11-32 
Rango riant Handbook, 10-19 
Snakes, Facts about, 13-19 
Thrushes and Mimids of New Jersey, 

Pollution, 8-29, 9-2, 11-31, 12-2, 

13-16, 14-20, 15-36, 16-32, 17-33 
Predation, 8-30, 11-5, 11-4, 11-15, 
11-17, 11-22, 11-31, 13-17, 15-37, 
15-38, 15-39 

A natural phenomenon, 9-28 
Biological relationships of preda- 
tors, 9-12 
Buffer populations, 12-9, 17-34 
Crow-waterfowl relationships, 10-9, 

Fox, Gray, behavior in raiding quail 

nests, 15-38 
Fur animals on game birds, 17-34 
Ground squirrels in relation to 

quail, 14-4 
Gulls in murre colonies, 16-33 
By hawks, 16-33 
Interrelations of predators, 10-29 

Mammals vs. bobwhite, 14-29 


January, 1939 

Fredation — Continued 

On bighorn, desert, 13-3 

Bobwhite, Iowa, 8-7, 13-11 

Buffalo, 16-22 

Coot, 15-22 

Cottontail, 17-23 

Deer, White- tailed, 8-18, 17-35 

Duck, Wood, 17-21 

Duck nests, 17-18 

Grouse, 16-22 

Grouse, Ruffed, 13-29, 13-30, 

Hare , Snowshoe , 14-14 

Mice, Focket, 15-24 

Mouse, Fine, 15-24 

Muskrat, 15-24 

Fartridge, Hungarian, 14-8 

Pheasant, 8-7, 16-14 

Prairie chicken, 16-6 

Quail, Valley, 17-34 

Rat, l/co I, 13-10 

Voles, 16-19 

Waterfowl, 14-5 

Woodcock, 12-21, 17-22 
Owl, Great horned, in relation to 

prey populations, 16-32 
Pheasant nest destruction, 9-20 
Puma in relation to deer, 17-2 
Relation to carrying capacity, 17-33 
Research findings, 9-35 
Selective, 15-23, 15-39, 16-33 
Simultaneous abundance of predators 

and prey, 17-38 
"Vermin", definition of, 8-5 
"Vermin" control, 8-5, 8-28, 8-30 

Germany, 8-24 
"Vermin" problem, 9-3, 9-5, 11-4, 

11-32, 15-37, 15-38, 15-39 
Wolves in relation to door, Ontario, 
8-6, 8-10 
Predators, 8-3 

Armadillo, 17-38 

Cat, 13-14 

Fire ants, 8-19, 10-9, 11-34, 13-11, 

13-22, 14-20, 16-2, 17-35 
Identification by their work, 17-35 
Numbers in relation to those of deer, 

Glacier National Park, 17-35 
Owls, 11-3 
"Wolf, 15-39 
Wolves, Ontario, 8-5, 8-10 

Propagation, 12-10 
Beaver, 14-26 
Bobwhite, 9-33, 11-32, 13-31 

Cost, 13-11 
Brooders, 13-17 

Electric, 13-33 
Brooding in dark to control vices, 

Care of eggs, 15-40 
Chachalaca, 10-21 
Cottontail, 9-22, 9-23, 17-23 
Cover in pens, 14-22 
Disease control, 11-8 
Duck, Black, 13-31 
Ducks, 15-33 
Exotic game birds, 13-33 
Foxes, 13-33 
Fur animals, 10-21, 12-15, 15-3, 

Grouse, Ruffed, 10-32, 13-18, 13-29 

13-30, 15-33 
Incubation,' Artificial, 13-33, 

14-20, 14-21 
Irradiation results: 

Bobwhite, 10-21, 13-17 

G'.me birds, 8-31 

General, 15-40 

Pheasant, 11-33, 13-18, 15-40 

Raccoon, 10-22, 16-33 
Mink, 13-33 

Mortality among bobwhites, 11-9 
Muskrat, 17-26 

Chukar, 8-17, 8-30, 12-19 

European, 15-40 

Hungarian, 8-31 
Pheasant, 8-31, 9-33, 13-30, 13-31 

Protein requirements, 8-31 

Rations, 13-31 
Q,uail, Mountain, 15-41 
Raccoon, 13-33, 16-30 
Rearing pens, 13-17 
Sanitation, 9-33, 11-8 
Shipping pheasants, 15-41 
Turkey, Wild, 8-32, 8-33, 9-34, 

Standards, 13-18 
Vices, control of, 9-33, 10-22 



January, 1939 

Research, 8-3, 9-27, 13-19, 13-20, 

Age criteria, white- tailed deer, 

Aiding restoration, 17-26 

Analysis of hunters' reported take, 
New York, 17-37 

Animal nutrition, Cornell University, 

Animal populations, Great Britain, 

Beaver, food requirements, 16-34 

Bibliography, subject heads for, 

Bird feathers, key to, 14-28 

Birds as chocks on forest regenera- 
tion, 16-34 

Browse preferences, methods of 
study, 17-36 

Bureau of Animal Industry, 13-21 

Buroau of Animal Population, 13-6 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant 
Quarantine , 13-22 

California College of Agriculture, 

Conditions favorable for, 9-34 

Control methods, 12-20 

Cooperative, Minnesota, 13-20 

Cooperative Quail Study Association, 

Cover plants, 14-29 

Cover studies, 13-29 

Cover values, 13-26 

Ruffed grouse, 13-29 

Cross- sectioning mammal hair, 15-41 

Deer and livestock browsing inter- 
relations, 17-24 

Experimental folding white-tailed 
deer, 13-29 

Farm Security Administration, 13-23 

Federal- State cooperative wildlife 
program, 8-39, 9-36, 11-2, 11-33, 
11-34, 12-2, 12-20, 13-33 

Feed patches: 

Best plants for, .ifisconsin, 

Value of, 13-31, 13-24, 13-26, 
13-28, 13-33 

Flyway biology, 8-38 

Research — Continued 
Feed habits, 16-36 

As affected by availability of 

supplies, 16-34 
Of fur animals, 17-36 
Food plants, 14-29 
On forest-wildlife relationships, 

Fox, Gray, behavior in raiding 

quail nests, 15-38 
Hair identification, 16-34, 16-35 
Idaho, University of, 14-25 
Identification of tooth marks, 17-37 
Illinois, State Natural History 

Survey, 13-25 
Jack rabbits in relation to range, 

Land planning for wildlife, 12-11 
Life histories, 16-36 
Life history, red deer, methods, 

Live shipment of small mammals, 

13-18, 13-19 
Live trapping of small mammals, 

Maino Cooperative Wildlife Research 

Unit, 16-4 
Mammal hair, key to, 14-28 
On mammals, 13-11 
Management, compari tive studios, 

Marking animals for identification, 


Beavers, 15-21 
Cottontail, 17-16 
Deer, White-tailed, 17-32 
Partridges, European, with 
rubber wing bands, 15-40 
Pheasants, 11-29, 14-29 


In Idaho, 14-25 
In Michigan, 14-25 
Duck, Y/ood, 17-22 
Grouse, Ruffed, 13-33 
Grouse, Sharp-tailed, 13-28 
Hare, Snowshoe , 13-24 
Prairie chicken, 13-28, 



January, 1939 

Rgso'-.rch — Continued 
Marking — Continued 

Banding — Continued i 

Propagated gome birds, 13-33 
Waterfowl, 13- 28 
Woodcock, 17-22 
Feather marking grouse, 14-22 
Ringing technique, 10-22 

Cottontails, 12-12 
Deer, 13-28 
Foxes, Red, 9-20 
Muskrats, 11-34 
Michigan, Dept. of Conservation, 

Michigan State College of Agricul- 
ture and Applied Science, 14-25 
Michigan, University of, 14-26 
Missouri Cooperative Research Unit, 

National Park Service, 12-16, 13-25 
Natural are.' s as outdoor labora- 
tories, 16-3 
Necessary b?;sis for management, 8-32 
Need of, 11-33, 12-21, 17-38, 17-39 
Need, on fur animals, 10-21, 12-2, 

Needed as to multiple use of forest 

lands, 13-13 
Needs in mammalogy, 17-38 
New York, Conservation Department, 

Nutritional studies, deer, methods, 

Nutritive value of game bird food 

items, 11-33 
Ohio Cooperative Wildlife Research 

Unit, 8-39 
Overpopulation of white-tailed deer, 

On parasites, integration of, 9-10 
Pennsylvania Cooperative Wildlife 

Research Unit, 13-33 
Pheasant nesting, Iowa, 9-20 
On population fluctuations, 17-36 
Population studies, use of mathe- 
matics, 14-28 
Porcupines as affecting timber 

production, 16-34 
On primeness of fur, 17-39 

Research — Continued 

Protection of nursery stock from 

hares and rodents, 16-34 
Public cooperation in, 17-38 
Range problems, 13-25 
Red quail, 8-19 
Refuges as outdoor laboratories, 

On reproductive cycle in fur 

animals, 17-39 
Resistance of plants to deer brows' 

ing, 17-24 
Results, Wisconsin program, 9-35 
Rodents in relation to range, 16-3- 
Rodents in relation to reforesta- 
tion, 16-34 
Rodents and birds vs. pine repro- 
duction, 16-34 
Roosevelt Wildlife Forest Experi- 
ment Station, 14-30 
Ruffed grouse as affected by fores 

management, 16-34 
Snowshoe hare damage to forest 

plantings, 16-34 
Suggested projects, 8-32, 9-34 
Summary of, 1937, 13-19 
Survey of farm wildlife management 

10-32, 11-2 
Texas Cooperative Unit, 12-21 

Beavers, alive, 15-21 
Birds of prey, 13-19 
Cottontail, 12-12, 17-16 
Grouse, Sharp- tailed, 13-28 
Hare, Snowshoe , 11-5 
Mammal s> Small, 13-19 
Prairie chicken, 13-28 
Trapping technique, 10-22 
Value of, 17-38, 17-39 
Wisconsin State Experimental Game 

and Fur Farm, 13-33 
Wisconsin, University of, 14-28 
Woodcock management , 12-21 
U. S. Government: 

Biological Survey: 

Annual Report, 1936-37, 11-2 
Big game refuges, 11-35 
Control operations, Criticism 
of, 11-5 



January, 1939 

U. S. Government—Continued 

Biological Survey — Continued 
Cooperative agreement with 

Forest Service, 12-42 
Cooperative wildlife research, 

8-39, 9-36, 11-2, 11-33, 11-34, 


With Minnesota, 13-20 
With Pennsylvania, 13-33 
Easement refuge program, 17-29 
Extension work in wildlife 

restoration, 12-11 
Flyway research, 8-38 
Forest-wildlife relationships : 

What has been accomplished 

through research, 16-34 
Migratory bird restoration 

program, 17-50 
National conservation program j 

Niobrara Game Preserve, Nebraska, 

8-10, 15-42 
Refuge program, 10-20, 16-14, 

Survey of farm wildlife manage- 
ment, 10-32, 11-2 
Waterfowl situation: 1937-38, 

Work in the Northeast, 10-31 
Bureau of Animal Industry: 

Wildlife research, 13-21 
Bureau of Entomology and Plant 

Wildlife research, 13-22 
Bureau of Reclamation: 

Irrigation reservoirs as wild- 
life refuges, 17-11 
Farm Security Administration: 

Duties of a chief forester and 

game technician in, 12-36 
Wildlife research, 13-23 
Forest Service: 

Big game on national forests, 

Cooperative agreement with 

Biological Survey, 12-42 
Deer census report, 1938, Inyo 

Forest, 16-10 
Deer winter range studies, 1937- 

38, Modoc Forest, 16-10 

U. S. Government- -Continued 
Forest Service — Continued 

Distribution of important forest 

trees of the U. S. , 15-43 
Forest rights in foreign coun- 
tries with special reference 
to grazing rights, 15-43 
Fur animals, national forests, 

Game refuges on national forests, 

Policy in game management, 9-24 
Trapping census report, 1938, 

Inyo Forest, 16-11 
Wildlife on the national 

forests, 12-16 
Wildlife program in the North- 
oast, 10-32 
National Park Service: 

Opportunities of wildlife 

technicians in, 12-16 
Wildlife research, 13-25 
Wildlife work in the Northeast, 
Resettlement Administration: 

Wildlife restoration work, 10-32 
Soil Conservation Service: 

Annual Report, 1936-37, 11-35 
Native woody plants of the 

United States. Their erosion- 
control and wildlife values, 
Soil and wildlife conservation, 

12-18, 16-31 
Soil defense in the South, 16-29 
Wildlife conservation through 

erosion control, 11-23 
Wildlife management in, 10-32, 

Woody vegetation for fence rows, 

Bear, Grizzly, 16-5 
Birds in general, 14-14 
Deer, 17-5 

Kuibab, 11-26 
Pennsylvania, 12-13 
Deer, White- tailed, 17-32, 17-39 
Fur animals, California, 10-13 
Hare, Snow shoe, 14-14 



January, 1939 

Wc igh t s — Cont inucd 
Microtus, 11-20 
Mouse, Pino, 15-24 
Muskrat, 11-35 
Pheasant, 11-29, 12-16 
Song birds, 14-26 

Weights — Continued 

Squirrel, Fox, 14-9, 17-19 
Squirrel, Gray, 13-14, 14-13, 17-19 
Squirrels, Ohio, 9-27 
Woodcock, 12-21, 17-22 
Wildlife Society, 8-40 

Nos. 8-17, April 1937 - December 1938 

[Numbers, as 16-21, refer to the issue and page] 

Abe 11, C. A. , 16-24 

Adams, Ohas. C, 14-18 

Adams, Harry E., 17-32 

Adams, tf. C, 17-26 

Alton, John F. , 17-4, 17-35 

Albright, Ernest G. , 17-12 

Aldous, C. M. , 8-16, 8-22, 12-21, 15-4, 

Aldous, Shale r E. , 15-15, 17-15 
Aldrich, Elmer C. , 14-20 
Allan, Philip F. , 10-32 
Allen, Durward L. , 9-16, 11-17, 14-16, 

15-13, 15-22 
Auad on , Dc oj \ , 8-2 1- 
Ameel, Donald J., 11-9, 16-9 
Anderson, Harry G. , 11-29, 13-2 
Anderson, R. M. , 17-2 
Andrews, C. L. , 15-5 
Ashbrook, Frank G. , 10-21, 17-39 
Atwood, Earl L. , Jr., 8-18, 11-12, 

Avery, Ben, 11-25 
Baashuus-Jesscn, J., 9-3 
Bade, August, 9-31, 10-20, 12-19, 

13-17, 14-19 
Baerg, W. J. , 11-14 
Bailey, Vernon, 10-10 
Baldwin, S, Prentiss, 8-11 
Baldwin, W. P. , 17-14 
Barrett, Leonard I., 8-12 
Baskin, L. C. , 9-31 
Bass, C. C. , 9-33 
Baumgartner, F. M. , 16-5 
Baumgartner, Luther L. , 14-9, 14-17, 

Bean, Ormond R. , 8-2 
Beard, Dan P. , 10-32 

Bedell, C. S. , 8-50 

Beed, Watson E., 8-7, 3-10, 11-6, 

Bell, J. F. , 10-7 
Bell, W. B. , 10-31 



Bennett, Login J., 12-8, 13-9, 16-11, 

17-7, 17-9 
Bennitt, Rudolf, 8-29, 9-12, 12-17, 

Bent, Arthur C. , 9-21, 16-21 
Barry, R. M. , 9-20 

Biddlo, Nicholas, 8-20, 10-16, 16-25 
Bishopp, F. C. , 15-7, 16-2, 16-13, 

Bissonnotto, Thomas H. , 8-11, 10-21, 

10-22, 11-12, 11-33, 13-17, 13-18, 

15-40, 16-33 
31a ir, W» Frank, 9-17 
Blakoy, Harold L. , 8-33, 12-19 
Blossom, Philip M. , 13-18 
Bodo, I. T., 9-13, 12-11, 13-12, 

14-23, 17-32 
Bogort, Mrs. H. G. , 12-4 
Bogle, M. E. , 11-19 
Bolin, Rolf L. , 16-22 
Bond, Richard M. , 15-28 
Bonnycastlo, R. K. G. , 17-25 
Bonnot, Paul, 10-9 
Boone, R. P. , 17-24 
Bordner, John S. , 15-14 
Botsford, R. C. , 16-12 
Boughton, Donald C, 11-6, 15-7, 16-8 
Bought m, Rex V. , 14-6 
Bourn, W. S. , 17-7 
Bower, Ward T. , 11-24 
Bradbury, Harold M. , 10-27, 10-32, 




January, 1939 

Bradley, Den 0. , 10-32 
Bradtj Glenn W, , 10-18, 15-S1 

Br inch, W. C. , 8-12 

Brant, Irving, 9-3, 15-5 

Bray, Robert S. , 16-11 

Br ecker. ridge, W. J., 15-17, 15-57, 

Brimley, H. H. , 16-3 
Bristow, Win. H. , 9-14 
Brouwor, G. A., 11—3 
Back, C. J., 9-31 
Bump , Gird iner , 3-3l , 11- 10 , 13-29 , 

14-21, 17-12 
Burleigh, T. D. , 15-17, 16-19 
Byrd, El on E. , ~ 5-7 
Cahalane, Victor li. , 13-25, 15-25 . 

16-24, 17-24 
Calm, A. R. , 17-31 
Caldwell, John C. , 17-12 
Callander, R. E. , 12-11 
Cardinell, H. A., II— x 
Carlson, W. E. , 15-8 
Carmichaol, Emmet L, 3., 15-41 
Carpenter, J. Richard^ 8-12 
Carr, William H. , 16-20 
Cartwright, B. W. , 11-19 
Case, Goorge V. , 15-28, 15-55 
Cates, E. C. , 9-4 
Caughlin, Ethel, 15-41 
Caughlin, Pat. H. , 15-41 
Chaddock, T. T. , 15-7, 16-10 
Chalk, John D. , 11-23 
Ckamberlin, W. J. , 11-10 
Chapmen, Floyd B. , 9-26, 11-13, 13-13, 

14-13, 16-28, 17-19 
Chapman, H. H. , 17-38 
Chase, Warren W. , 16-31 
Oheatum, E. L. , 15-10 
Chenoweth, Mrs. Arthur S. , 16-12 
Chitty, Dennis H. , 9-6, 10-22, 13-2, 

13-19, 13-5, 1 -19 
Chitty, Helen, 1-7 
Chri staffers, Harry J., 11-25 
Clark, Leonard B , 8-31 
Clark, Marion W. , 9-28 
Clarke, C. H. D. , 15-9 
Clarke, J. Lyell, 16-13 
Clausen, R. T. , 8-2 
Claycomb, G. B. , 13-11 
Clemens, W. A., 10-11, 10-12 
Cline, Justus H. , 16-4 

Coatney, G. Robert, 9-10, 11-7, 13-6, 

Coburn, Don R. , 12-20, 17-4 
Coleman, J. 8. , 10-18 
Collinge, Walter E. , 15-19 
Corklin, W. Gard, 8-20, 8-21, 10-17, 

11-23, 11-24, 16-30 
Coiiiiell, Fr-.nk H. , 9-8 
Conner, Geraldine, 10-20 
C mway, R* lpfc C. , 15-25 
C x)k, Katharine }L , 9-14 
Cooke, May T. , 9-19 
Cooney, Robert F. ; 15-28, 15-29* 

jiO— £>A 

Corkran, Vff« S. , 15-12, 16-13 

Cottnni, Clarence, 9-33, 10-23, 12-5, 

15-17, 15-42, 16-13, 16-35, 17-7, 

COUOh, Loo K. , 3-27, 11-31, 11-23, 

Coughlin, Louis E. , 15-20 
Cox, T. Eillard, 9-3 
Cox, W. T. , 10-5, 11-23, 13-23 

Creaght, , 11-8 

Criddle, Stuart, 14-13 

Cross, E. C. , 8-5, 8-10 

Csech, Albert G. , 10-21, 10-22, 11-33, 

13-17, 15-40, 16-33 
Cully, Matt. , 15-31 
Curtis, Janes D. , 11-24 
Cuviiliur, Eugenic, 10-7 
Dachnowski-Stokas, A. P. , 11-4 
Daigh, F. C. , 15-13 
Dale, Bonnycastle, Jr., 9-4, 11-20 
Dale, Frederick II., 8-4 
Dalke, Paul D. , 8-22, 5-2., 0-16, 

11-11, 12-12, 11-11, 17-16 
Dana, S. 1. , 14-26 
Darling, F. Eraser, 14-13 
Darrow, Robert, 17-35 
Davenport, L. A., 11-18 
Davis, Cecil 17., 8-25 
Davj s, David E. , 8-6 
Davis, Geo. W. , 17-27 
Davis, Willi;..n B. , 13-9 
Davison, Verne E. , 15-26 
Dry, Albert M. , 12-6, 13-19, 17-26 
Dayton, Wn. A. , 10-19 
Deck, Raymond s. , 13-34, 15-59, 15-3 
Deer, J. L., 15-5, 17-55 
De Nio, R. M. , 15-29, 17-13 



January, 1939" 

Denmead, ralbott, 11-25 

Detwiler, S. B. , 13-5 

Dice, Lee R. , 15-11 

Diknans, Gerard, 10-7 

Dixon, Joseph S. , 10-13, 15-2 

Dobyns, Harold L. , 11-4 

Dor emus, H. M. , 9-8 

Douglas, L. H. , 17-25 

Dowdell, Ralph, 11-9 

Brake, C. H. , 10-7 

East, Ben, 10-17 

Eddy, Sherman W. , 10-33 

Edninster, Frank 0. , 9-7, 10-33, 12-19 

14-22, 15-27, 16-28, i r -29, 17-19, 

Edwards, Philip R. , 8-6 
Einarsen, Arthur S. , 12-10, 17-22 
Elmore, L. J., 6-31, 13-18 
Elton, Charles, 8-11, 9-6, 10-5, 1&-2, 

Emien, John T. , Jr., 10-12, 14-20, 

Eramel , M. W. , 9-9 
Enders, Robert K. , 17-39 
Ericicson, Arnold 8. , 15-8 
Ericsson, ".vyl'., 9-5, 15-14 
ErringtO] , Carolyn St on, 11-34 
Brrington, Paul L. , 3-10, 8-15, 3-30, 

9-14, 9-19, 9-20, 9-28, 10-15, 11-3, 

11-6, 11-15, 11-31, 11-33, 11-3- , 

12-13, 13-5, 14-8, 15-17, 16-13, 

16-32, 17-33 
Eskey, C. R. , 9-9 
Evans, C. A., 10-7, 15-8 
Evans, R. M. , 16-26 
Finley, Wnu L. , 8-3, 12-10 
Fisher, George M. , 15- 
Fitch, Henry S. , 16-2 
Fitzgerald, C. A., 14-16 
Fox, Adrian C., 8-13, 3-23 
Francis, E. , 9-9 
Friley, Charles 23. , Jr. , 15-22 
Frost, Allen, 11-6 
Fry, John R. , 17-25 
Furniss, 0. C. , 14-5 
Gabrielson, Irn IT., 8-2, 11-2, 11-33, 

Gallaher, Charles, 16-30 
Garlough, F. E. , 9-36, 12-20 
Garret son, Martin 8. , 16-21 

Cerctall, Richard, 8-3, 0-19, 9-22, 
10-10, 10-18, 10-33, 11-28, 12-16, 
13-2, 10-31, 17-26 , 17-31 

Gigstoad, Gilbert, 8-14, 17-21 

Girard, George I., 8-18, 10-15 

Given, E. W. , 16-10 

Golctaan, Edward A., 8-25 

Goodrum, Phil D. , 10-20, 12-18, 17-30 

Gootenberg, Phil. , 17-12 

Gordaii^ Joan \L , 15-37 

Gordon, Eva. , 16-15 

Gordon, R. B. , 11-22 

Gordon, Seth, 9-29, 10-4, 17-52 

Gower, V. Carl, 16-6, 16-7 

Grange, Wallace 3., 11-50 

Gray, Ernest, 14-7 

Grobe, G. W. , 
Green, R. G. , 



8-6, 8-8, 10-7, 11-9, 

, 13-2C, 14-4, 15-8, 16-8, 17-5 
an, fillAaa E., 3-7, 15-23 
j Groffenins, R. J., 15-13 
I Grimes, Frank G., 11-35 
j Grimcior, W, F. , 11-15, 15-55 
1 Grinor, Lynn A. , 17-20 

Grinnell, Joseph, 8-25, 10-13, 16-5 
Gri sc am , Ludlow , 8- 26 
Or j swell , Oli /or, 11-29 
Groimo, Owon J. , 9-2 
Gross, Alfred 0., 13-8 
Gutemaith, C. R. , 17-12 
Hagar, Joseph A. , 11—3 
» hn, Palmer L. , .12-36 
Haig, I. T. , 15-15 
11, A. G. , 9-13 

orstrom, F. N. , Jr., 9-19, 14-8, 
Hamilton, W. J., Jr., 9-5, 9-6, 9-19, 
9-20, 10-13, 11-2:), 15-2, 15-24, 
17-2, 17-38 
Hcmlott, G. W. D. , 15-22, 17-17 
Hax.iner slanu , Ha ze 1 , 15-7 
Handley, CO., 9-3, 13-14, 15-38, 

Hann, Ei rry inf. , 10-15 
Hanson, Harold C. , 15-17 
Margrave, P. D. , 14-19 
Harper, Frank B. , 11-27 
Harris, Earl S. , 15-13 
Harris, R. D. , 11-19 
Hart, J. L. , 10-12 



January, 1939 

Farwood, Paul D. , 10-6, 3.0-8 
Haskell, Ma. S. 8-32 
Hatch, A. B. , 1 -29, .! -34 
Hathaway, Edward S, , LL-13 

Hausman, Leon A. , 9-1 

Hawkins, Arthur S. , 9-32, 11-30, 12-13 

Headlee, Thomas J., 15-12, 16-13 

Healy, Janes C. , 10-21 

Hearle, Eric, 15-9 

Kendrickson, George 0., 9-15, 12-12, 

15-22, 15-23, 16-11, 17-7, 17-17 
Herman, Carlton M. , 13-4, 14-6 
Hems, W. B. , 10-7 
Hibben, Frank C. , 15-23 
Hicks, Lawrence E. , 8-21, 9-34, 9-36, 

12-13, 14-10, 17-23 
Hieronymns, G. H. , 9-13 
Hill, R. G. , 15-15 
Hill, R. R. , 15-32 
Killer, Wra. , 14-11 
Einer, Laurence E., 16-21 
Hinkley, K. D. , 9-27 
Hjort, Johan, 13-14 
Hofbauer, George, 10-19 
Hogg, John E. , 6-28 
Holm, Earl, 14-21 
Holt, Ernest G. , 8-9, 12-18 
Hope, C. E. , 15-20 
Horn, E. E. , 14-4, 17-10, 17-34 
Horsfall, Margery W. , 11-7 
Hosley, N. W. , 9-25, 10-13 
Eotchkiss, Neil, 8-32 
Howard, M. C. , 16-24 
Howard, William J., 8-13 
Howell, Arthur H. , 15-2 
Hoyt, Avery S. , 13-22 
Hubback, Theodore, 15-4 
Huff, Clay G. , 11-7 
Hunt, II . R. , 14-25 
Hutchings, S. S. , 14-9 
Imler, Ralph E. , 13-19 
Isaac, Leo A. , 14-7 
Jackson, Hartley H. T. , 9-35, 12-20 
Jaraes, M. C. , 8-4 
Jeffero, D. S. , 14-25 
Jellison, Wrn. L. , 15-6 
Jensen, Max S. , 11-21 
Jewett, Stanley, 8-25 
Johnson, Fred W. , 12-15 
Johnson, R. A. , 16-53 

Jones, Vi/rn-i F. , 11-7 

JonescLiid, E. M. , 16-7 

Julander, Odoll, 12-11 

Kadner, C. G. , 10-7 

Xalmbach, E. R. , 3-5o, 10-9, 11-35, 

12-7, 12-20, 16-35, 17-17 
Keen, F. F. , 10-5 
Kelker, George K. * 9-18 
Kellogg, Ohio, E. , 11-14 
Kellocg, H. B. , Jr., 10-22, 13-6 
Kelso, Loon H. , 8-33 

deigh, S. Charles, 8-11 
Kennard, D. C. , 9-33 
Kenney, F. R. , 16-14 
Kin^, Ralph T. , *9-30, 14-30, 15-15, 

ELomola, V. M. , 15-31 
Knappon, Phoi bo, 17-15 

plirg, S. F. , 11-9 
Knovltcn, George F., H-15, 15-19 
Bafoid, Charles A. , 15-9 
KflW&rok, L. V. . 12.-9 
Eootron, fctfel, 15-22 
Kylie , 11. R. , 9-1! 
La Budde, Mrs. Bdwrvrd, 5-2 
Lack, David, 10-9 
Litis on, A. L. , 10-C 2 
Langanbach, John R. , 16-18 
Langlois, T. H. , 8-13 
Larson, Carl L. , 3-8, 10-7, 14-4, 17-5 
I aRu e , G~ orge Ic . , 11-9 
Lay, George B. , &-• 
Lay, Daniel V.. , 12-3, 12-11 
LeCompte, E. Leo, 11-25 
Lee, Orvilla S. , 11-29 
Leffelxian, L. J., 13-15 
Lehmann, V. W. , 9-21, 15-3, 12-8 
Leonard, Samuel L., 3-51 

Leopold, Aldo, 


8-24, 8-32, 9-7, 

.9-34, 9-35, 11-29, 12-21, 13-2, 

14-2, 14-28, 17-58 
Lexris, Harrison F. , 9-29 
Ligon, J. Stokley, 12-5 
Lillie, R. D. , 9-9 
Lincoln, Frederick C. , 12-3, 17-3 
Lindquist, Arthur W. , 14-7 
Linsdale., Joan M. , 8-25, 10-2, 10-13, 

10-14, 13-15 
Lloyd, Hoyes, 12-5, 13-17, 16-14, 17-3 
Locke, S. 3. , 17-11 



January, 1939 

Lohmann, Ruth, 13-6 

Lumley, Ellsworth D. , 11-2, 11-3 

Lund, Horace 0., 15-7 

Luttringer, Loo A., 10-12, 10-32, 14-2. 

Lynch, John J., 10-23 
Maclay, David J., 15-28, 15-29 
MacCreary, Donald, 16-13 
MacDonald, Kenneth F. , 9-4 
MacGregor, A. E. , 10-13 
MacKonzie, H. W. , 11-25, 13-33 
Mac Lulich, D. A., 10-25, 11-5 
MacNamara, L. G. , 14-15 
Mnnweiler, J. , 11-11 
Marsh, Hadleigh, 15-8 
Marshall, William H. , 11-19, 11-2C , 

11-21, 14-12, 17-10 
Mason, Edwin A. , 13-5 
Massey, A. B. , 11-27, 17-6 
Matheny, G. E. , 14- 14 
Mather, D. V. , 10-7, 17-5 
Mathiak, Harold A,, 15-41, 26-34 
May, Franklin H. , 8-14 
Maynard, L. A., 14-24 
McAtee, W. L. , 8-23, 9-36, 10-23, 

11-36, 12-22, 13-19, 16-14 
McCachraix, R. A., 13-12 
McCanpbell, Sam C. , 10-4 
McCoinb, H. A. , 11-27 
McConnell, Robert, 9-12 
McCrory, S. H. , 17-11 
McCulloch, W. F. , 9-18 
McCutchen, A. a. , 17-23 
McDonald, Malcolm, 11-15 
Mclntyro, Arthur C. , 8-24 
McKenney, F. D. , 11-3, 17-5 
McLean, D. D. , 15-24 
McLeod, J. A. , 11-10 
McMullen, Donald B. , 10-8 
Meginnis, H. G. , 11-29, 14-18 
Mantzer, Robert L. , 16-12 
Middleton, A. D. , 8-11, 13-6, 13-7, 

Milford, John J. , 10-5 
Mills, E. M. , 15-42 
Mills, Harlow B. , 9-19, 11-17 
Mitchell, Byron H. , 16-12 
Moffitt, James, 11-13, 15-6, 14-9, 

Mohler, J. R. , 13-21 
Mohr, Carl 0. , 13-13 

Mollin, F. E. , 14-19 

Molohon, A. D. , 12-2 

Morley, L. C. , 10-9 

Morrison, Kenneth D, , 3-5 

Mortonson, Bud, 16-25 

Morton, Jomes N. , 8-23, 9-27, 10-33, 

15-15, 13-26, 16-26 
Moses, Ben D. , 16-4 
Muenschor, W. C. , 3-26 
Munro, J. A., 10-11, 15-16, Adolph, 8-15, 9-15 
Murio, Olaus J. , 8-10 
Murphy, Robert Cushman, 9-2 
Nagel, Werner 0., 8-29, 9-12, 9-28 
Neilson, Reed S. , 16-10, 16-11 
Nelson, A. L., 15-38, 17-36 
Nbsbit, Ray J. , 17-28 
Nice, Margaret M. , 11-21, 14-14 
NichOl, A. A., S-29, 13-3, 16-15 
;ij.chol3or, Arnold, 14-4 
Harris, L. C. , 8-51 
fitting, a. D. , 16-4 
Oaken, R. S. , 12-14 
Olerholsor, Harry C. , 10-2, 16-2 
Olivier, Louis, 15-10 
Olmsted, Cnarlcs E. , 15-10 
Olsen, 0. Wilford, 16-6, 16-9 
Olson, Herman F. , 17-32 
Olson, Sigurd F. , 13-10, 15-39 
Orr, Robert T. , 3-17, 15-9, 16-32 
Ostrom, C. E. , 11-15 
Paddock, F. B. , 15-11 
Pag3, John 0. , 17-11 
Palmar, E. Laurence, 11-32 
Pancoast, John M. , 12-16 
Park, Bnrry C. , 10-32, 17-39 
Park, James T. , 15-9 
Parker, R. R. , 9-9 
Parsell, J. A. , 15-29 
Parsons, B. T. , 13-8 
Patton, C. P. , 17-14 
Pearce, John, 11-17, 17-37 
Pearson, Allen M. , 3-25, 17-19 
Pearson, T. Gilbert, 17-3, Joseph F. , 9-11 
Pederaon, F. C. , 15-29 
Penfound, Mm. T. , 11-13 
Person, Hubert L. , 10-13 
Phillips, J. C. , 8-25 
Pickford, G. D. , 9-11, 14-7 
Pioters, A. J., 15-2, 16-2, 16-28 



January, 1939 

Pirnie, Mlec D. , 17-30 

Potts, Merlin K. , 8-7, 17-3 

Pough, Richard h. , 9-11, 11-2, 12-3, 

16-33, 17-33 
Prater, F. F. W. , 8-12 
Prosnull, C. C, 16-3, 16-27 
Prico, Milton, 13-12 
Pugsley, C. W. , 9-3 
Quortrup, E. R. , 3-8, 17-4 
Rahn, Neal 1.1. , 15-36 
Rainwater, 11. T. , 11-9 
Randall, Willet, 13-18 
Randle, Allan C. , 16-10 
Rankin, Joan 3. , 9-9 
Rasmusson, P. I., 17-20 
Reese, Albert M. , 11-4 
Reid, Elbert H. , 14-7 
Renn, Charles E. , 8-7, 9-8 
Renner, F. G. , 11-19 
Reynolds, Bruce _,. , 16-9 
Richards, Edward C. M, , 13-55 
Ridley, H. N. , 15-15 
Riis, Paul E. , £ 14, 10-4 
Ringrose, R. C. , 8-31 
Robertson, A. Willis, .17-26 
Robinson, Cyril 3. , 9-16 

Roclcwell, LI. 




Rolph, James, III., 8-17 
Romanoff, Alexis L. , 14-20, 

Rosene, Walter, Jr., 17-19 
Roudabush, Robert L., 9-8, 
Rowalt, E. M. , 16-29 
Koran, William, 13-5 
Ruff, Frederick J., 15-36 
Ruhl, H. D. , 13-28, 17-29 
Rush, ;Jm. , 9-8 
Russell, Carl P., 12-16 
Russell, Paul, 9-32 
Russell, V. C. , 9-34 
Ruth, Clara, 11-55, 15-42 
Salgues,. R. , 10-5 
Salyer, J. C. , 17-29 
Saunders, Aretas A. , 8-9, 11-12 
Scheff er, Paul M. , 11-14 
Scheffer, Thoo. H. , 15-24 
Schiele, S. M. , 12-14 
Schilling, E. A. , 17-27 
Schlesselman, Clifford, 9-15 
Schwab, F. ?. , 17-29 
Scott, Thos.-G. , 3-7 
Scott, Walter E. , 9-3, 10-3, 11-3, 
15-3, 16-27, 16-30 

Shamans, Roger, 17-2G 
Sedam, John B. , 9-22, 1C-2G 
Sedlej , Henry, 14-22 

Seiko, Lylo F. , 11-18, 10-20, 13-22 

Scverin, H. C. , 13-7 

Shantz, H. L. , 9-11, 9-24, 12-14, 

12-16, 13-13, 17-32 
Sharp, Jard M. , 17-22 
Shaw, Paul A., 11-31, 13-16 
Sheldon, Carolyn, 16-23 
Sheldon, H. P. , 14-33 
Shillinyor, J. E. , 3-8, 9-8, 10-6, 

10-9, 11-33, 12-5, 12-6, 16-6, 17-5, 

Shortt, T. LI. , 11-19 
Sibley, C. L. , 3-30 
Siegler, Hilbort R. , 8-16, 12-11 
Silver, Jjjfiies, 8-4, V-^l" 
Sime , r R. , 17-13 

r©no M. , 3-31, 9-53 
Skiff, J. Victor, 10-52, 17-36 

TOl] Ni , 15-' 
Steith , Clarence P. , 
s~ it! , Frank R. , 15-23 

ydor, L. 1. , 3-6, 15-20 

ater, Clar mc i A, , 9-8 
Sopor, J. Dewey, 8-17 
Soulen, Garrett H. , 15-18 
Spencer, Donald ... , 15-42, 17-5 
Spring, Samuel N. , 10-33 
Sprunt, Alexander, Jr., 14-4 
Stage, H. H. , 1C-13 
St inford, J. E. , 9 
Stead, David G. , 9-4 



ij. n.. 


Stobler, A. M. , 9-12 

Steen, M. C. , 17-29 
Stogciaan, LeRoy C. , 12-12, 16-23 
Steinhart, 0. V. , 8-32 
Stevens, Ross . , 11-23, 12-17 
Stewart, George, 14-9 
St'jyermark, Julian A. , 3-13 
Stillwell, Jerry E. , 10-11 
Stoddard, Herbert L., 3-18, 8-19, 

9-22, 13-11, 14-29, 17-33 
Stoecklor, J. H. , 9-31 
Stone, Howard L. , 17-29 
Storer, Tracy I., 8-28, 11-29, 14-2, 

14-23, 15-55, 16-4 
Stoudt, Jerome E. , 15-11 
Stratton, George R. , 15-12 
Strong, Lee A. , 17-28 



January, 19,39 

Stroop, D- viri , 17-33 

Stuber, James iff. , 3-20, 17-23 

Stunkard, H. W. , 10-5 

Swanson, Gustav, 15-33, 16-1-1, 15-21 

Sweetman, Harvay L. , 8-5 

Swonk, Myron, 13-3, 16-20 

Talbot, M. W. , 13-3 5 

Taylor, Norma n, 15-12 

Taylor, Welter I. , 12-21, 17-30 

Taylor, W. R. , 15-51 

Terrill, Harold V., 15-11 

Thomas , Charles W. , 15-56 

Thomas, Lyell J., 11-10 

Thompson, Willard 0. , 3-22 

Towers, Charles L- , 11-31, 13-16 

Travis, Barnard V. , 17-35 

Trembley, F. T. , 0-4 

Tripponsoe, R. 2., 6-23, 6-29, 9-25, 

9-27, 11-24, 17-13 
Troy, John W. , 8-15 
True, Gordon II. , Jr. . 14-12 
Tubbs, Farley F. , 10-18, 13-12, 14-15 
Tutin, T. G. , 15-7 
Twinn, C. R. , 16-13 
Uhlor, F. M. , 9-35 
Ure, C. R. , 11-13 
Van Cleave, Harloy, 9-10 
Van Clove, Harry, 10-35, 12-2 
Van Dorsal, Win. R. , 9-11, 11-28, 12-7, 

15-29, 17-15 
Van Rcsseex, A. J. , 8-2 
Vansell, George II., 16-4 
Vaughn, Ernest A. , 0-23, 11-16 
Vestal, Elden H. , 15-10 
Viehmeycr, Glenn, 3-15, 16-5 
Visher, Stephen 3., 11—11 
Vogt, William, 11-11, 16-23, 17-7 
Vorhies, C. T. , 8-29, 12-9 
Waddell, J. F. , 10-11 
Wade, Douglas 2. , 14-5, 17-3 
Wallace, George, 12-19 

Wallace, Kenry a. , 9-26 

Ward, J. D. U. , 8-17 

Warren, Edward R. , 16-21 

Warwick, Tom, 10-6 

Webb, J. I, , 16-13 

Webb, William L. , 10-15 

Wells, A. 0. , 10-8 

Wessell, Charles W. , 8-31, 9-55, 11-32 

West, Evaline, 9-10, 15-6 

rfest, Rupert E. , 14-17 

tfetmore, P. W. , 17-5 

Whitaker, H. L. , 12-17 

itfhite, H. C. , 16-17 

Whitlock, 8. C, 11-8, 16-6 

Wight, H. M. , 15-20, 15-36 

Wilby, G. V. , 10-12 

Williams, Cecil S. , 11-19, 11-20, 

13-3, 14-12, 15-55, 17-10 
liems, L. L. , 15-12, 16-13, 17-7 
Williamson, F. H. H. , 11-31 
Ulson, Kennoth A. , 9-25, 15-20, 

15-25, 17-22 
Wilson, Vanez T. , 17-27 . 
Wing, Leonard W. , 11-5, 12-4 
Wolcott, Goorge N. , 8-9 
nTolman, Abel, 17-33 
Wood, Fae D. , 9-10 
Wood, 0. M. , 8-14, 15-10 
..'eei, J] erwin F. , 9-10 
Wyckoff, Stephen N. , 9-15 
Yeagor, Leu S. , 9-18, 9-27, 11-20, 

1! -34 
Yeatter, Ralphs., 13-25, 14-10 
Yessler, G. Fred, 15-41 
Young, Edward L. , III, 15-- 7 
Young, Floyd W. , 9-31 
Young, Stanley P. , 11-4 
Young, Vernon A. , 15-11 
Zahnisor, Howard, 9-29 
Zimmerman, Fred R. , 16-20 
Zinsor, Juan, 12-2, 12-18, 17-2, 17-5 



January, 1939 

Fob. 8-17, April 1937 - Decambor 1933 

* Duplications deducted 



Number c.t 






-•Mid News 


April 1937 




3 : 



July 1937 : 







October 1937 


: 85 





February 19 3u 






12 : 

February 1938 : 







March 1938 : 






14 : 

May 1958 ■ 







July 1933 (Aug. ) 


118 : 





November 193C j 






17 : 

December 1938 
(January 1939) 


114 : 











The edition of this isaue of WILDLIFE HE7IEW is 4200 copies. 








Delay in issuing WILDLIFE REVIEW has boon duo ma 
cess of revision of tho mailing list. Material is rea 
is planned to distribute in prompt succession. 



Bibliography: Wildlife manage- 
ment in relation to soil 

conservation 2 

Biological Survey 2 

Biological surveys 3 

Conservation 3 

Control 10 

Cycles 12 

Destruction 13 

Diseases and parasites: 

Alaskan vertebrate parasites 15 

Of American mice 15 

Avian tuberculosis .... 15 

Botulism 15 

Botulism, lead poisoning . 16 

Chastok paralysis 16 

Cochlosoma 16 

Dracunculus 16 

Eimcria 17 

Encephalomyelitis 17 

Enteritis in raccoon ... 17 

Flukes in ducks 17 

Flukes in turtles 17 

Fowl paralysis (?) in 

pheasants 18 

Isospora b ought oni n. sp. . 18 

Leucocytozoon synonymy . . 18 

Liver fluke of deer .... 18 

Malaria 18 

Mesocercaria 19 

Minnesota investigations . 19 

Papillomatosis in deer . . 20 
Passer domesticus carrying 

poultry parasites . . . . 20 

Porosis 20 

Persimmon wilt 20 

Rabies 21 

Sarcocystis 21 

Shock disease 21 

Sickle-cell anemia .... 22 

Of starlings 22 

Ab str ac t s- -C on t : 
Diseases and 

Tapeworms in rr 

Ticks 23 

Tromatodes 23 

Tromatcdes of Aratidac ... 23 
Tromatcdes of ducks .... 23 
Tromatodes, Rcniferinae . . 24 
Tularemia a bar to importa- 
tion of rabbits 24 

Of wild animals 24 


Biologic balc.nco, agriculture 
in relation to ..... . 

Biolo;;ic balance, hedges in 

relation to 

Biotic districts of Oklahoma 
Census of California sea 


Census methods 

Census methods, elk .... 
Census methods, fur animals 

Check-areas 27 

Clearings 27 

Cover preferences of pheasants 27 

Deer, Idaho 28 

Drainage . • 28 

Effects of drouth on Microtus 28 
Elk-deer competition .... 29 

Ear animals 29 

Mammals, Oklahoma 29 

Mosquito control oporatiens 29 
Plant indicators ...... 31 

Populations 32 

Populations, brant in Cali- 
fornia , 

Sarvival of nestlings 







Economics 32 

Education . . . . 
Author index for thi 

s issue 


Washington, D. C. 

No. 19 

April, 1939 


April, 1939 

Bibliography: Wildlife man agement in_ rela ti on to soil conservation 

G aines, Stanley H. , et al . Bibliography on soil erosion and soil 
and water conservation, U. S. Dept. Agriculture Miscellaneous Publ. 312 
(Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. , 60 cents a copy), iv+651 pp., 
October (November) 1938. 

The section on "Wildlife management as related to soil conservation" 
runs from page 544 to 559. 

Biological Survey: Annual Report, 1957-33 

Qabrielson , Ira N . Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Biological 
Survey, 1938 (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. , 10 cents a copy), 
68 pp. , 8 tables. . . 

This is the only publication in which there is available a general 
account of the work of the Biological Survey. The material is arranged mostly, 
but not entirely, along Divisional line.- under the following main headings: 
Research on wildlife status and management , Economic research on wildlife, 
Research in fur-animal conservation and utilization, Wildlife-disease control, 
Federal aid in wildlife restoration, Acquisition of lands for refuges, Restora- 
tion of wildlife habitat by the refuge program, Administration of national 
wildlife refuges, Administration of wildlife-conservation laws, Importation 
and other permits issued, Cooperative control of injurious animals, Control 
methods research, Wildlife conservation in Alaska. 

Some points probably of especial interest to readers of WILDLIFE REVIEW 
arc:- Completion of a research laboratory at the Wichita Mountains (Oklahoma) 
Wildlife Refuge, and the beginning there of a full program of study of the 
relations of wildlife to forest and range ; completion of a survey in all the 
States of game management as a supplementary farm enterprise; establishment of 
5 new wildlife refuges and putting 17 under administration for the first time; 
organization of a division to put into effect legislation for Federal aid in 
wildlife restoration. Wildlife students will want to r^ad for themselves, 
however, sections of the report in which they may be specially interested. It 
is fortunate that the pamphlet can bo obtained from the Superintendent of 
Documents as the number of copies available for distribution by the Biological 
Survey is limited by lav; to 2,500 copies, a supply that is soon exhausted. 

Biological Survey: Federal Aid Act 

Day, Albert M . Operation of Federal Aid Act explained, American 
Wildlife (Investment Bldg. , Washington, D. C. , 25 cents a copy), 27(4), 
July-August 1938, pp. 68-69. 

Provisions of the Federal Aid to V ,/ T ildlife Restoration Act explained. 
Types of projects likely to receive approval include: (1) The purchase of 
land for wildlife-rehabilitation purposes; (2) the development of land to make 
it more suitable for wild mammals and birds; and (3) research projects set up 
on a definite basis and directed to the solution of problems that stand in 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

the way of wildlife restoration. Examples of satisfactory projects are cited. 
Misconceptions of the intentions of the Biological Survey that have appeared 
are: That it wishes to restrict expenditure of funds to development of water- 
fowl areas; that it favors an exclusively refuge program; that regulations will 
be so strict that funds cannot be used, hence will revert to the use of the 
Federal government; and that the Bureau will insidiously attempt to take over 
the control and management of all resident game. Naturally these gossipy in- 
ventions are all disavowed. 

Biological Surveys: Mammals of Commander Islands 

Barabash-Nikif orev, I . Mammals of the Commander Islands and the 
surrounding sea, Journ. Mammalogy (Win. B. Davis, A. & M. College, College 
Station, Texas, $1.00 a copy), 19(4), Nov. 1938, pp. 423-429. 

Description of natural conditions; annotated list of 18 forms mostly seal 
allies and cetaceans (exclusive of Delphinidae) . Bibliography of 8 titles. Of 
most interest to wildlife managers for the account of the arctic fox. This 
includes information on general habits, food, moult, reproduction, dens, enemies, 
diseases, and parasites. The chief food is made up of marine forms, living and 
dead obtained along the shore, to which is added a considerable take (39 per- 
cent) of birds, a few insects, berries and other vegetation, and garbage. 

Biological Surveys: Mammals of Labrador 

Jackson, C. E . Notes on the mammals of southern Labrador, Journ. 
Mammalogy (wm. B. Davis, A. & M. College, College Station, Texas, $1.00 a 
copy), 19(4), Nov. 1938, pp. 429-434. 

Review of literature, of which 9 titles are cited; annotated list of 18 

Biological Surveys: Mammals of Vermont 

Osgood, Frederick L. , Jr . The mammals of Vermont, Journ. Mammalogy 
(Wm. B. Davis, A. & M, College, College Station, Texas, $1.00 a copy), 
19(4), Nov. 1938, pp. 435-441. 

Annotated list of 61 forms; bibliography of 13 titles. 


G-lover, Katherine . America begins again (McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 
New York, N. Y. , $2.75 a copy), 382 pp., illus. , 1939. 

The account of waste in our natural resources is described in the intro- 
duction by Stuart Chase as "making me pretty angry"; the book not only sum- 
marizes devastation of the country but tells what is now being done to make up 
for it. Chapter VI (pp. 203-229, 14 illus.) is devoted to wildlife. The 
original abundance of wildlife and its decline under persecution and destruc- 
tion of environment are stated. Some money values of wildlife and specific 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No* 19 April, 1939 

instances of usefulness are cited. The conservation movement is traced dox/n to 
its most recent manifestations — the migratory waterfowl refuge, and Federal aid 
to the States, programs. The use of relief organizations and the cooperative 
effect of the work of various Federal bureaus is commented upon. Management, 
especially of farm game, and research are given attention and the encouraging 
results of restoration activities are sketched. 


Hamilton, W. J. , Jr . Conservation of wildlife, Chapter III, pp. 
261-345, figs. 154-193, in Gustafson, A. F. , et al. , Conservation in the 
United States (Comstock Publishing Co., 124 Roberts Place, Ithaca, N. Y. , 
£3.00 a copy), 445 pp., frontispiece (cartoon) + 232 figs., 1939. 

The book is a general work on conservation (soil, water, minerals, 
organisms) by 4 authors. Pertinent to WILDLIFE REVIEW are the chapters on 
Game and Fur Resources, and on Conservation of other Useful Wildlife; Hamilton's 
section includes also a chapter on fish and fisheries. In a work of so wide a 
scope treatment must be summary, hence striking facts and figures prevail. 
Values are given in estimates of yields and financial returns, but the esthetic 
side is by no means neglected. Accounts of the past abundance and general 
decline of wildlife inevitable to the review, as inevitably contain many super- 
lative expressions. The present status of wildlife is realistically treated 
and the mechanism of conservation is described. Fur farming, game propagation 
and management, and the farmer's role in conservation also receive attention. 
Each of the chapters is accompanied by a set of questions. 


Murphy, Robert Cushman . Conservation II, Garden Club of America 
Bui. (1615 Twenty-first St., Washington, D. C. ) , 6(7), Jan. 1938, pp. 39-50; 
6(8), March 1938, pp. 26-36. 

Part of the text i s of special interest to biologists; this abstract 
avoids, however, material substantially quoted from other sources. The author 
takes as an encouraging sign the tendency "to recognize the validity of informa- 
tion derived from the researches of naturalists," and urges that biologists be 
consulted in connection with the planning of all great landscape altering 

He refers to the primitive balanced condition of nature in which "Each 
organism, plant and animal, had its proper place in the scheme of things, and," 
he adds, "I want particularly to call your attention to the fact that predatory 
creatures, such as wolves, foxes, weasels, hawks, owls, and whatever else a 
large proportion of our modern population chooses to call 'vermin, ' mostly 
existed in infinitely greater numbers than at present, and yet absolutely with- 
out prejudice to the welfare and increase of other species which we choose to 
call game." "I x x x have no sympathy with the point of view that lumps as 
'vermin' all animals which sometimes kill other animals that man himself may 
want to kill. The raptorial birds have an indispensable function as members of 
a healthy fauna. The same is true of the carnivorous mammals. Both are part 
of the desirable balance of nature. Their blacklisting results largely from the 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

attitude of gamekeepers or fish-culturists, who bave charge cf helpless prey in 
pens or hatcheries where the density is quite unnatural. The shameful destruc- 
tion of hawks and owls grows constantly with the spread of firearms, in spite of 
the accumulating testimony of science that most of them represent a net benefit 
both to crops and to game." 

The author calls attention to the incorrigibility of hunters and editors 
of sporting journals in clinging to views on raptors based on slight experience, 
regardless of the findings of men who are using their time, talents, and educa- 
tion for no other purpose than to learn the truth. 

Comment is included on the destructive and protective phases of American 
wildlife conservation and upon the promise shown by wildlife management through 
environmental improvement. Not only has the destruction of wildlife been great 
but "a great deal of it need never have occurred. We know now that the loss of 
wildlife, including flowers, birds, fish, fur-bearers and game, has been largely 
unnecessary. Many more of all these might still be thriving on land in economic 
use, and others could be accommodated on land not needed for economic use. One 
of the present educational jobs for the benefit of the entire populace is to 
induce landowners to keep the largest possible areas habitable for as many 
species of wildlife as they can." Game should be treated as a crop but to be 
successful in this, attention to maintenance of the stock should never be 
neglected because of greater interest in the harvest. 


Murphy, Robert Cushman . Conservation III, Garden Club of America 
Bui. (1615 Twenty-first St., Washington, D. C. ) , 6(12), Nov. 1938, pp. 34-48. 

Nearly everyone agrees as to the desirability of conservation but few 
grasp the difficulties of the subject involving, as it does, almost infinite 
ecological relationships. "The one possible solution for a healthy condition 
is a recovery of the closest approximation of the original balance consistent 
with the exigencies of a human population that appears to be rapidly approach- 
ing its maximum density." The balance of nature is misunderstood, if not 
questioned, for lack of understanding of its fluctuating character. This is 
illustrated by discussion of the behavior of cyclic populations. The problem 
of wildlife management is adjustment to such natural rhythms. The difficulties 
of achieving adjustment are mostly human. The possible general establishment 
of tolerably balanced conditions in the United States is contrasted with the 
local maintenance of an artificial balance on British private estates. This, 
the writer feels, is so lopsided that it would not be tolerated in our country. 

The author again comments en predaceous creatures, the presence of which 
in abundance is no throat to the continued prosperity of their prey, and sup- 
ports the contention by various instances. Control operations interfere with 
the functioning of natural balance and experience has taught "that it is not so 
simple as we once thought to classify native animals into desirable and unde- 
sirable categories; even the so-called vermin have their place, and a natural 
balance of the original wildlife on uncultivated land is the soundest aim. 
xxx Local and needful control is wise control, but it offers no justification 
for bounty systems, trumped-up crow shoots, or the widespread distribution of 
poisoned bait." 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 193= 

Conservation: Bibliography 

H urloy, Richard J . Key to the out-of-doors (H. W. Wilson Co. , 
950-72 University Ave., New York, N. Y. , $2.50 a copy), 256 pp., 1938. 

The subtitle is "A bibliography of nature books and materials." It 
includes references to publications issued or reissued since 1920 that apply 
chiefly to America, omitting technical, "ethical, philosophical, ficticnized, 
and emotional elements except a few 'classics. ,n Emphasis is on conservation 
and "hunting" material has been avoided. Pages devoted to citations on verte- 
brates extend from 105 to 163. There are references also to magazines, to 
sources of pictures and lantern slides and to devices and supplies, and to 
other nature bibliographies. Addresses of sources of film materials and of pub- 
lishers fill pages 217 to 233. 

Conservation: Bighorn 

Carhart , Arthur H . Goodbye bighorn, Rocky Mountain Sportsman 
(1636 Champa St., Denver, Colo., 15 cents a copy), 1(3), Aug. 1938, pp. 
12-13, 27-28, 4 photos, 1 map, 1 table. Digest in Conservation (919"17th 
St., Washington, D. C, 20 cents c copy), 4(5), Sept. -Oct. 1958, pp. 5-8. 

The bighorn formerly used the foothills for winter range but is now 
largely restricted to higher elevations the year round. This unnatural and 
hazardous life together with competition and infections from sheep threaten 
its extermination. [That the bighorn succumbs to diseases of domesticated 
sheep is a plausible theory but that it does so to any significant extent 
seems not as yet, however, supported by satisfactory evidence.] A table giving; 
numbers of bighorn and domestic sheep on the national forests of Colorado from 
1914 to 1937 shows decrease in the former, increase in the latter, both con- 
siderable. The author's suggestion for a remedy is refuges for bighorns 
including adequate winter range from which livestock shall be' excluded. 

Conservation: Bighorn 

Shantz, H. L. The bighorn and national forests, Conservation 
(919-17th St., N. W. , Washington, D. C. , 20 cents a copy), 5(1), Jan. -Fob. 
1939, pp. 34-36. 

Bighorns are steadily declining in numbers on the national forests, the 
proportion being 18 percent or more since 1921. Opinions as to the causes and 
remedies are discussed. Little seems to be definitely known and search for 
logical management procedure is advised. The article is a reply to one by 
Arthur H. Carhart, condensed in the Sept ember- October (4(5)) issue of Conser- 
vation, pp. 5-8. For abstract of that author's original paper see above. 

Conservation: CCC in 

Anon . The CCC and wildlife, Civilian Conservation Corps (Washington, 
D. C. ), 16 pp., illus., 1 table, March 1939. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

This well-illustrated pamphlet pictures somewhat luridly the primitive 
abundance of wildlife on the American continent, sketches its decline, and sum- 
marizes belatedly adopted protective measures. Despite efforts at conserva- 
tion, "By 1933 the big-game situation was bad enough but could have been worse; 
the wildfowl situation was desperate." 'Drainage and desiccation added to the 
difficulties. In 1934 "there developed a concerted demand for federal action" 
to conserve the waterfowl. Some, of the funds appropriated for submarginal land 
retirement and drought relief were allotted for wildlife restoration, enabling 
the Biological Survey to develop its rofuge program. 

The opportune organization of the Civilian Conservation Corps provided 
an agency that greatly extended the possibilities in water impoundment, estab- 
lishment of food and cover plantings, collection of propagating material for 
current and future use, rescue of wild fowl affected by botulism, construction 
of nesting islands, and of protective fencing, roads, buildings, and other 
administrative facilities. In 5 years the CCC did such work on 46 refuges. 

CCC work on national forests has included improvement of browse and cover 
conditions and winter feeding of wildlife. Cooperation with the Soil Conserva- 
tion Service, -the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the National Park Service and 
other Federal organizations also has been directed in part toward benefiting 
wildlife. The interests of the various agencies concerned were integrated so 
far as practicable. The CCC has had more than 2,000,000 men, mostly youths, in 
its camps, and due to. their training, they represent a mass of informed public 
opinion on wildlife such as we. have .never before had. They are conscious of 
the value of wildlife as a national asset because they have helped to restore, 
preserve, and protect it. A table shows work of 40 classes done in 5 years by 
Biological Survey coups and by all camps. 

Conservation: "Ducks Unlimited" in relation to 

Lumley, Ellsworth D . Ducks unlimited, The Seattle Wren (L. Roy 
Hastings, 4442 48th Ave. , S. W. , Seattle, Wash.), 7(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 1-4. 

The author refers to the campaign of Ducks Unlimited for funds in 
Washington State. Such funds with others collected are to be used to improve 
wild fowl breeding grounds in Canada. By such improvement, production of 
waterfowl is to be greatly increased and the duck shooters are promised longer 
hunting seasons, larger bag limits, and the removal of petty regulations. The 
author quotes authorities to show that the shortage is in ducks rather than in 
breeding grounds, there being not enough fowl to occupy the nesting areas 
already available. Lunley concludes that the activities of Ducks Unlimited 
are "a menace to the future welfare of the ducks." He quotes the head of the 
D. U. press bureau as opposing creation of a waterfowl refuge at Merrymeeting 
Bay, Maine, and promising cooperation with local interests in opposing the 
establishment of sanctuaries elsewhere. The author summarizes in part: "Only 
one conclusion can be drawn from a careful study of the facts. Ducks Unlimited 
is organized as a pressure group to defeat any conservation move in the United 
States which would save the ducks from hunters' guns." 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

Conservation: On an ecological basi s 

Lascelles, Tony . Save our wildlife! Nov; or never, Forest & Outdoors 
(610 Canada Cement Bldg. , Montreal, Canada), 34(10), Oct. 1938, pp. 294, 296, 

Do "gone departments realize the existence of an association of life 
with its environment, the dovetailing x x x of every feature of the wilderness 
xxx the necessity of a scientific knowledge x x x the science of ecology." 
The inordinate destruction of red squirrels for their pelts is no aid to the 
recovery of the nartcn, nor doos it help carnivorous fur-bearers in general to 
permit uncontrolled slaughter of varying hares. Destruction of beavers has 
damaged woodlands and the environment of other water-loving animals. Predators 
have a place in nature and their indiscriminate control is detrimental. The 
introduction of exotic game birds hampers the restoration of native species. 
Present hit-or-miss, uninformed methods should be abandoned in favor of those 
based on understanding of the interdependences of wildlife. 

Conservation: Grouse, Sago 

Girard , George L . Sage grouse and the State's conservation program, 
University of Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Dec. 1938, pp. 66-67. 

Notes on habits and food of the species in Wyoming and suggestions for 
its protection, including refuges, essential qualifications of which are men- 
tioned. The sago grouse has alarmingly decreased in Idaho in a period of 20 
years and is doomed to extinction unless greater consideration is given to it. 

Conservation: House of Representatives Committee report 

Anon . Report of the Select Committee on Conservation of Wildlife 
Resources, House of Representatives, 76th Congress, 1st Session, House 
Report No. 1 (House Office Bldg., Washington, D. C), 29 pp., 1939. 

This report contains a general statement on the value of wildlife. Con- 
tributions from the respective organizations on recent accomplishments, plans, 
and needs of the Biological Survey, Bureau of Fisheries, Forest Service, 
National Park Service, and Soil Conservation Service; remarks on related work 
of thse Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Civilian Conservation Corps; discus- 
sion by the Committee of the migratory waterfowl situation, the Federal shoot- 
ing regulations, Federal aid to States in wildlife restoration, stream pollu- 
tion, protection of fur bearers, and the need for education in conservation 
together with recommendations of the Committee. 

Consorvatior :_ Illinois 

Fric- on, Theodore H . Advances in the renewable natural resources 
program" of Illinois, Illinois State Acad. Sci. Trans., 31(1), Sept. 1938, 
pp. 19-34, 10 figs. Reprinted for the State Natural History Survey, Urbana. 

Section headings indicating the nature of the contents are: Early and 
present attitudes toward natural resources, Background of the conservation and 
restoration program, Extent of renewable natural resources, Recent advances in 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

conservation, including game research and management, and Experimental wildlife 
areas. A map shows the location of forest, game, and fish development projects 
in Illinois. 

Conservation: Mj. stelids 

Marshall, William H . Notes on fur-bearers, University of Idaho 
(Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Dec. 1938, pp. 82-83, 1 table. 

Relates to mustelids, giving their economic value, their estimated 
numbers on national forests in western States, the causes of their depletion 
(mainly trapping), and suggestions for their restoration and protection. 

Conservation: Wildlife on farms 

Gabrielson, Ira N . Farmer conservationists, Land Policy Review 
(Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. , 5 cents a copy), 2(1), Jan. -Feb. 
1939, pp. 12-15. 

I To re than half of the land area of the United States is in private farms 
and including that, about 85 percent is devoted to agricultural uses. Hence 
the future of wildlife depends a great deal on the treatment accorded it by 
farmers. For the kinds of animals involved, all that governments can do toward 
their conservation is of minor importance. Farmers as a rule are favorably 
interested in wildlife and already have done a great deal to preserve it. 
Farmer- sport sman relationships are discussed; the farmer has been guided chiefly 
by social, not financial, considerations; and the outlook for any considerable 
money return in exchange for hunting privileges is not very promising. Real 
game management on farms usually is impracticable and artificial propagation 
too costly. Th3 encouragement of natural reproduction by simple modifications 
of farm practices is feasible and farmers are interested in it. They like wild- 
life and wish to favor it. They constitute the largest and most important group 
of conservationists. 

Conservation: Wildlife and other renewable resources 

Taylor, Wal ter P. Conservation in Texas wildlife, Southwestern 
Sports Magazine (214-16 N. 6th St., Waco, Texas, 15 cents a copy), 2(3) , 
Nov. 1938, pp. 14-15, 23, 3 photos. 

All is not well with the so-called renewable natural resources. Detri- 
mental influences and their results on wildlife are summarized in 10 signifi- 
cant indictments. The author believes that public sentiment is now receptive 
to conservation doctrine and that by management, a gratifying degree of restora- 
tion may be effected. Achievements are cited and cooperation with nature based 
on research recommended for their multiplication. All that needs to be done can 
be accomplished by the existing social organization but oarnest attention is 
required and the program of conserving our natural resources must be solved if 
we are to survive. 


"WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

Conservation: Wildlife in the Southwest 

Ligon, J. Stokley . Wildlife and modern land-use policies in the 
Southwest, Cattleman (Coliseum Bldg. , Stockyards, Fort Worth, Texas), 
25(6), Nov. 1938, pp. 45-48. 

The writer's conviction, which he thinks is shared by many nowadays, is 
that crops and livestock should not be favored to the exclusion of wildlife. 
Although vegetation should be maintained at as near a normal stage as possible, 
commensurate with economic land use, the fact is that in the Southwest much of 
the range has been so denuded that it can be put to no profitable use. It must 
be restored and the author points out that, "Conditions favorable for sustained 
and most profitable livestock grazing supply the two major essentials — protec- 
tive covering and source of foods--for game cud insectivorous birds. Without 
restoration of forage where it has been seriously impaired or destroyed, or 
without conservative utilization of such forage where it does exist, neither 
livestock nor game can bo expected continuously to thrive, x x x What is best 
for domestic animals is likewise best for wildlife." While the author recog- 
nizes that exotic game birds will live in environments unsuitcd to native 
species, he urges that the latter be protected and encouraged as much as 
possible. He relies on the cooperation of ranchmen because they have done much 
to save the wildlife of the Southwest, preserving it on their private holdings, 
while on public lands it was practically destroyed. Suggestions for game 
management in the range country arc given. 

Control: Bird and rodent damage to seedlings 

Krau ch , He rmai m . Docs screening of seed spots do more than protect 
the spots against rodents and birds?, Southwestern Forest and Range Expt. 
Sta. (Tucscn, Ariz.), Note 49, 4 pp. (mimeographed), Dec. 1938. 

1-year seedlings under screens continuously showed higher survival than 
those from which screens had been removed after a few months. The effects of 
screening will be further investigated but the suggestion to the abstracter is, 
if the operation pays for itself, it may be regarded as a horticultural prac- 
tice and so lift part of the blame from the mammals and birds against which it 
is now used as a defense. 

Control: Pine seed destruction by birds 

Chapman , H. H . Birds and longleaf pine reproduction, Journ. Forestry 
(Mills Bldg., Washington, D.C., 50 cents a copy), 36(12), December 1938, 
pp. 1246-1247. 

Refers to Burleigh's paper (see WILDLIFE REVIEW, No. 16, November 1938, 
pp. 19-20) which concludes that pine seeds in years of heavy yield arc mostly 
eaten by the numerous birds they attract, and that consequently best survival 
can be expected from light yields. Chapman, however, states: "In the 
reviewer's experience in La Salle Parish, La., the heaviest reproduction was 
established in years of correspondingly heavy seed crops. The preference of 
blackbirds for freshly burned areas was demonstrated by the complete denudation 
of an experimental area in 1928, which had been burned before the seed fell. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

This same area, in 1936, was successfully reproduced in a heavy seed year. The 
presence of an accumulation of three or more years' rough progressively inhibits 
germination, but this occurs plentifully in a rough composed of growth of one 
or two summers' grass. This rough evidently offers the necessary protection to 
the seeds against blackbirds. By burning the land over in the winter previous 
to seed fall, it is probable that bird damage can be successfully controlled." 

C ontrol: Predatory birds 

W illett, G . Control of predatory birds, .Modern Game Breeding and 
Hunting Club News (J. A. Gardy Printing Co., 28 '..'. State St., Doylestown, 
Pa., 25 cents a copy), 9(2), Feb. 1939, pp. 12-13. 

In view of the interest of different groups in birds, "Game breeders 
xxx should confine control measures to birds actually known to be doing 
damage." Discussion of hawks with suggestions as to recognition of the princi- 
pal species. Briefer reference to owls, crows, ravens, jays, and the road- 
runner. Birds display individuality, and control should not be general but 
restricted to those that have acquired destructive habits. 

Control: Rodents on the range 

Bond, Richard M. , and Adrey E.Borell . Rodents and soil conservation, 
Soil Conservation (SupU. of Documents, Washington, D. C. , 10 cents a copy) , 
4(9), March 1939, pp. $20-223. 

Opposed views on the relation of rodents to the range are summarized. 
"As usual the demand for action has preceded the provision for research." 
Investigation has boon needed badly for years but the number of scientific 
reports on just what rodents do to land may be numbered on the fingers of one 
hand. The more profound investigations have turned up bits of information 
favorable to the rodents; these are cited. Van Dersal's conclusions from 
examination of the literature on the relation of rodents to soils are quoted. 
(These may be found in WILDLIFE REVIEW, No. 9, July 1937, p. 11.) The relation 
of rodents to earthen water- controlling structures is conflicting. In fact 
what seems most clear is that these animals do both good and harm and that much 
study is needed of their relations to soil and water conservation. Suggestions 
are given as to the subjects and methods of such investigations. Until the 
work is actually effected, "caution in the expenditure of soil-conservation 
funds for rodent control is definitely indicated." 

Control: Roving dogs 

Egbert, George L . The coyote and his bad name, Michigan Conserva- 
tion (Michigan Dept. of Conservation, Lansing), 8(7), March 1939, p. 5. 

A special effort to reduce the number of roving dogs in Iosco County, 
Mich. , resulted in the elimination of more than 80 animals and in addition 
greatly improved collection of dog license fees. Since this purge there has 
been a marked decline in depredations on sheep, which, formerly, were attributed 
almost entirely to coyotes. The conclusion is "that snap judgments should not 
be made for or against any species of predatory wildlife, for while [the coyote 

WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19. April, 193 

is] known to attack both deer and sheep at tines, it is also known that its 
marauding forays are occasionally exceeded in ferocity and destructives ss by 
the hunting dog, which sometimes escapes both blame and punishment." 

Control: Squirrel damage to tree tags 

Stevenson, Donald D . Squirrel damage to sample plot tags, Journ. 
Forestry (Mills Bldg. , Washington, D. C. , 50 cents a copy), 36(12), Dec. 
1938, pp. 1242-1243. 

As many as one-quarter of tho aluminum tags used to mark trees in perma- 
nent plantations in central Pennsylvania have been destroyed by squirrels. The 
author recommends painting of the numbers on a blaze wherever the squirrel pop- 
ulation is high. 

Cycles: Arctic animals 

Chitty, Dennis . Canadian Arctic wild life enquiry, 1936-37, Journ. 
Animal Ecology (Cambridge University Press, 200 EustonRoad, London, N. W. 
1, England, 20 shillings a copy), 7(2), Nov. 1938, pp. 381-394, 3 figs. 
(naps) , 2 tr.blos. 

The second report on a questionnaire inquiry into population trends of 
lemmings, arctic fox, and snowy owl. "In the Eastern Arctic there was con- 
siderable increase reported in arctic foxes, especially on Baffin Island and 
the coast of Northern Q,ucbec. Lemmings and snowy owls, which had begun to 
recover from scarcity in the previous season, showed further well-marked 
increase in the same region, and also to some extent elsewhere. In the Western 
Arctic there were very few signs of such recovery .among any of the species 
studied." The basic data is both tabulated and napped. Notes on disease 
among sledge dogs also are quoted and summarized. 

Cycles: Grouse 

Erickson, A. B . Grouse observations, Tho Flicker (427 Eighth Ave., 
S. E. , Minneapolis, I.Iinii. ) , 10(3-4), Dec. 1938, p. 14. 

Observations in St. Croix Park, Pine County, Minn. , indicate that the 
die-off in ruffed arid sharp-tailed grouse occurred in the fall and winter of 
1935-36. Notes are given on populations for 1935, 1936, and 1937. 

Cycles: Northern animals 

D ynond, J. R. The study of animal populations, Rod and Gun in 
Canada fl224 St. Catherine St., West, Montreal, Canada,. 10 cents a copy), 
40(10), March 1939, pp. 17-13, 26-27, 2 photos. 

Rather popular discussion of cyclic p lie none na in the snowshoo hare and 
lemmings and dependent predators. References also to fluctuations in ruffed 
and sharp-tailed grouse. Tho point is emphasized that peaks of abundance do 
not always occur in the socio year in all parts of the country — a happoning that 
throws considerable doubt on the sun-spot theory. Tho writer makes some salu- 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 193 9 

tary remarks also on the dependency of prodator numbers on the populations of 
their prey. "A point worth emphasizing ir. connection wit! 1 the fluctuations of 
hare nunbors is that it is not the 'enemies' of hares which cause their scarcity; 
the reproductive capacity of hares and othor cnir.als is adequate to maintain -aid 
oven increase their numbers in the presence of the predators which normally r r -y 
on them. It is the prey, in this case the hares, which determine the numbers of 
their predators. Predators do affect to soue extent the numbers of their prey 
but the initiative lies with the prey." 

Much the seme notorial is printed in hoyal Ontario Museum of Zoology 
(Toronto, Canada) 3ul. 8, November 1936, pp. 11-16. 

Cycles: Snowshoc hare 

Philip, Corne lius P. A parasitologies! rcconrm.issance in Alaska 
with particular reference to varying hares. I. So: .e biological considera- 
tions, Journ. Mammalogy (tfci. E. Davis, College Station, Texas, $1.00 a copy), 
20(1), Feb. 1939, pp. 82-86, 1 table. 

Biological data are recorded in the text as wall ae summarized in a 
table relative to sex, number of y-ung, and parasites cf 172 hares. The cyclic 
die-off does not necessarily occur simultaneously over the whole territory. 
Tularemia was identified in the animals but possible vectors of this disease do 
not appear numerous enough to 3nable it tc be an important factor in hare deci- 
mation. Bibliography of 12 titles. 

Destruction: Highway 

Scott, Thos. G . Wildlife mortality on low ys, Aierican 
Midland Naturalist (Notre Dame, Ind. , $1.00 a copy), 20(3), Nov. 1938, 
pp. 527-539, 5 tables. 

Casualties and the mileage record for each were noted on improved rural 
roads during all months in 43 counties. The nunbor v/rs 1,239 in 2,944 miles or 
approximately .429 per mile. Total for the State on roads cf the typo inspected 
probably exceed 160,000. Factors influencing mortality are discussed, and the 
data gathered for the paper are presented in annotated lists mid distributed in 
the tables. 

Destruct ion: Highway 

Simeons, Jones R . Feathers and fur on ths turnpike, Christopher 
Publishing House (Boston, Mass., $1.75 a copy), 14S pp., 10 pis., 3 figs., 
4 tables, 1938. 

1. A study of v;ildlife casualties on the highway, pp. 9-10, 13-93. 
Chiefly anecdotal account of animals and experiences with them connected with 
the author's 10-ye."r study undertaken partially to salvage highway-killed 
wildlife for scientific purposes. Tables list the specimens noted, classified 
by species and so far as practicable, as immature, male, and female — groups 
killed in frequency in the order given; also in similar detail the animals 
killed on 2 particular stretches of road in a year; the results tally very 
closely, being 8.5 and 8.0 victims per mile per year and .023 and .0219 per 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 193! 

nils per day. At that rate total destruction in the United States would be 
about 6 million vertebrates [this word misspelled throughout the book]. The 
casualty curve for these roads is rather steep- sided and reaches its apex in 
August. In the tabulation of all animals recovered, the following were killed 
in greatest numbers: Robin 375, English sparrow, 351, cottontail, 337, field 
sparrow, 296, and skunk, 222. There is a partial review of contemporary 
studies of highway mortality, a discussion of why animals come to the road, and 
suggestions as to what can be done to reduce destruction. Among these arc 
providing grit and dust areas near, but not too near, roads; refraining from 
throwing remains of lunches and other edible refuse on or along highways; 
erecting signs calling attention to deer crossings, installing escape-ways, and 
undertaking corrective education. A chapter is devoted to cats, many of which 
are killed by automobiles; his reivmrks on their food habits are not so condeima 
tory as those prevalent among sport smon. 

Destruction: Winter killing 

Erri r. gton, Pa ul L . The comparative ability of the bobwhite and the 
ring-necked pheasant to withstand cold ana hunger, t/ilson Bui. (University 
of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 60 cents a copy), 51(1), March 1939, pp. 
22-37, 7 tables. 

Summary of observational and experimental data. Bibliography of 20 
titles. From the author's discussion: "It is apparent from the existing exper 
imontal and observational data that wintor feed crises do not have the malignan| 
significance to wintering pheasants that they may have to bob-whites in north- 
central states. Not only does the ring-necked pheasant have superior ability t 1 
withstand cold when in poor flesh, but it is much, less likely to become emaci- 
ated from hunger in the first placo. Its loss rates are less rapid in propor- 
tion to its weight even whilo starving, and there is evidence that it can rotarj 
starvation during crises by feeding upon buds and other herbaceous foods that 
are not of comparable nutritive value to bobwhite x x x The pheasant's greater! 
strength is of distinct advantage to it if the food is covered by snow or ice; 
and its greater mobility and comparative independence of brushy cover takes nuc 
of the pinch out of many local food shortages. Furthermore, the facility with 
which it regains lost weight 'when opportunity permits is probably a major reasoj 
for the fewness of authentic records of pheasant starvation in the field. 

"I am by no means advocating the roplac emont of the native northern bob- 
white by the exotic ring-necked pheasant. There are biological, economic, and 
esthetic angles to questions pertaining to the desirability of encouraging 
pheasants and bob-whites that are not here considered; but, whatever may be the 
ramifications or controversial aspects of these, it should be useful to conser- 
vation workers norely to have a clearer idea of how much better the pheasant is 
adapted to forage for a living when the ground is covered with snow and to 
appreciate more the significance of a uniformly reliable food supply to winter- 
ing bob-white populations." 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

Diseases :\nd Parasites: A laskan v ertebrate^ pa rasites 

Philip, Cornelius B. A parrsitological reconnaissance in Alaska 
with particular to varying haras. II. Parasitologies data, 

Journ. Parasitology (Science Press, Lancaster, Pa. ), .24(6) , Dec. 1938, 
pp. 483-488, 2 tables, 

Tapewcms, nenutodes, ticks, fleas, and nites tabulate! according to 
localities and miribors of specirsns. Notes on pathology of hares examined. 
Both sndo- and ecto-parasites collected fron 9 other species of uannals and 6 
of birds aro listed. Bibliography of 6 titles. 

Diseases ana Parasites: Of Anorican nice 

Brick son, Arnold B . Parasites of so::e Minnesota Cricotidae and 
Zapodidao, and a host catalogue of helriinth parasites of native Anerican 
nice, Anerican Mi Hand Naturalist (N&tre Done, Bid., $1.00 c copy), 20(3), 
Nov. 1938, pi. 575-589, 18 figs. 

Sunnary of the history of study of Ar.ericar ho] ninth parasites of nico, 
report on Minnesota studies including do script ions of 2 nev: specie a fron Z apus 
and 3 fron Peronyscus ; host catalogue as noted in title; bibliogrr.phy of 21 

Diseases and Parasites: Avian tuberculosis 

Feldnan, Wn. H. Avian tuberculosis infections (t/illicns & Wilkins 
Co., Baltimore, Md. , $7.00 a copy), 483 pp., 109 figs., 1938. 

An introductory sketch by another author refers to this book as a nono- 
graph and it seeris well to deserve that distinction. It contains 13 chapters 
of which two are of special interest to the student of wildlife diseases. 
These discuss the pathogenicity of avian tuberculosis bacilli for fowl other 
than chickens (including wild birds) and for cert:.. in ncnnals other than nan. 
The organisn seens to be capable of infecting all species of birds, but is in- 
frequently reported. Various normals are, or can be, infected but the group 
shows considerable resistance to this disease. Like ether chapters of the book, 
those particularly cited are accompanied by specific bibliographies. 

Diseases and Parasites: Botulisn 

Hall, I. C. , and O. W. Stiles . An outbreak of botulisn in captive 
nink on a fur farn in Colorado, Jour. Bacteriology ( Willicns &- Wilkins 
. Co., Baltinore, Md.), 36(3), March 1938, p. 282. 

The death ef 146 of 148 nink on a fur farn near Denver is shown to have 
been caused by the toxin of Bacillus botulinus type A. This appears to be the 
first recorded instance cf naturally occurring botulisn in nink or other fur- 
bearing aninals. (Courtesy Experiment Station Record) 


WILDLIFE HBTOEW: No. 19 April, 193$ 

Di seases and P ar asites: Botulism, lead poisoning 

Fredine, Gordon^ and J. Frederick Bell . Ducks get sick too, 
Minnesota Conservationist (Dept. of Conservation, St. Paul, Minn., 15 cents 
a copy), 63, Dec. 1938, pp. 16-17, 24, 34, 4 photos. 

Popular account of botuli.3m and lead poisoning in Minnesota. More than 
3,000 ducks perished from the former malady at Lake Shaokotan in the early fall 
of 1938. A variety of measures (described) to keep wild fowl away from the 
danger area apparently were highly successful. Out of &L4 sick ducks treated, 
774 recovered and were released in unir^ected lakes. In 1936 ducks frequented 
a small open hole in the loo at Boar Lake where they obtained enough lead pel- 
lets to cause the death of Gevoral hundreds of thorn from load poisoning. Treat- 
ment was unavailing. Th« possibility of using non-toxic shot is discussed. 

Diseases and Pare si te s: Chastek paraly sis 

Gree n, R. G . Chastek paralysis, Amer. Fur Breeder (St. Peter, Minn., 
15 cents a copy), 11(1), Jan. 1938, pp. 4, 6, 8. 

A type of paralysis which has frequently been observed among foxes in 
recent years is describod. This disorder is apparently due to a deficiency of 
vitamin Bi in the die 4- , and has generally occurred when the diet contained a 
rather high percentage of fresh fish. A common type of ration containing about 
7 percent of fresh fish and 7 percent of liver waa fed with good results, while 
a similar type of ration containing 18 percent of fresh fish and 2 percent of 
liver resulted in a severe outbreak of the paralysis. This disorder has not 
been observed when cooked fish were fed. (Courtesy Experiment Station Record) 

Diseases and Parasites: Co c h i o soma 

Trav is, Bernard V . A synopsis of the flagellate genus Cochlosoma 
Kotlan, with the description of two new species, Journ. Parasitology 
(Science Press, Lancaster, Pa.), 24(4), August 1938, pp. 343-351, 11 figs. 

History; gonoric diagnosis; systematic position; economic statue. 
Description, measurements, and illustrations of 3 species: C. anatis Kotlaja 
from various species of ducks; C_. picae n. sp. from the American magpie (Idaho); 
and C. tvrdi n. sp. from the robin (Iowa). Comparative notes, summary, and 
bibliograpny of 4 titles. 

Diseases and Parasites: Dracunculus 

Bracke ';t , Stirling . Description and life history of the nematode 
Dracunculus opidensis n. sp. , with a rodescription of the gonus, Journ. 
Parasitology ^Science Pross, Lancaster, Pa,), 24(4), Aug. 1938, pp. 353- 
361, 8 figs. 

From garter snakes, Michigan; description, measurements, illustrations, 
comparative remarks, life cycle. Emendation of the generic diagnosis. Bibliog- 
raphy of 6 titles. 


tflLDLIFE REVIEWS No. 13 April, 1939 

Diseases and Parasites: Eimeria 

Bought on , Donald C. , and Joseph J. Yolk . Avian hosts of Eimerinn 
coccidia, Bird -Banding (Carries B. Floyd, £10 South St., Boston, Mass., 
75 cents a copy), 9(3), July 1938, pp. 139-153, 1 fig. 

Eimerian coccidicsis is described and its occurrence among birds dis- 
cussed. There is a host list giving the species of Eimeria known from various 
birds (37 spp.), a descriptive catalog of the parasites (34 spp. ) , and a 2-pegc 


Diseases and Parasites: Er. c ephal omy e 1 i t i a 

T yzzer, Ern en t E. , Andrew vJ. So Hard a , and Byron L. Bennett . The 
occurrence in nature of "oqulne oncephalomyo litis* 1 in the ring-necked 
pheasant, Science (Lancaster, Fa., 15 cents a copy), 88(2291), Nov. 25, 

1938, pp. 505-506. 

This disease identified by laboratory procedure in pheasants from 
Connecticut. The susceptibility of other birds both wild and domesticated is 
noted. Symptoms and lesions arj do scribed. The authors consider the adjective 
"equine" objectionable for this evidently widespro- d disordor is of no greater 
prevalence in horses, perhaps, than in other animals. It is suggested that the 
disease may be spread by migratory birds. 

Diseases and Parasites: Enteritis in raccoon 

McDermid, A. M. I:;fectious gastro-enteritis in raccoon, Wisconsin 
Conservation Bui. (Wisconsin Conservation Dept. , Madison), 4(3) , March 

1939, pp. 21-22. 

An acute virus disease observed on 5 fur farms in Wisconsin. Symptoms 
arc described. In most cases the primary infection seemed traceable to cats. 
Good results have been obtained from treatment with commercial feline enteritis 
serum. Symptomatic treatment also is described. 

Diseases and Parasites: Flukes in ducks 

Boaudette , F. R . Flukes in the respiratory tract of ducks, Journ. 
Amcr. Veterinary Assoc. (221 N. La Salle St., Chicago, 111., 40 cents a 
copy), N. S. 47(1), Jan. 1939, p. 44. 

Records of flukes, acanthoeophalids, and nematodes from mallards in Nov/ 
Jersey. The flukes arc identified as Typhi ocoelun cymbiu m, a species previously 
recorded from the pintail and the pied-billed grebe. 

Diseases and Parasites: Flukes in turtles 

Byrd, El on E . Studies on the blood flukes of the family 
Spirorchidae. Part II. Revision of the family and description of new 
spocies, Reolfoot Lake Biol. Sta. Rep. (Tennessee Academy of Science, 
Nashville, Tenn. ) , 3, Jan. 1939, pp. 116-161, 4 pis., 1 fig. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1931 

Historical and systematic review with keys and descriptions of genera am 
species (9 new) of this family of turtl3 parasites. The figure is a phylo- 
genetic "tree" and the plates arc of drawings illustrating tho new species. 
Bibliography of 24 titles. 

Diseases and Farasrte s: Fowl par a lysis ( ?) in pheasan ts 

Junghorr, jgrwin . heuro lymphomatosis phasianorum, Journ. Amor. 
Veterinary Assoc". (221 N. La Sillo St., Chicago, 111., 40 cents a copy), 
N.S. 47(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 49-52, 5 figs. 

Outbreak of a disease in 4-months* old pheasants (Pn asianu c tor q uatus } 
that resembles fowl paralysis. S'^ptoiM tfiaeiosod and lesions described and 

Diseases and Parasites^ Is^ s pora bough '^otu^Eu sp . 

Volk, Josep h J. Isospora boughtoni n. sp. from the American opossum, 
Didc lphi3 v" " ,: a_,_ Journ. Parasitology (Science Press, Lancaster, Pa.), 
24(6), Dec. IjSs, pp. 547-548, 1 Tig. 

Coccidia:: from Georgia described r.xul illustrated. 

Diseases and P- r asitos : Louco cytoz-oo r. syn onym y 

Herman , Car] . t on M . Leucocyto^oon anatis Wickware, a synonym for 
L. simondi Mrtiiis -nd Lo;er, Journ. Parasitology (Science Press, Lancaster, 
Pa.), 24(5), Oct. 1938, pp. 472-473. 

Comparative notes to support the synonymy. 

Diseases and Parasites: Liver fluke of deer 

Whitlock, S. C. , and Carl Cower . Deer liver fluke common in the 
Upper Peninsula, Michigan Conservation (Dept. of Conservation, Lansing, 
Mich.), 8(2), Oct. 1938, p. 8, 2 photos. 

Description and illustration of tho fluke and of lesions caused by it. 
Alternate hosts are snails; the immature flukes oncyst on water plants which 
may bo eaten by deorj the young flukes thus swallowed then may mature and lay 
eggs to perpetuate the species. 

Diseases and Parasit es : Malar ia 

H erman, C. M . Epidemiology of malaria in eastern red-wings (Agelaius 
p. phoenicous) , Amer. Jour. Hyg. (Prince and Lemon Sts. , Lancaster, Pa.), 
28(2), Sept. 1938, pp. 232-243. 

In the course of a study made of malaria in the eastern redwing at the 
Austin Ornithological Research Station on Cape Cod, Mass., during the summer of 
1937, but 1 of 53 adult birds examined by blood smears was found infected. 
"When blood from 48 of these adults was subinoculated into clean canaries, 19 
cases of Plasmodium circumf lexuri (40 porcont) and 10 cases of P. cathemerium 


JILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

(20 percent) wore disclosed, n total prevalence of 60 percent. Parasites were 
observed in blood smears fron only 2 of 86 young exorainod. Blood froi.i 38 of 
these young was subinoculatcd into clean canaries, of which 11 subsequently 
showed parasites, an incidence of about 28 percent. All Plasmodiun infections 
observed in young redwings were P. circunf loxum x x x The evidence presented 
suggests that the young redwings did not obtain their infections while on the 
nest. A few obtained infections shortly after leaving the nest, but the 
greatest incidence was in birds about . 1 no. old. x x x The lack of infection 
with P. cathonoriur.i in the young nay be due to the fact that P. cathencriun 
produces a low grade cf infection in redwings as conpared with P. circunf lexun . " 
(Courtesy Experiner.t Station Record) 

Diseases and Parasites: Mesocercaria 

Olivier, Louis, and The r on 0. Odlaug . Mesocercaria i ntermedia n. sp. 
(Trenatoda: Stri goats) with a note on its further developnent, Journ. 
Parasitology (Science Press, Lancaster, Pa.), 24(4), Aug. 1938, pp. 369-374, 

1 fig. 

History of the genus, description and figure of the now species fron 
frogs and snakes (Michigan). Notes on life history; detailed description of 
excretory system .and conparison with those of other nesocercariae. Bibliography 
of 7 titles. 

Diseases and Parasitos: Minnesota investigations 

Green, R. G. , et al . Minnesota Wildlife Disease Investigation 
(Dept. of Bacteriology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), July 1938, 
pp. 52-59, graphs 1-2, tables 22-24; Aug. 1938, pp. 60-67, tables 25-29; 
Sept. 1938, pp. 68-73, tables 30-33; Oct. 1938, pp. 74-79, tables 34-37, 

2 figs.; nine og rap hod. 

July. Discussion of weights of snow shoe hares in health and disease; 
those dying fron shock disease averaged 16 percent less in weight than "normal" 
aninals. Sox ratio in the hares is discussed; the evidonce indicates that 
shock disease does not affect one sex nore than the other. Pathological 
reports on niscellaneous specimens relate to bluo geese, robin, nallard, and 
nuskrat; there are also necropsy findings for 5 snowshoo hares. 

August. Data collected on cottontail rabbits during the snowshoe hare 
investigation indicate that this species undergoos cyclic fluctuations roughly 
synchronous with those cf the hare. Another outbreak of botulisn anong xvater- 
fowl occurred in 1938; pathological reports are given on 9 specimens represent- 
ing 5 species, all of which were found to have died fron the disease. According 
to autopsies that are briefed, 7 quail fron a State gene farn died fron ulcera- 
tive enteritis. Miscellaneous pathology notes are given for a caribou, 4 snow- 
shoe hares, and a gray squirrel. 

September. There is a note on the nature of viruses corroborating a sug- 
gestion made by Dr. Green in Science in 1935. A method of "Rapid diagnosis of 
canine distemper" by R. G. Green and C. A. Evans is reported; examination of 
smears of epithelial cells fron the bladder enables diagnosis within an hour. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

A second article on botulism presents the results of autopsies of 8 positive 
cases, representing 6 species, and emphasizes the dependence of the bacillus 
upon deccnposed organic (especially plant) natter. Pathological reports relate 
to 4 snowshoe hares, a flicker, and a. ruffed grouse. 

October. Contains a special article on grouse populations abstracted 
elsewhere (Ecology: Census methods, p. 26} and the usual pathological reports, 
relating this tine to 5 snowshoe hares, and one each of pintail, blue-winged 
teal, pheasant, and blue jay. 

Diseases and Parasites: Papillonatosis in deer 

Chaddock, T. T . Epithelial papillomas reported in deer, Wisconsin 
Conservation Bui. (Wisconsin Conservation Dept. , Madison), 4(2), Peb. 1939, 
pp. 31-32, 1 photo. 

Description and illustration of extensive benign tumors. The aninal, 
which was shot, "was in very good condition." 

Diseases and Parasites: Passer donesticus carrying poultry parasites 

Hoyle, Wn. L . Transnission of poultry parasites by birds with 
spocial reference to the "English" or house sparrow and chickens, Kansas 
Acad. Sci. (Topcka) Trans. 41, 1938, pp. 379-384. 

Review of published reports of the occurrence of ectoparasites of poultry 
on Passer donesticus . Statement of the author 's findings fron examination of 
these birds and their nests; both classes of material yielded chicken parasites. 
In experiments, the lice were transmitted from chicken to sparrow through dust 
baths, lived as long as 9 days on the sparrow and reproduced there. "The 
evidence at hand indicates that the common 'English' or house sparrow is a 
source for transmission of poultry parasites such as nitos, lice, and sticktight 
fleas from an infested flock of chickens tc one noninfested. " 

Diseases and Parasites : _ Po rosis 

Bass, C. C . Occurrence of slip tendon in quail in close confinement, 
Came Breeder & Sportsman (205 E. 42nd St., New York, N, Y. , 20 cents a copy), 
42(8), August 1938, p. 123. 

The occurrence of porosis in both the bobwhite quail and Oregon mountain 
quail held in close confinement is noted. The addition of a small amount of 
manganese or 15 percent of rice polish, or both, to a perosis-producing basal 
ration prevented the occurrence of this disorder. (Courtesy Experiment Station 

Diseases and Parasites: Persimmon wilt 

Beattie, R. Kent, and Bowen S. Crandall . Disease attacks the per- 
simnon, American Forests (919 Seventeenth St. , N. W. , Washington, D. C. , 
35 cents a copy), 45(3), pp. 120-121, 124, 5 photos. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

Wilt, first reported from Tennessee, is now known also from 5 
other southern states. The most striking symptoms ere wilting end yellowing of 
the leaves end the fo met ion of fine brownish-black streaks in 5-6 outer annual 
rings of the trunk. The causal organism is an unidentified species of Cephalo- 
sporiun ; its spores ere readily carried by the wind. The susceptibility of 
different species of persimmon is discussed. Persirxion is useful in erosion 
control duo to its ability to pioneer on certain worn-out soils. Its fruit 
furnishes a considerable food supply for wildlife. Pages 122-123, enclosed by 
this article, contain an illustrated general account of the persinnon by G. H. 
Collingwood, who also refers to the value of the fruit to wildlife. 

Diseases and Parasites: Ra bies 

Guilford, H. M . Rabies prevalent, Wisconsin Conservation Bui. 
(Dept. of Conservation, Madison, Wis.), 3(11), Nov. 1938, pp. 30-31. 

A number of foxes and skunks fron the southwestern part of Wisconsin hevc 
been found infected with rabies. Populer account of the disease and suggestions 
for avoidance and treatment. 

Diseases and Parasites: Sarcocystis 

Gower, Carl . A new host end locality record for Sarcocystis rileyi 
(Stiles 1893), Journ. Parasitology (Science Press, Lancaster, Pa.), 25(4), 
Aug. 1938, p. 378. 

Black duck, Michigan. Notes on previous reports and results of autopsies. 

Diseases and Parasites: Shock disease 

Green, R. G. , and C. L. Larson . A description of shock disease in 
the snowslioe hare, Aoer. Journ, Hygiene (Prince and Lenon Sts. , Lancaster, 
Pa.), 28(2), Sept. 1938, pp. 190-212, 1 pi. , 3 tables. 

Reference to cycles particularly that of the hare with note on discovery 
of shock disease and reasons for the name. Description of the investigation 
and of the disease, its recognition, symptoms, and pathology. Authors' con- 
clusions: "While our present knowledge of shock disease is inadequate, it seems 
sufficient, in relation to our systematic investigation, to permit the conclu- 
sion that this disease is truly the mechanism of the periodic decimation of 
hares, x x x We have definite evidence to show that shock disease is caused by 
local conditions and also evidence that the causal factors are associated with 
the immediate environment, probably tho ground itself. At this time investiga- 
tions on the causative factor indicate that an assumption that some toxic agent, 
associated with a parasite, might cause tho disease is not unreasonable. A 
roundworm undergoing developmental stages in the lung tissue might be the source 
of a toxic agent which could produce such a derangement as we describe in shock 
disease. Other endoparasites, ectoparasites, and synthalin, which is derived 
from food plants must, however, be considered among the possible sources of 
shock disease. 

"During the periodic decimation of tho snowshoe hare population in the 
northern hemisphere, hares apparently in full health suddenly develop grave 



WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

symptoms and expire. Brought under conditions of captivity during tho sharp 
period of decline, most hares succurib within a few days. We have come' to refer 
to this condition as shock disease, as the symptoms and death are stimulated to 
appear by the stress of trapping or captivity, and the syriptons are generally 
due to hypoglycemic shock. The basis of the hypoglycemia has been discovered 
to be liver damage and resultant failure of glycogen storage. Shock disease 
has been found widespread in snowshoo hares in Minnesota during several yea] 
previous to end following 1936. Tho fact that deaths of hares from shock 
disease have been observed under natural conditions indicates that deaths i] 
captivity are but an exaggeration of the occurrence and mortality of this 
disease in nature." 

Diseases and Parasites: Sickle- coll anemia 

Dougherty, R. W . Sickle cells in the blood of western deer, Journ. 
Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalane, National Park Service, Washington, 
D. C. , 75 cents a copy), 3(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 17-18. 

Author's abstract: "Sickle-cell anemia in a black-tailed deer was first 
found in Oregon during the summer of 1938. Further investigation revealed that 
the condition was present in all the black-tailed deer available but not in 
mule deer or in a black- tailed X mule deer cross. "Wright's stain, moist cover 
slip preparations, and supra- vital techniques wore used in making the blood 

Diseases and Parasites: Sickle- cell anemia 

Whitlock, S. C. Studies on the blood of white-tailed door, Journ. 
Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalane, National Park Service, Washington, 
D. C, 75 cents a copy), 3(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 14-16. 

Author's abstract: "The red blood colls of some white- tailed deer 
exhibit morphological changes that have been conparod to tho sickling phenomenon 
of human erythrocytes in sickle -cell anemia. The process was found to be 
similar but not identical. No pathological changes wore found which could be 
correlated with the condition. Cell counts, hemoglobin determinations, serun 
analysis for calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium, tissuo examination, weekly 
weight changes, and daily food consumption were used as means of investigation. 
Observations were made on twenty captive animals and sixty autopsies were per- 
formed in studying the situation. The change in coll norphology is looked upon 
more as a physiologic characteristic of deer erythrocytes rather than an 
evidence of disease." 

Diseases and Parasites: Of starling 

Cannon, D . . On the parasites of tho snail intestine of the 
European starling ( Sturnus vulgaris ) in Quebec, Canadian Field-Naturalist 
(582 Mariposa Ave., Rockcliffe Park, Ottawa, Canada, 25 cents a copy), 
53(3), March 1939, pp. 40-42. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 . ./'•?.. 'April, 1939 

Records from the literature of which 9 titles are cited. Notes on exami- 
nation .of Canadian specimens which .yielded 2 kinds of cestodes and one nematode 
the latter described as a new variety, Capillaria . columbae var. >sturni . 

Diseases and Parasites: Tapeworms in rabbits . . 

Whitlock, S. C* , and Carl Power . Tapeworms in .rabbits, Michigan 
Conservation (Dept, of Conservation, Lansing, Mich.}, 8(2), Oct. 1938, p. 8. 

"Blisters" in the body cavity of a rabbit contain larval stages of a 
tapeworm of dogs. Cottontails in the Lower Peninsula are 75$ infected. They 
do not spoil the rabbits for human food but feeding carcasses or entrails raw 
to dogs is largely responsible for the great prevalence of the worm. 

Diseases and Parasites: Ticks 


Philip, Cornelius B . Ticks as vectors of animal diseases, Canadian 
Entomologist (Guelph, Ontario, Canada), .71(3), March 1939, pp. 55-65, 
tables. ; 

Discussion of tick habits, distribution, and hosts and their role in 
disease- transmission, with lists of the pathogens naturally or experimentally 
carried by ticks, and tick-borne diseases in all the continents. For North 
America there are 10, half of which are known to affect wildlife. 

Diseases and Parasites: Tre m atodes 

Paul, Allard A . Lifo history studies of North American fresh- water 
polystomes, Journ. Parasitology (Science Press, Lancaster, Pa.), 24(6), 
Dec. 1938, pp. 489-510, 3 pis., 1 table. 

Review .of literature of monogenetic trematodes with description and" 
illustrations of a new subspecies from tree frogs ( Hyla ) and of a new species 
from a terrapin ( Chrysemys ) and notes on their life histories. Bibliography of 
32 titles. 

Diseases and Parasites: Trematodes of Anatidae 

Cannon, D. G. Some trcmatode parasites of ducks and geese in eastern 
Canada, Canadian Journ. Research (National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada, 
25 cents a copy), 16-Section 0-9, Sept. 1938, pp. 268-279, 9 figs., 1 table. 

Distributional notes, descriptive details, and illustrations of 8 species, 
two recorded from America for the first time, and one described as new. This is 
Stephanoprora mergi from the American merganser. Bibliography of 18 titles. 

Diseases and Parasites: Trematodes of ducks 

Gower, W. Carl . Studies on the trematodo parasites of ducks of 
Michigan with special reference to the mallard, Agri. Expt. Sta. , Michigan 
State College (East Lansing, Mich.), Memoir 3, 94 pp., 2 pis., 1 fig. 
June 1938. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, "1939 

Notes on the sGope of the work and methods used. There are accounts of 
the genera and species identified in Michigan, each including history, names of 
hosts, and flescriptive details. There is a key to 9 species of Mari trema and 
descriptions of novelties including A mphimeru s elongatus n. sp, , Mari trema 
nettae n. sp. , and L eucochloridiomorph a macrocotyle n. g. and sp. A key is 
presented to the genera of trematodes known from ducks, as well as diagnoses of 
families and genera, and an annotated check list of the species. There is also 
a list of duck trematodes by hosts, a bibliography of 189 titles, and an index. 

Diseases and Parasites: Trematodes, Reniferinae 

Byrd, Elon E. , and J. Fred Denton . New trematodes of the subfamily 
Reniferinae, with a discussion of the systematics of the genera and species 
assigned to the subfamily group, Journ. Parasitology (Science Press, 
Lancaster, Pa.), 24(5), Oct. 1938, pp. 379-401, 17 figs. 

History, diagnosis, and key to 8 genera of these snake parasites, 2 new. 
Keys to species of all the genera, of which 7 are described as new. Discussion, 
phylogeny, illustrations, and bibliography of 11 titles. 

Diseases and Parasites: Tularemia a bar to importation of rabbits 

Whitlock, S. C . Danger of spreading tularemia one good reason against 
importation of rabbits for restocking purposes, Michigan Conservation (Dept. 
of Conservation, Lansing, Mich.), 8(6), Feb. 1939, pp. 5, 7. 

In Michigan tularemia is known to affect, among other species, the ruffed 
grouse, cottontail rabbit, snowshoe hare, and man, the last-named being among 
the most susceptible. While tularemia is known to be a serious disease of 
cottontails in some localities, it is not known to have been epidemic in 
Michigan. Of 50 human cases reported from 1935-38, "a considerable percentage" 
were traceable to rabbits shipped into the State from the west. Although the 
risk of infection is slight, suggestions are given as to avoiding the handling 
of light, out-of -condition, or. sickly rabbits. Symptoms of the disease in man 
are described and instructions given for victims. The danger of increasing the 
incidence of tularemia among Michigan rabbits is one of the strongest arguments 
against importation of cottontails. Alarming outbreaks of human tularemia in 
Illinois and Missouri in 1938 are referred to and the statement made that 
Michigan State Departments of Health, Agriculture, and Conservation "have taken 
a stand against importing rabbits for restocking purposes." 

Diseases and Parasites: Of wild animals 

Cameron, Thomas W. M . Animal parasites of wild animals, XEIIth , 
International Veterinary Congress (Zurich-Interlaken,- Switzerland), 8(1), 
1938, pp. 13-22. 

While a very high percentage of wild animals harbor parasites, resultant 
disease, which depends on massive infestation, is the exception rather than the 
rule. Localization and concentration of animals are important factor's in build- 
ing up parasite populations. This occurs rather rarely in nature but more 
frequently under conditions creatod by man. Effects notod in zooldgical gardens, 


WILDLIFE REVEErf: No, 19 April, 1939 

on fur and gcme ferms, at fish Hatcheries, and in wildlife ro serrations ere dis- 
cussed. A few parasites known to 'be of importance in the wild are named. 
Transfer of parasites from wild to domestic animals and to man is exemplified. 
The need for research and surveys is emphasized and technique adopted by the 
Institute of Parasitology in Canada described. 

Ecology: Biologic balance, agriculture i in relation to 

Holt, Ernest G . What is a biologically balanced farm?, Soil Con- 
servation (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. , 10 cents a copy), 4(9), 
March 1939, pp. 206-208, 2 figs. 

Discussion of biologic balance, always a fluctuating one, that has been 
greatly disturbed by the activities of civilized man. Humans do not like to 
take the blame, so complain of rodent destruction of the range when, livestock 
overgrazing is the real cause of the trouble. Isolated farms are more subject 
to damage by wildlifo than these in blocks including little natural environment. 
On the other hand clean farming eliminates wildlifo and deprives the farmer of 
its services in reducing insect pests. It also brings 'on erosion that may ruin 
the land. Some sort of return to biologic balance may be achieved by compensat- 
ing for the necessarily destructive processes of farming by constructive and 
protective measures. These may combine erosion control and improved wildlife 
conservation with production of a reasonable volume of agricultural crops and 
upbuilding of soil fertility. 

EcolQgy: Bi o logic balance, hedges in relation to 

Enlow, C. R. Hedges conserve soil and wildlife, Soil Conservation 
(Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. , 10 cents a copy), 4(9), March 1939, 
pp. 209, 223. 

Hedges in Prance and Great Britain encourage a heavy population of small 
birds. These growths serve also as fences and help to control erosion; they 
should be planted on contours. "It has been stated that hedges harbor insects 
that attack crops. This may be true in some instances; but it must be admitted 
that they furnish protection for birds and predacious insects that feed on many 
insect pests. It seems to mo that the planting of hedges within the limits of 
practicability and common sense would be a step toward restoring nature's 
balance on agricultural lands." 

Ecology; Biotic districts of Oklahoma 

Blair, W. F. , and T. H. Hubboll . The biotic districts of Oklahoma, 
American Midland Naturalist (Notre Dame, Indiana, $1.00 a copy), 20(2), 
Sept. 1933, pp. 425-454, 1 nap, 1 table. 

Description of biotic districts and their plant associations together 
with lists of their orthoptera and mammals. Zonation is predominantly east-west 
indicating that precipitation, not temperature, is tho most important control- 
ling factor. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

Ecology: Census pj California sea lions 

B omiot, Paul, G. H. Clark, and S. Ross Hat ton . California sea lion 
census for 1938, California Fish and Game (Ferry Bldg. , San Francisco, 
Calif.), 24(4), Oct. 1938, pp. 415-419, fig. 140, 3 tables. 

Report on 5 surveys made from 1927 to 1938, inclusive. Although commer- 
cial and sporting interests claim that a groat increase in the animals has 
occurrred in recent years, the claim is not supported by the censuses. Present 
law gives the animals complete protection and no evidence of systematic viola- 
tions was found. Tables present the details of counts by localities and for 2 
species cf sea lions. "The California sea lion population is not increasing. 
The depredations of the animals are nowhere as extensive as is claimed, and for 
the present there seems to be no reason to reduce their numbers. M 

Ecology: Census methods 

Green, R. G. , et al . Grouse populations, Minnesota Wildlife Disease 
Investigation (Dept. of Bacteriology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), 
Oct. 1938, pp. 74-76, 2 figs., 1 table, mimeographed. 

Description of the strip-walking method and 2 patterns followed (these 
are figured) together with explanation and sample of the formula used in calcu- 
lating populations. Tabulation and discussion of results for 7 years. Im- 
plausible variations in results led to careful consideration of the entire 
situation and to the conclusion "that, on areas which are not homogeneous in 
topography and cover, the strip-walking method of censusing has no advantage 
over mere observation by a trainod field-man, and that a numerical designation 
assigned to the population on a basis of the strip-walking method implies an 
accuracy that cannot be justified." 

Ecology: Census methods, elk 

La Nouo, Francis D . Census of the Yellowstone elk herd, University 
of Idaho (Moscow), Bui. 33f22), Dec. 1938, pp. 42-43. 

"Factors conducive to accuracy in a count are: (1) Favorable weather; 
(2) a concentration on the winter range; (3) an ample number of experienced 
observers who know the country; (4) a sharply defined organization of the 
ground." Each observer is assigned a definite area; all are assembled before 
the count and the plan discussed as well as afterwards to bring out any possiblo 
duplications or misses that may have occurred. 

Ecology: Census methods, fur animals 

Hanerstrom, F. N. , Jr. , and James Blake . A fur study technique, 
Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalane, National Park Service, 
Washington, D. C. , 75 cents a copy), 3(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 54-59, 2 figs. 

Authors' abstract: "The method, designed for ditch- and stream- dwelling 
furboarers on a 100,000 acre area in central Wisconsin, consisted of repeated 
surveys. Fur sign was mapped, by species, by the use of symbols (reproduced in 


WILDLIFE #5VTEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

the paper). Notes on animals soon, mortality, foods, water levels, etc., were 
taken. Field maps were transferred to large-scale base maps for permanent 
record. The 200 miles of ditches and streams were covered by two crows of two 
men oach in 17 days. 

"Five surveys wore made between May 1936 and August 1937. Tho survey 
data, summarized in the paper, showed where the animals were at different sea- 
sons, exactly where range improvement was necessary, where not needed, where 
impracticable, and what factors needed to be manipulated; where refuges should 
be placed. On an area too large to census and lacking kill records, abundance 
and distribution of sign can be used in ompirical regulation of trapping. Sug- 
gestion: censuses of sample areas of heavy, medium, and light sign could bo 
applied to the mileage of inhabited shore shown on maps to give a more accurate 
population figure than the general estimates so often used." 

Ecology: Check-areas 

Hanson, Herbert C . Check-areas as controls in land use, Scientific 
Monthly (Lancaster, Pa., 50 cents a copy), 48(2), Feb. 1939, pp. 130-146, 
14 photos. 

Suggests the extension to land use problems cf the well known essential 
in scientific experimentation — controls. In this domain these would be suitable 
tracts of land and their employment is necessary if land utilization is to be 
based as fully as possible upon science. Relations of animals to soils are 
discussed and there is a section on "Control of rodents and carnivores" in which 
the suggestion is made that "attempted eradication should be delayed until 
accurate information is secured." The importance of check-areas is emphasized 
for all biological problems. 

Ecology: Clearings 

Lay, Daniel W . How valuable are woodland clearings to birdlife?, 
'Wilson Bui. (Dr. J. Vor. Tyne, University Museums, Ann Arbor, Mich., 60 cents 
a copy), 50(4), Dec. 1938, pp. 254-256, 1 table. 

Author's summary: "(1) Thirty-minute tine unit bird counts are useful 
for expressing the relative abundance of birds in two or more types; (2) an 
average thirty-minute walk in the margin of a Walker County, Texas, pine wood- 
land clearing may be expected to disclose 16 or 17 birds of 6 or 7 species. A 
similar walk in the interior of woodland more than 100 yards from the edge of a 
clearing discloses 8 or 9 birds of 4 or 5 species; (3) the margins of clearings 
have 95 per cent more birds representing 41 per cent more species than the 
interiors of corresponding woodland; (4) in tho management of pine woodland the 
provision of well scattorod, snail (less- than- thirty-acro) clearings is dis- 
tinctly favorable to birdlife." 

Ecology; Cover preferences of pheasants 

Leody, Daniel L . Cover and its relation to pheasant production in 
Wood County, Ohio, Ohio Wildlife Research Station (Ohio State University, 
Columbus) Release 86, 6 pp., 1 fig., 4 tables, mimeographed, April 1, 1938. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1959 

Observations mde 1936-1938; "93$ of the area is in farms; less than 1% 
in unpastured woodland, and only 6.1$ in woodland (pastured and unpastured); the 
cover largely consists of cultivated crops and is subject to continuous altera- 
tions due to faming operations." A survey nade in 1937 indicated a 31$ mortal- 
ity of hen pheasants from nowing in hayf ields. Utilization of the different 
kinds of cover by seasons is described, tabulated, and graphed. Woods are used 
no st in winter, least in sunner, and nore by cocks than by hens. Woods, weeds ^ 
and grass, and corn arc frequented nore than stubble, hay, soybeans, oats, and 

Ecology: Deer, Idaho 

Mass, Fred H. The deer situation in northern Idaho, University of 
Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22) , Dec. 1938, pp. 30-34, 1 table. 

Mule deer about 50 percent of the entire population inhabit high eleva- 
tions of rugged topography, while the whitetails live on nore gentle slopes in 
heavy cover. Winter range is at present adequate. Agents contributing to 
natural losses, in the order of their apparent importance, are: Predatory 
animals, parasites, old age, disease, and accidents. "Light" control of preda- 
tors is practiced. There are notes on hunting and estimates of the deer popula- 
tion which seems to be steadily increasing. 

Ecology: Drainage 

Kenney, F. R. , end W. L. McAtee . The problem: Drained areas and 
wildlife habitats, U. S. Dept. Agriculture Yearbook 1938, pp. 77-83, 2 figs. 
Separate No. 1611, Jan. 1939, 8 pp., 2 figs. (So long as the supply lasts, 
copies nay be obtained free from the Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. ) 

Statistics and comment on drainage in relation to man by the first author 
and discussion of its wildlife relationships by the second. (An arbitrarily 
mixed, not a truly collaborated, article. ) The value of areas efficiently pro- 
ducing some wildlife resource often is not realized until too late*-after they 
are destroyed. Particularly is this true cf drainage projects where probable 
injurious effects either to wildlife or nan are rarely forecast or even thought 
of. The creation of farm fishponds and easement refuges in numbers, however, 
indicates a change both in sentiment and practice. Description of important 
restoration projects in the Federal migratory bird refuge program. There is 
comment also on upland wildlife restoration. 

Ecology: Effects of drouth on Microtus 

Wooster, L. D . The effects of drouth on rodent populations, Turtox 
News (General Biological Supply House, Inc., 761-763 East 69th Place, 
Chicago, 111.), 17(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 26-27, 1 fig. , 1 table. 

During a drouth period (1933-37) meadow mice practically disappeared from 
the vicinity of Hays, Kansas. Measured in frequency of occurrence in barn owl 
pellets (numbers not stated) examined at the beginning and during the drouth, 
meadow mice dropped from 15 to 1. Pocket mice and harvest mice were chiefly 
seized upon by the owls to make up the deficit. The tabulation shows food items 
and their number of occurrences in pellets collected in 1933 and 1935. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

Ecology: Elk-deer competition 

Case, George . The influonco of elk on door populations, University 
of Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Dec. 1938, pp. 25-27. 

"Originally, when the number of elk was snail, the doer occupied the areas 
of lesser snow depths on favorable exposures, and the elk stayed in sizeable 
bands higher up the sano exposure where the snow was fron 1 to 2 feet deeper. 
As tiio elk increased in numbers, they pushed back to naxinun snow depths and 
also encroached on normal deer winter range. Here the elk, being the larger and 
stronger aninals, wore able to roach higher and paw deeper snow to obtain ade- 
quate food. When the nunber s of the two aninals reached the point where feed 
becano scarce, then tho deer were the first to fool the pinch of undernourish- 
ment." Evidence is presented of the perishing of doer under these conditions, 
which also increase their vulnerability to predation. 

Ecology: Eur aninals 

Kolkor, George H . The relationship of fur-bearers to other wildlife, 
University of Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Dec. 1938, pp. 80-82. 

Ecological relationships, particularly in food-chains. 

Ecology: Mannals, Oklahoma 

Blair, W. Frank . Ecological relationships of the nannals of the 
Bird Creek region, northeastern Oklahona , Anorican Midland Naturalist 
(Notre Dane, Indiana, $1.00 a copy), 20(3), Nov. 1938, pp. 473-526, 12 
figs. , 3 tables. 

Description of the region and its ecological associations; annotated list 
of nannals; effects of drought; end population studies. "There is a tendency 
for the species that extend beyond the linits of their respective association 
types to be nodified [generally to a sufficient extent to] f 011:1 the basis for 
tho recognition of subspecies." Bibliography of 22 titles. 

Ecology: Mosquito control operations 

Bradley, G. H . A consideration of sone phases of the nosquito con- 
trol problen, Journ. Economic Entonology (E. N. Cory, College Park, Md., 
75 cents a copy), 32(1), Feb. 1939, pp. 110-112. 

The phases discussed are those related to wildlife conservation and 
restoration. Stressing that salt-nurshos vary greatly in character, the author 
says: "In discussing nosquito control, persons antagonistic to tho work usually 
stress conditions on those narshes whore the effect of ditching en wildlife 
habitats is nost severe, and inply that such conditions arc universal, whereas 
if such persons have any knowledge of narsh conditions in general they nust know 
that such implications are nisleading. Howovor, there is no question but that 
undesirable changes do occur en many marshes following ditching, and for this 
reason nosquito control should be justified on the basis of the actual relief 
fron mosquitoes and not on the lack of injury to narsh conditions or their 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

incidental improvement in certain cases as a result of the work." 

Where benefits do not clearly outweigh disadvantages, mosquito control 
should not be undertaken-. Careful record' should be made of conditions before, 
during, and after treatment so that the work may be discussed on a basis better 
than faulty memories. Mosquito control is a biological problem and should be 
under direction of men with training fitting them to understand the ecological 
problems involved. Cooperation of wildlife authorities should be sought in con- i 
nection with both preliminary surveys and operating plans. "This does not mean 
that, when a community has decided for mosquito control, it should be necessary 
to have the project approved by sportsmen's associations before work is started." 
Mosquito control officials do not desire to interfere needlessly with wildlife, 
and in Maryland, Delaware, and New Jersey are recommending "that no permanent 
marsh pond be ditched unless a considerable mosquito breeding area is affected 
by it," and then only by a -spur ditch, that can be closed later if conditions 
warrant. Remedial muasures are being applied also to ponds previously drained. 
The marshes so treated are improved for muskrat production. ' ■ 

"Mosquito-control men in New York, Rhode Island, Connecticut and various 
other states are now endeavoring to carry on their work in a manner that will 
affect wildlife on the marshes to the least extent possible, x x x It is 
believed by many conservationists familiar with marsh conditions that these 
marsh areas can be maintained without the sacrifice of essential and justifiable 
mosquito control correctly conducted, x x x The rapidly growing interest in con- 
servation and rehabilitation of wildlife feeding and breeding areas, however, 
demands that attention be given by mosquito control officials to this problem. 
On the other hand, there is a danger of producing serious mosquito problems by 
water impoundments for wildlife habitats and for erosion and flood control, and 
persons in charge of such projects should likewise give careful attention to the 
mosquito hazard involved in their work." 

Ecology: Mosquito control operations 

Glasgow, Robert D . Mosquitoes and wild life as interrelated problems 
in human ecology, New York State Mus. Bui. (Albany, N. Y. ) , 316, Sept. 1938, 
pp. 7-20. 

Discussion of the problem especially as involved in the enormous emergenc 
employment campaigns. Wildlife is referred to in paragraphs on draining and 
filling, oil and larvicide, biological control, salt marsh' ditching, upland con- 
trol an urban problem, and in a section on wildlife conservation. "Mosquito 
control and wild life conservation have largely been developed, each without 
reference to the other, as if they were wholly unrelated interests," but "con- 
stitute a group of problems that can be solved only by careful scientific study; 
not by partisan dispute." 

Ecology: Mosquito control operations 

Taylor, Norman . A preliminary report on the salt marsh vegetation of 
Long Island, New York, New York State Mus. Bui. (Albany, N. Y. ) 316, Sept. 
1938, pp. 21-84, 18 figs., 1 map. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

Complete forri of paper noticed in WILDLIFE REVIEW No. 15, July 1938, p. 
12. The bulk of the account is descriptive of the marshes and their ecology 
with special reference to depth of the water table below the surface and to 
salinity under the narsh. In discussing nosquito control, the author makes a 
distinction between the drainage of fresh water environments (which he deplores) 
and the ditching of salt marshes. The ditching is described and its physical 
and chenical effects appraised. The author's conclusions are: 

•"1. Ditching has rude no fundamental change in the makeup of the salt 
:.arsh vegetation because ditching has not changed materially an environment 
predicated upon a very constant factor — the character and level of the salt 
water under the narsh. 

"2. The undoubted changes that have cere along the edges of the ditches 
appear to be due to conditions of aeration, freedom from competition and the 
changes in the hydrogen-ion concentration of the peat stacked up along the 
ditches. Such changes affect only plants of secondary succossional significance, 
and the effects of such changes are about as important as the edging along a 
perennial garden border, the contents of which nay be permanent, while the edging, 
like that along the ditches, may be changed from season to season. The only 
exception to this is marsh elder (Iva ox -ari a) , which, once it has captured a line 
of ditch, appears to stay. But there are idles of ditch where marsh elder x x x 
has not come in, even after nearly i'O years of ditching. 

"There is one final caution to bo observed in uci .• these data. . They 
apply only to the area studied. Whethor ditching aroas with a greater tidal 
range, or of different soils, or with different plants in them would provide 
similar results is purely speculative. There seems to bo some evidence that 
tides of greater magnitude provide such a different set of conditions from 
those found on the south shore of Long Island, that 'ditching in such marshes 
night well result in very different conclusion* than those presented here." 

Ecology: Plant indic at ors 

Sampson, Arthur W . Plant indicators — concept and status, Botanical 
Review (Fordham P. 0., New York, N. Y. ) , 5(3), March 1939, pp. 155-206. 

Wildlife managers must appraise vegetation, or in other words, make use of 
plant indicators; they should be interested in this resume of the subject. The 
main headings are: The indicator concept; plant guide to land use problems; 
range indicators; forest and soil indicators; plant indicators and chronology; 
and conclusions. Excerpts from the latter are: "The consensus x x x is that 
communities of plants are more reliable indicators than are individual species, 
x x x At present the grazing indicators ire the best understood and the most 
extensively and successfully used, x x x In the future a broader use of indica- 
tor communities and species is likely, but such use is sure to be backed by 
sounder evidences than it has at this tine. Preceding this possible broadened 
use there must first be more critical study of the growth requirements of both 
the indicator plant and the economic species; only then will the indicator con- 
cept reach its niaximun reliance." There is a bibliography of 142 titles. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

Ecology; Populations 

Bureau of Animal Population (Oxford University, England), Annual 
Report 1937-38, 36 pp., 1939. 

The report includes a general review of the year's work, statement of 
grants in aid, list of the staff and changes thorein, accounts of research, game 
research, North American x/ildlifc inquiries, and other investigations, list of 
publications by the staff, and notes on the library and its activities. The 
introductory discussion, doubtless by the Director (Charles Elton), includes a 
synopsis of factors to be taken into consideration in population studios, 8 
items of which specify stages in life-histories at which censuses may bo made, 
5 list reproductive elements in population control, and 9, types of mortality. 
An organization chart is devoted to the structure of population research. The 
study of vole populations is reported on in some detail as to censuses, both of 
natural and narked populations, effocts of voles on vegetation, development of 
a laboratory stock of this species, end epidemiology. A good deal of the work 
on game and ether investigations has been reportod upon in prpers that have 
already been bstractod in WILDLIFE REVIEW. 

Ecology: Population. 1 - , brant in California 

Moffitt, James . Eighth annual black brant census in California, 
California Fish aiid Game (Ferry Bldg. , San Francisco, Calif,), 24(4), 
Oct. 1938, pp. 341-346. 

Report for the year and for a series of years beginning with 1931. The 
1938 census yielded about en average figure. The results, discussed by areas, 
seem to be affected by many variables. An accompanying paper by Donald H. 
Fry, Jr., "Brant census of San Q,uontin Bay, Lower California" (pp. 347-349, 
figs. 112-113), gives results for an additional area in Mexico. 

Ecology: Survival of nestlings 

Hero, Casimir . Marsh bird community study, The Flickor (427 Eighth 
Ave,, S. E. , Minneapolis, Minn.), 10(3-4), Doc. 1938, pp. 1-3. 

Ecology of a sandfill in Minnesota; general notes and tabulations showing 
the number of nests and eggs and their fates for red-winged blackbirds, sora and 
Virginia rails, .and song sparrows. 

Economics: Fur animals, Texas 

Lay, Dan W . Fur resources of eastern Texas, Texas Game, Fish, and 
Oyster Commission (Austin, Tex.) Bui, 15, 7 pp., Feb. 1939. 

Author's summary: "(1) The average income of trappers in a typical 
county (Walker) in eastorn Texas for the fur trapping season 1936-37 was $57.58; 
(2) the $5,000 to $7,000 fur income of the county goes to the people who need it 
most, This cash income, received during December and January, keeps many 
families off relief rolls and has an appreciable effect on trado; (3) populations 
of raccoon and mink in eastern Texas are fairly high in favorable spots but the so 


hTLDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1930 

species are becomiiv: incro. sin-ly serrce. Those high populations surest that 
under prop 3r management tho fur resources can bo naintaincd; (4) muskrats pro- 
duced the balk of the fur incaao of approximately ^200,000 the winter of 1936 i: 
tliroc coastal countic;s, Jefferson, Chambers, and Orange." 

E c on or A o s : Insects , r.iit es, and tides 

Hyslop, J. A . Losses occasioned by insects, mites, and ticks in the 
United States, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine (U. S. Dept. Agri- 
culture, Washington, D. C), 57 pp., 13 tables, uultilithed, 1938. 

Wildlife students frequently have need of estimates of damage by insects. 
This is the- nost conplote review of the subject that has boon published and the 
figures reached are inpressivo. Tho material is presorted according to groups 
of croj plants end their principal pests, and to miscall' acous posts including 
those of animals. Annual losses chargeable to mosquitoes, for instance, 
$145,?2b,000. The grand total for all pests, including control costs, is 

Econom ic s; Rabbit, Jack 

Sau g s t ad , St anXo y . Tho jack rabbit v rir -s money to North Dakota, 
North Dakota Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. (Fnra;o, N. Dab.) 1(4), March 1939, 
pp. 8-10. 

Fur for use in the felt industry and carcasses for food of animals on 
fur fams are in considerable denand, brincing to the State annually not less 
than $100,000. Details of sales in 1936-37 and 1937-38 are tabul .ted. 

Education: Conservati o n 

Caldwell, John C . Taking conservation into tho schools, Pennsylvania 
Gone Nows (Pennsylvania G?me Commission, Bh.rrisbu.rg, 10 cents a copy), 9(10), 
Jan. 1939, pp. 14-15, 28-29, 3 photos. 

Methods used by Tennessee Department of Conservation first in interostin - 
and training teachers and then in extending the- work to the schools. 

jghiKmtin.: Conservation 

P onton, Carre 1 1 Laiao. Conservati;::: torching — a panel discussion, 
Scientific Monthly (Lancaster, Pp.., 50 cents a copy), 48(2), Feb. 1939, 
pp. 190-191. 

Summary of papers on this subject ;ivc: at the meetings of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science and affiliated societies at Richmond, 
Va. , in December 1938. Radio effectively teachos science in the grades. 
Science education must be planned for its social as well as its cultural values. 
Compulsory courses in conservation are likely to Co more harm than good. They 
may be squeezed into already crowded schedules and taught "oy unprepared teachers 
"Such courses make a bad impression upon students, and that bad impression is 


"WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 19 April, 1939 

likely to continue into their adult lives. Equally bad is the systen by which 
visiting speakers from, sportsman's organizations lecture to grade school chil- 
dren on conservation. Most of these speakers are hunters, not conservationists; 
they are interested in destroying rather than saving; they lack thorough under- 
standing of the nany phases of conservation and the extent to which those 
phases interlock." In Tennessee, travelling exhibits and denonstrations carry 
their nessage to schools and even to unorganized groups. Each visit is intended, 
however, to begin a conservation project. Once such a project is begun, there i. 
no need for a law to force the teaching of conservation. 

Education: Conservation 

T^ionas, W . Stephen . How a nuscun serves conservation, Pennsylvania 
Game News (Pennsylvania Gone Commission, Harrisburg, 10 cents a copy), 
9(10), Jan. 1939, pp. 18-19, 28, 4 photos. 

Program of the Acadeny of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia involving 
museum, exhibits and conducted classes, radio talks, and nature walks. 

Education : _ Ext on 3 ion 

P.L- jr, C. M. , Jr . Putting the facts to work, American Wildlife 
(Investment Bldg.~, Washington, D. C, 25 cents a copy), 27(5), Sept. -Oct. 
1938, pp. 84-85. 

Outline of lectures and radio talks given by men of the Cooperative 
Wildlife Research Units in several states. A table sunnari ze s other activities. 

Education: 4-H bird clubs 

Swenk, M. H . Nebraska 4-H bird club normal, Nebraska Agr. Expt. Sta. 
(Lincoln), Extension Circ. 5-01-2, 63 pp., 73 figs., 5 tables, Sept. 1938. 

Objectives of 4-H bird clubs are stated, and suggestions are given by 
months of special topics for study and action. Brief accounts and illustra- 
tions pave the way toward acquaintance with some 40 species of birds. The 
tables present data on the food habits of hawks and owls, on ni ^rations of 36 
common Nebraska birds, and on bird houses and other devices for attracting birds. 

Education: Pheasant manag en ent for 4-H clubs 

Hill, Russell G . 4-H pheasant propagation and management project, 
Michigan State College (East Lansing, Mich.), Extension Division, Club Bui. 
36, 35 pp., 18 figs., 3 tables, Oct. 1938. 

This bulletin opens with a statement of the requirements for a project 
and suggestions of things to do and what to discuss in meetings for every month. | 
Instructions are given for the care of chicks. Recognition of cover values and 
the maintenance of cover occupy one section of the publication and means of 
supplying food, another. In connection with these, one table lists trees, 
shrubs, and vines, their cover and food values, and soil preferences, while a 
second is devoted to food patch plants, their value, soil requirements, and 



April, 1939 

methods of cultivation. Feeding stations also are well discussed and illus- 
trated. Other sections of the work relate to the use of flushing bars, to game 
census on the farm, fire as a destroyer of wildlife, predators, and harvesting. 
There is a list of .17 publications recommended to 4-H club members. 

Educ ation: For wildlife management 

H osley, N. W . , Chairman. Report of the committee on game management 
with reference to forestry, Journ. Forestry (Mills Bldg. , Washington, D. C, 
50 cents a copy), 37(2), Feb. 1939, pp. 130-131. 

At present one or more game management courses are taught in 23 colleges 
of which 19 offer graduate instruction. Review of their heterogeneous courses 
is not a practical method of defining what training for wildlife management 
should be, so the Committee records its views. In answer to the question, "Is 
wildlife management comparable to forest management in the sense that it is an 
art based on a body of classified knowlodgc, principles, and practices worthy of 
being sot apart from pure vertebrate zoology as a separate entity?," the answer 
is a unanimous, Yes. The next question was: "Should an appreciation of wild- 
life management principles be a part of the training of a junior member of the 
Society" of American Foresters?. Again the answer was Wholly affirmative. As 
to "What part in wildlife management can we expect the man to play who has only 
undergraduate training," the general fueling was that no very responsible tasks 
could be given such men and that one year of postgraduate work is likely to be 
more fruitful than any previous one. [Comment: Like other reports on the sub- 
ject, this is inclined to forget that we are not yet an entirely collegiate 
crowd and to ignore the value of self -education and experience. The Committee 
forgets that our leading practicing wildlife manager and author of the book 
that first put the subject on a firm foundation in this country, had no college 
training whatever. Just to rivet this impression, let it be recalled that the 
Dean of the Graduate School of Johns Hopkins University, cne of the foremost 
institutions of its kind, is no college graduate. The A.B. or its like may mean 

much or little but wjiat the man can do means everything.] 



The Committee protests against the/filling of responsible wildlife 
manageiaen 1 ; positions with untrained men. ; Forestry, zoology, or land use train- 
ing are considered good bases for wildlife management education; the approach 
through applied, rather than research, biology is deemed bast. A list is given 
of courses considered essential to a well-rounded curriculum for training in 
wildlife management. 


Barabash-Nikif orov, I, 
Bass, C. C. 
Beat tie, R. Kent 
Beaudette, F. R. 
Bell, J. Frederick 
Bennett, Byron L. 




Blair, W. Frank 
Blake , Jame s 
Bond, Richard M. 
Bonnot, Paul 
Borell, Adrey E. 
Bought on, Donald C. 

25, 29 




Brackett, Sterling 


Bradley, G. H. 


Byrd, Elon E. 

17, 24 

Caldwell, John C. 


Cameron, Thomas W. M. 


Cannon, D. G. 

22, 23 

Carhart, Arthur H. 


Case, George 


Chaddock, T. T. 


Chapman, H. H. 


Chitty, Dennis 


Clark, G. H. 


Crandall, Bowen S. 


Day, Albert I . 


Denton, J. Fred 


Dougherty, R. W. 


Dymond, J. R. 


Egbert, George L. 


Elton, Charles 


Enlow, C. R. 


Erickson, Arnold B. 

12, 15 

Errington, Peul L. 


Evans, C. A. 


Feldman, Wm. H. 


Fenton, Carroll Lane 


Fredine, Gordon 


Frison, Theodore H. 


Gabrielson, Ira N. 

2, 9 

Gaines, Stanley H. 


Girard, George L. 


Glasgow, Robert D. 


Glover, Katherine 


Gower, Carl 

18, 21, 23 

Green, R. G. 16, 

19, 21, 26 

Guilford, H. M. 


Hall, I. C. 


Hamer strom, F. N. , Jr. 


Hamilton, W. J. , Jr. 


Haxicon, Herbert C. 


Hetton, S. Ross 


Herman, Carlton M. 


Kc^o, (j;si::iir 


Hill, Russell G. 


Holt, Ernest G. 


Hosley, N. W. 


April, 193< 



Hoyle, Wm. L. 


Hubbell, T. H. 


Hurley, Richard J. 


Hyslop, J. A. 


Jackson, C. F. 


Jungherr, Erwin 


Kelker, George H. 


Kenney, F. R. 


Krauch, Hermann • 


La Noue, Francis D. 


Larson, C. L. 


Lascellos, Tony 


Lay, Daniel W. 

27, 32 

Lecdy, Daniel L. 


Ligon, J. Stokley 


LuLilay, Ellsworth D. 


Marshall, William H. 


Mass, Fred H. 


McAtoc, W. L. 


McDermid, A. M. 


Moffitt, James 


Murphy , Rob art ' Cu shman 

4, 5 

Cdlaug, Theron 0. 


Olivier, Louis 


Osgood, Frederick L. , Jr. 


Palmer, C. IT. , Jr. 


Paul, Allard A. 


Philip, Cor.iolius B. 

13, 15, 23 

Sampson, Arthur W, 


Saugstad, Stanley 


Scott, Thos. G. 


Sellards, Andrew W. 


Shantz, H. L. 


Simmons, Jones R. 


Stuvensou, Donald D. 

12 1 

Stilus, G. J. 


Swonk, M. H. 


Taylor, Norman 


Taylor, Walter P. 


Thomas, W, Stephen 


Travis, Bernard V. 

16 ' 

Tyzzor, Ernest E. 


Yolk, Joseph J. 

17, 18 

Whitlock, S. C. 18, 

22, 23, 24 

Willett, G. 


Woostor, L. D. 












Food- habits: 


Birds, miscellaneous . . . 


Bob-white and pheasant . . 
Door damage to conifer 


Deer damage to pine . . . 

Deer and elk 


Grit requirements .... 

Grouse, Ruffed 

Hare, Snowshoo , in relation 

to forests 

Hawks and owls 


Legumes, utilization of by 



Merganser, ^jncrican . . . 
Merganser, Red-breasted 
Nutritional value of pinon 


Owl, Barn 

Owl, Great horned .... 

Owl, Short- eared 

Partridge , European . . . 


Snail (Polygyra) 

Squirrel, Rod 

Squirrel damage to spruce 
Utilization of fruits of 

woody plants 

Water birds 

Life histories 






abstracts — Com 



Big game 

Bob -white 


Correlation of pest control 
and soil conservation 

Doer, White-tailed .... 

Deer in Michigan 

Electric fence in 


Farm game 

Farmer- sportsman relation- 

Feed patches 

Field borders 

Forest management and wi ld- 
life management 

Forest wildlife 

Fur animals 


General, Ohio 


Harvesting farm game . . . 

Harvesting pheasants . . . 

Herd regulation 

Inventory, fur animals . . 

Inventory, Wisconsin lakes 

Land utilization program . 

Leasing shooting rights . , 

Logging in relation to wild- 

Marsh and aquatic plants 


Author index for this issue . . . 





Washington, D. C. 

No. 20 

May, 1939 

WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

Food H abits: Bats 

Sherman, H. B . Notes on the food of some Florida bats, Journ. 
Mammalogy (Wra. B. Davis, College Station, Texas, $1.00 a copy), 20(1), 
Feb. 1939, pp. 103-104, 1 table. 

Notes on the stonach contents of 11 individuals of 4 species. 
Food Habits: Bi rdSj^misc ellan eous 

Cott am, Cla r ence , and Phoebe Khap pen . Food of some uncommon North 
American birds, Auk (Rudyerd Boulton, Field Museum, Chicago, 111., $1.00 a 
copy), 56(2), April 1939, pp. 138-169, 6 tables. 

Information on 47 uncommon, rare, or extinct species based on 239 stomach 
analyses and on literature, 44 titles cited. The fullest accounts relate to the 
emperor goose, European wigeon, masked bob-white, passenger pigeon, large-billed 
sparrow, and Bottcri's sparrow. 

F ood Habits: Bo b -white and pheasant 

Bonno tt_,_ Logan J. , and P.^ F. English . The fall foods of ringneck 
pheasants and bobwhitos, Pennsylvania Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commis- 
sion, Harrisburg, 10 cents a copy), 10(1), April 1939, pp. 8-9, 29, 2 
photos, 6 tables. 

Report on analyses of crop contents of 61 bob-whites and 423 pheasants 
taken during the hunting season (October- November) in Pennsylvania. Methods are 
briefly, discussed and the sources of the material tabulated by counties. The 
five most important foods of the pheasant are: Corn, akenes of lesser ragweed, 
grasshoppers, buckwheat, and soeds of skunk cabbage; and of the bob-white: 
Akenes of lesser ragweed, corn, wheat, soeds of foxtail grass, and buckwheat. 
Cthcr items and their frequency of occurrence are listed. 74$ of the food of 
the pheasant and 81% of that of the bob -white consisted of the seeds of crop 
plants and associated weeds. The best pheasant range in Pennsylvania is in 
counties where the corn acreage is highest and whore the corn is hand-picked and 
the stalks are left standing over winter. Standing corn adjacent to good brushy 
cover seems to be necessary for the perpetuation of good bob-white populations. 
Results are compared with these reported from studies in other States, to 5 of 
which bibliographic references arc given. 

Food H abits: _ Bob-white 

Errington, Paul L. Foods of bobwhito in Wisconsin, Auk (Rudyerd 
Boulton, Field Museum, Chicago, 111., ,)1.00 a copy), 56(2), April 1939, 
pp. 170-173. 

Report on 58 stomach contents analyzed by the Biological Survey, arranged 
to show transition in choice of food through 5 divisions of the season, April- 


v/ILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

Food Habits: Bob-white 

Gray, Anderson M . Winter foods of the bobwhite quail in the Black 
Belt soil province of Alabama, Alabama Dept. of Conservation (Montgomery), 
23 pp., 1 map, 2 tables, Dec. 1938. 

The characteristics and plant associations of the Black Bolt arc 
described, and the location of the area shown on a map. ' The queil foods are 
discussed and tabulated in some detail. 

Part of the author's summary is: Data on the winter food habits of the 
bobwhite quail were procured from the analysis of 440 stomachs collected from 
the Black Bolt soil province of Alabama. The stomachs were obtained between 
November 20 and February 20 during several years. Vegetable items wore found 
to form 96.89 percent of the food for the season and animal matter the remaining 
3.11 percent. Legumes of the pea and senna families (Fabaccao and Cassiaceae) 
formed the bulk of the vegetable food, 63.34 percent of the total. It was found 
that 15 kinds of plants contributed one percent or more by volume to the bob- 
white diet for the winter season. These plants, in the order of their impor- 
tance arc as follows: Japan clover, beggarweeds, partridge peas, pink wild bean, 
bush clovers, cowpcas, scsbanias, bull paspalum, oaks, sweot-gum, pines, ragweed, 
milk peas, pecan, and wild roses. 

Food Habits: Door damage t o conifer pla ntings 

Middour , J. C. , and J " ern es N. Morto n. Doer damage study plots in 
Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harris- 
burg, 10 cents a copy), 9(9), Dec. 1938, pp. 8-9, 30-31, 4 photos. 

Reports on plots established in 1929; they were adjoining areas, one with 
a deer-proof fence, the other unfonced, on State forests in 4 counties, and 
plantud to various conifers. Details are given as to destruction on the un- 
fenced areas and as to comparative hoight growth and survival on the paired 
plots. In summary the authors say: "Only the results of the examinations of 
the experimental plots, made during 1938, have been listed, but these as well as 
reports made of investigations during previous years, indicate rather clearly 
that it is almost useless to attempt to establish forest tree plantations in the 
areas whore the plots have been located, provided the deer herd remains as large 
as it has been since those plots were established in 1929. In many of these 
areas forest tree planting has been discontinued because it is considered im- 
practicable due to the excessive damage by doer. Not only have most of the 
planted evergreens been destroyed on the unfenced aroas, but the natural growth, 
likewise has been browsed so heavily that there is vory little chance of a satis- 
factory stand of trees becoming established on these areas unless a reduction is 
made in the number of deer. " 

Food Habits: Door damage to pine 

Aldous, Shaler E. Pine in the diet of the white-tailed doer, Journ. 
Forestry (Mills Bldg. , Washington, D. C. , 50 cents a copy), 37(3), March 
1939, pp. 265-267, 3 photos. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 - May, 1939 

On the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, pine browse formed 7 percent 
of the food in fall and. 14 percent in winter. All of the species of pine 
present are eaten, jack pine seeming to be preferred. Plantations of that 
species have been seriously damaged by the doer. 

Food Habits: Deer and elk 

Do Nio, R. M . Stomach analyses of deer and elk in northern Idaho 
and Montana, University of Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Dec. 1938, pp. 34-36, 
1 table. 

Paper based on the same material as other articles by the author ab- 
stracted in WILDLIFE REVIEW, Nos. 15, July 1938, p. 29, .and 17, December 1938, 
pp. 13-14. The present paper tabulates 6 principal classes of foods by frequency 
and volume cf occurrence in deer and elk stomachs and lists the 10 most important 
species of forage for each of these groups of animals. 

Food Habits: Poxes 

Platte s, Cyril . Hello, Mr. Reynard! , Minnesota Conservationist 
(Dept. of Conservation, St. Paul, Minn., 15 cents a copy), 65, Jan. 1939, 
pp. 11, 32, 34, 2 photos. 

The distribution of both rod and gray foxes has altered in Minnesota in 
recent years. Apparently establishment of the ring-necked pheasant has facili- 
tated spread of the gray fox. General notes on habits and appearance :f the 
animals, and on the State's experience with bounties. Tabulation by both fre- 
quencies of occurrence and volume of the food items from stomachs of 56 gray, 
and 29 red, foxes. Mice and rabbits make up nearly half of the subsistence of 
both species, with poultry and game birds together amounting to about 10 to 12 

Food Habits: Grit requirem e nts 

M cCann, Lest er J. Studies cf the grit requirements of certain upland 
game birds, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalano , National Park 
Service, Washington, D. C. , 75 cents a copy), 3(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 31-41, 
3 figs. 

Author's abstract: "Experiments with bobwhitc quail, C olin us v. 
virginianus, and ring-necked pheasants, Phasianus colchicus torquatus , on 
floored pens showed that a continued gritless ration resulted in loss of weight 
and death, probably due to mineral deficiency associated with lack of fresh grit 
When feeding insoluble grit (quartz) it was found that grit consumption increased 
markedly, but would decrease almost immediately if calcium were added. Glacial 
gravel fed as grit did not undergo such increased consumption, and if substituted 
for quartz after an increase had occurred, would give the same effect as calcium. 
Thus, since grains are known to be calcium-deficient, it appears that granivorous 
birds depend upon grit for some of this necessary clement. Glacial gravel, in 
some areas at least, is capable of supplying it. These facts gain ecological 
significance when correlated with the known success of certain exotic, graniv- 
orous birds in some glaciated areas or areas having limestone outcroppings, and 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

their known failure in certain unglaciatcd areas." Bibliography of 10 titles. 

[Lack of calcium cannot be the reason pheasants have not succeeded in 
regions just south of the zone of satisfactory establishment as the limestone- 
dominated landscapes of southern Indiana, and of Kentucky and Missouri lie there.] 

Food Habits: Grouse, Ruffed 

Nelson, A. L. , Talbott E. Clarke, and W. W. -Bailey . Early winter food 
of ruffed grouse on the George Washington National Forest, U. S. Dcpt. of 
Agriculture Circ. 504 (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C, 5 cents a copy), 
37 pp., 30 figs., 2 tables, Dec. 1938. 

Well illustrated discussion of groups of plants that were the most impor- 
tant sources of foods found in 184 crops and 185 gizzards collected in 1935 end 
1936. One table gives the results of stomach analysis on both volumetric and 
numerical bases and names the parts of the plants eaten; the other indicates 
shade tolerance of the plants. Twenty species made up about 85 percent of the 
total food; they grow chiefly in wooded areas with open canopies and with soils 
sufficiently productive for growth of mixed stands of shrubs and vinos. Two- 
thirds of the illustrations are presented to facilitate field identification of 
the plants in winter condition. 

Food Habits: Hare, Snow s hoo , in relation to forests 

Cox, W. T . Snow shoe hare useful in thinning forest stands, Journ. 
Forestry (Mills Bldg. , Washington, D. C. , 50 cents a copy), 36(11), Nov. 

1938, pp. 1107-1109. 

Interest in the hare has been aroused by its periodic fluctuations and by 
the damage it does to forest plantings, but the valuo of its services in thin- 
ning natural reproduction has been largely overlooked. The results of a study 
of thinning of jack pines by hares in Minnesota, which arc tabulated, show 
reduction to an average survival of 5.8 percent. Unthinned, the seedlings make 
very little growth; thinned, the survivors recover from their stunted condition 
end mrkc rapid growth. The author suggests that damage by hares in plantations 
can bo controlled by making light rather than heavy plantings, thus avoiding the 
creation of dense cover attractive to the animals. 

Food Habits: Hawks and owls 

Bond, Richard M . Observations on raptorial birds in the lava beds — 
Tule Lake region of northern California, Condor (W. Lee Chambers, 2068 
Escarpa Drive, Eagle Rock, Calif., 50 cents a copy), 41(2), March-April 

1939, pp. 54-61, 1 fig., 3 tables. 

The population of hawks in a given locality reduced 75 percent from 1936 
to 1937 duo in part to lessened abundance of rodents and possibly also to botu- 
lism. A tabulation records prey identified at the nests or by observation for 
8 species of hawks. Lists are given of the food items determined from nearly 
1,800 pellets of owls, representing, unfortunately, 2 speciesf. As to bird prey 
the author says, "it is quite clear that none of the species is endangered, or 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

probably appreciably reduced in numbers, by either the hawks or owls." Calcula- 
tion of the number of meadow mice needed to feed the predatory bird population 
gives an average of 12 per acre. The figures may be 50 percent in error and no 
definite conclusions are drawn. 

Eood Habits: Kingfisher 

White, H. C . The feeding of kingfishers: Food of nestlings and 
effect of water height, Journ. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada (Toronto, Canada), 
4(1), 1938, pp. 48-52, 2 figs., 1 table. 

Author's abstract: "Nestlings on the Margaree river, Nova Scotia, are 
fed young salmon and trout only, whose average size increases with that of the 
bird, indicating selection by the parents. The proportions of trout ( Salve linus 
f ontinalis ) to young salmon ( Salmo salar ) in the food jf the adults varies 
directly with the height of the water." 

Food Habits: Legumes, utilization of by wildlife 

Craham, Edward H. Legumes for erosion control and wildlife, Soil 
Conservation (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. , 10 cents a copy), 4(9), 
March 1939, pp. 210-211, 2 tables. 

There arc about 2,000 species of legumes native to the United States and 
50 in cultivation that are cf commercial importance. Plants of this group are 
a valuable source of food for wildlife. Available information from the litera- 
ture and from Biological Survey files is tabulated to show the number of birds 
and mammals known to feed on various genera and species of legumes, and the 
kinds of wildlife that use legumes most. Clovers head the generic list and 
alfalfa the specific; the bob-white is far in the lead of consumers, being known 
to feed upon 88 species. The data are also discussed in the text and the exten- 
sive use and importance of legumes in erosion control pointed out. 

Food Habits : Lizards 

Kncwlton, George F . Lizards in insect control, Ohio Jcurn. Science 
(Dr. Bernard S. Meyer, Ohio State University, Columbus, 50 cents a copy), 
38(5), Sept. 1938, pp. 235-233. 

Records of food identified from the stomachs of 9 kinds of lizards in 
Utah. There is often a perceptible limitation of agricultural pests in areas 
where lizards are abundant. Populations of from 50-400 Uta _s. stansburiana per 
acre are not unusual in favorable breeding and feeding locations. [In such 
localities the effects of lizard feeding would far oxceed those of birds.] 

Food Habits: Merganser, American 

Salyer, J. Clark, II, .and Karl F. Lagler . The morganser — trout 
fancier, American Wildlife (investment Bldg. , Washington, D. C. , 25 cents 
a copy), 28(1), Jan. -Feb. 1939, pp. 33-36, 1 photo, 1 drawing. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW : No. 20 May, 1939 

In most streams the American merganser feeds chiefly on the rough fish 
there preponderating but on typical trout streams it also feeds largely on the 
most available prey,which is trout. This paper reports on analyses of the 
stomach contents of 157 birds o£ this species from Michigan trout streams. The 
average number of trout per stomach was about 2.5; the daily consumption is 
estimated at 5; probably 1.5 lbs. of food are eaten daily; rather large sized 
prey seems to be sought. In streams where there are great populations of small 
sunfishes, the mergansers may be beneficial in reducing their numbers and thus 
to some degree overcoming stunting. Where control seems to be required, the 
form recommended is driving the mergansers to lower open waters in which the 
proportion of trout among all fishes is low. Repeated drives tend to keep the 
birds on such waters. The mergansers can do great damage at rearing ponds and 
should be excluded by wiring. 

Food Habits: Merganser, Red-breasted 

Munro, J. A. , and W. A. Clemens . The food and feeding habits of the 
red-breasted merganser in British Columbia, Journ. Wildlife Management 
(Victor H. Cahalane, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. , 75 cents a 
copy), 3(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 46-53, 1 map. 

Authors' abstract: "The red-breasted merganser is an abundant visitant 
to the coast regions of British Columbia from September to April inclusive. 
Thus the relation of the species to the fisheries is seasonal and centers chiefly 
about its feeding habits on the coast waters. The food of ninety-six specimens 
taken on the lower stretches of coastal streams consisted largely of salmon eggs 
and sculpins while that of fifteen specimens taken on the sea comprised chiefly 
herring with a smaller percentage of salmonoids, eulachons, sticklebacks, 
sculpins, blennies, rockfishes, and crustaceans." Bibliography of 9 titles. 

Food Habits: Nutritional value of pinon nuts 

Little, E lbe rt L. , Jr . Food analyses of pinon nuts, Southwestern 
Forest and Rungo Expt. Sta. (Tucson, Ariz.) Note 48, 2 pp. (mimeographed) , 
Dec. 1938. 

Analyses of nut meats of Pinus edulis , P. monophylla , and P. sp. (imported), 
with references to their sources, and general notes on food value of pinon nuts 
and pignolias. 

Food Habits: Owl, Barn 

Wooster, L. D . The contents of owl pellets as indicators of habitat 
preferences of small mammals, Kansas Acad. Sci. Trans. (Topeka, Kans) , 39, 
1936, pp. 395-397, 2 tables. 

1 A study of the foods used by 4 barn owl families, the nests of which were 
so located that hunting by the parents was mainly in different ecological asso- 
ciations. Though not the author's chief interest in the findings, the well- 
known influence of availability upon food utilization is emphasized anew. 
Momma Is of 17 genera were identified, Microtus , Peromyscus , and Perognathus in 
largest numbers. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW/: No. 20 May, 1939 

Food Habits: Owl, Or e-it horned 

Langenbach, John R. , and Ro'bort D. McDowel l,- Poinisylvania Game News 
(Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harrisburg, 10 cents a copy), 9(10), Jan. 
1939, pp. 6-9, 3 figs., 7 tables. 


Tables show the cause of death of the specimens reported upon, in part 
distributed according to sexes, years, and months. Extreme and average weights 
and measurements are given for a large nuriber of the owls. Methods used in the 
food study are briefly discussed and the results presented in both text and 
tables. Economic classification of prey assigns 66,2 percent as beneficial to 
nan, 18.2 percent harmful, and .15,6 percent neutral. The policy of no protec- 
tion is approved and that of bounty paynent recommended for continuance to 
facilitate further study of the food. 

Food Habits; Owl, Short-eared 

Hcndrickson, George 0., and Charles Swan . Winter notes on the short- 
eared owl, Ecology (Prince and Lemon Sts. , Lancaster, Pa., $1.50 a copy), 
19(4), Oct. 1938, pp. 584-588, 2 figs., 2 tables. 

Near Ames, Iowa, a wintering group of short-eared owls (18 the maximum 
observed) fed almost exclusively upon nice fron January 14 to March 13, 1937. 
They consumed sone 90 nice daily, or about 5,880 for the period. Snow protectee 
Microtus and caused the owls to take nore Poronyscus . The results are compared 
with those of other recent studies by Erring ton and Tonkins. 

Food Habits: Partridge, European 

Ford, John, Helen Chitty, and A. D. Mid dlcton. The food of partridge 
chicks ( Perdix pordix ) in Great Britain, Journ. Aninal Ecology (Cambridge 
University Press, 200 Eustcn Road, London, N. W. 1, England, 20 shillings 
a copy), 7(2), Nov. 1938, pp. 251-265, 2 figs., 10 tables. 

Authors* sunnary: "The contents of sixty-nine partridge chick crops wer 
analysed, mostly from grass, clover and lucerne habitats. During the first 2 
weeks after hatching the food is predominantly aninal, during the third week a 
change occurs and from 3 weeks onward, food is alnost entirely vegetable. Feed 
iiig on insects is probably randan, the most important forms oaten being larvae 
of clover weevils, larvae of Lepidoptera, the springtail, Sminthuru s v iridis , 
Aphididae and ants. In evaluating the various constituents of the crops as to 
their importance as food, it was found necessary to consider not only the numbc 
of each species eaten, but also the volume and frequency of occurrence." 

The figures graphically portray the change in proportions of animal end 
plant food and in weight of the chicks with age, information that is presented 
also in numbers in the tables. All food items identified are listed togother 
with their frequencies by age groups of the chicks in addition to total number* 
of occurrences. The food items are tabulated by groups also for each crop 
analyzed, again by age classes of the chicks. 

t/ILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

Food Habits: Raccoon 

Giles, LoRoy W . Fall food habits of the raccoon in central Iowa, 
Journ. Mammalogy ( VJr.i. B. Davis, College Station, Texas, -#1.00 a copy), 
20(1), Feb. 1939, pp. 68-70, 1 table. 

Analysis of 67 scats; corn, crayfish, and wild fruits the leading items. 

Food Habits: Snail (Polygyra) 

Uolf, Fred T. , and Frederick A. Wolf . The snail Polygyra thyroidus 
as a nycophagist, Bui. Torrey Botanical Club (New York Botanical Garden, 
Bronx Park, New York, N. Y. , 75 cents a copy), 66(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 1-5, 
1 pi. 

Fungi are an important source of food for nollusks, especially of slugs, 
accounts of which are reviewed. Less has been published on snails but' 2 papers 
are abstracted. The authors' observations on the species mentioned are 
detailed; nost of then were made in a laboratory. Bibliography of 11 titles. 

Food Habits: Squirrel, Rod 

Clarke, C. H. D . Sane- notes on hoarding and territorial behaviour 
of the red squirrel, Sciurus hudsonicus (Erxleben), Canadian Field- 
Naturalist (582 Mariposa Ave., Rockcliffe Park, Ottawa, Canada, 25 cents a 
copy), 53(3), March 1939, pp. 42-43. 

Cones of Pinus resinosa are gathered and scattered, scarcely concealed, 
in needle litter in the individual's territory. A squirrel nay pick as many as 
a thousand cones in a day, but gets then fron different sources and does not 
strip a single tree. It is doubtful whether one cone in a hundred is ever 
recovered by the squirrel, but the seeds fron the cached cones do not geminate 
since the noist green cones heat and kill the seeds. 

Food Habits: Squirrel danago to spruce 

Anon . Squirrels vs. black spruce, Forest Research Digost (Lake 
States Forest Expt. Sta. , St. Paul, Minn.), Winter 1939, pp. 15-16, 1 photo. 

Cutting off twigs fron 1-5 feet below tip so that the crown is of smaller 
diameter there. 

Food Habits: Utilization of fruits of woody plants 

Deck, Raymond S . Planting for wildlife, Country Life and the Sports- 
man (251 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y. , 50 cents a copy) , 74(6), Oct. 1938, 
pp. 52-53, 107-109, 7 photos. 

Personal observations on utilization of fruits of native and introduced 
woody plants in New England. Also brief notos on seed producers. 


May, 1939 

Food Habits: WaterJJirdg, 

leport (Tennessee Academy of Science, Nashville, Tenn. J ill, 
pp. 110-115, 1 table. 

Bescription of the haWtat, report on ' ^^"^^cn analyses™ 
the literature of which 17 titles axe cited. The results 01 
are tabulated and summarized in the following paragraphs-. 

„1. The food of the ^ericas ^ot consists of approximately « per cent^ 
coontail 'moss' , 35 per cent duckweeds, 18 per cent yellow water Illy 
2 per cent animal matter. 

«. The food of the Florida Gallinule consists of 35 per cent coontail^ 
40 per cent duckweeds (mostly Wolffia) , 20 per cent seeds ef cutgrass ye 
water-lily, and 5 per cent animal matter. 

,. 3 . Tbe food of the least Bittern consi ^^^^atlf insect; 
including 75 per cent fish, 10 per cent small frogs 10 per ce q ^ 

(dragon- flies, water hugs, and others), and 5 pel cat or 

»4. Observation of the Reelfoot Lake marsh W^^^reforcnce'n'foof 
in this group availability plays a mors important role than preference 


Life Histories: Bear, Black 

u t Ttfo+pc on the black bear in New York State, Journ. 
Soaoonmakor, W. 7 . Notes on tne cxa^ 19(4), Nov. 

Mammal ogy (Vfai. B. D ^vTsT College Station, Texas, $1.00 a copy), 1*1 
1938, pp. 501-502. 

Chiefly on hibernation, and on number end growth of young. 

Life Histories: Beaver 

t> ^-i- n-nfl vi T Schoonmrker. Beaver-doms as geologic 
R uodemann, Rudo lf ? and W. J. . g SagggBg- . 8a{2292 ), Doc. 2, 1938, 
agents, Science (Lancaster, Pa., 15 eoirtS a copy;, v 

pp. 523-525. 

+n p i/lo foot Ion- and impounding 1,241 acre-feet of waj 
Boavor dams up to 2,140 feet ion fa ana J** _ 3 / 4 Ml of a st roam H 

are on record. Eorty-six dams have been observed on ^ 3/4 m±o lp 

Colorado. Beaver meadows may be formed in as few as 15 * 
investigations, the author s conclude "that beavers are ^\^f^ e for 
smaller valleys below the size of navigable rivers na ^ving di worlc 

Tany thousands of years ta^^^*f^^rS^ a ^S^« UJ 
and are ^^J^^^^^ J^! descending stops, which dis- 
aggrading of valley floors, origin.^ xt ,, , ni horizontal from ban 

apjear in time and leave a gently graded even ^l^; 1 *^^ the rich far 
to bade. The fine silt gathered in the beaver P^^ 8 ^ 4 ^^ Africa, 
land in the valleys of the wooded areas of the northern n-u T 

[There is food for thought here as to the fate ef stream impoundments.] 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

Life Histories: Beaver 

Trump, George E . The beaver. Pennsylvania's most interesting fur- 
boarer, Pennsylvania Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harrisburg, 
10 cents a copy), 9(12), March 1939, pp. 4-5, 5 figs. 

A popular account of the beaver and its activities and beaver trapping, 
illustrated by 5 drawings, by Earl L. Poole, of more value than the article itself. 

Life Histories: Bighorn and mountain goat 

Goddcn, F. W. , and L. T. Gutzman . Bighorn sheep and mountain goat, 
University of Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Dec. 1938, pp. 43-49, 1 table. 

Estimates of the population and kill by hunters and predators on the 
Salmon National Forest from 1917-1937, inclusive. Discussion of habits and 
decimating factors leading in each instanco to tho conclusion that more informa- 
tion is badly needed. Known facts are compared with the findings of Mills in 
Yellowstone National Park. Specific recommendations for research are made. 

Life Histories: Deer, White- tai led "■ • ' 

Schoonmaker, W. J . Notes on the whitetail deer in Now York State, 
Journ. Mammalogy (Wm. bT Davis, College Station, Texas, $1.00 a copy), 
19(4), Nov. 1933, pp. 503-504. 

Interesting local notes (Columbia County, N. Y. ) on home range (normally 
no greater than one-half mile square) ; sex relations (monogamous) ; and kill (one 
or two deer to each square mile). 

Life Histories: Eider, American, eggs 

Lewis, Harrison F . Size of sets of eggs of the American eider, 
Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalane , National Park Service, 
Washington, D. C. , 75 cents a copy), 3(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 70-73, 2 tables. 

Author's abstract: "Record of 1,131 sets of Somateria mollissima 
dresseri observed on north shore of Gulf of St. Lawrence in 1934-1938. One to 
ten eggs each, average 4.04. Annual averages range from 3.89 (1936) to 4.25 
(1938). Sizes of sets in descending order of frequency are four, five, three, 
two, six, one, seven and eight, ten. Average number of eggs before mid-June, 
3.97; after mid- June , 4.08." 

Life Histories: Game birds of Idaho 

Murray, T. B . Upland game birds in Idaho and their future, University 
of Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Dec. 1938, pp. 55-60, 8 maps. 

Discusses tho original distribution and abundance and the decline of 7 
native species, and the varying success attained in establishing 3 introduced 
game birds. The Idaho ranges of all of these are mapped. Tho fate of the 
various species is linked with land utilization and research is needed to make 
the best of the situation. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

Life Histories: Goose, Greater snow, migration 

Dory, A . Migration automnale de la grande oie blanche, Provancher 
Soc. Nat. Hist. Canada (Quebec) Ann. Report 1938, pp. 120-133, 1 photo, 
2 maps. 

Autumn movements from Cap Toumente , Quebec , to New Inlet, N. C. , with 
quotations from J. Richardson and Charles K. Nichols as to the spring migration. 

Life Histories: Gopher, Pocket 

Gabriel son, Ira N . Thomomys the engineer, American Forests (919 
Seventeenth St., N. W. , Washington, D. C. , 35 cents a copy), 44(10), Oct. 
1938, pp. 453-454, 478-479, 3 illus. 

Equipment of the pocket gopher for tunneling. Damage done to gardens, 
alfalfa fields, and orchards and to mountain meadows through accelerating 
erosion; possibilities of control. Notes on food habits and life history. 

Life Histories: Ground squirrel, Thirteen- striped 

Criddle, Stuart . The thirteen- striped ground squirrel in Manitoba, 
Canadian Field-Naturalist (£82 Mariposa Ave., Rockcliffe Park, Ottawa, 
Canada, 25 cents a copy), 53(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 1-6, 2 tables. 

Summary of observations of tho writer since 1882. Distribution is dis- 
cussed and description, measurements, and weights given. Under general habits 
are notes on sounds mado , period of activity, drinking, climbing, swimming, 
fighting, and dusting. Parasites arc briefly mentioned, and the sex ratio, 
breeding habits, young, burrows, nests, hibernation, food, economic status, anc 
control also are treated. 

Life Histories: Grouse, Blue 

Murray, T. B . Blue grouse, University of Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22) 
Dec. 1938, pp. 63-65. 

Notes on subspecies in Idaho, their distribution, habits, food, nesting, 
and seasoaal movements. The species is the best and most sought native upland 
gome bird and should be the object of good management. The chief methods by 
which the birds can be restored and maintained, "are: first, to protect the 
native vegetation, upon which they depend for both food and [cover] x x x 
second, to regulate hunting, particularly in accessible areas, so that breeding 
stock is not threatened; and third, to keep predation down to a point where it 
is not serious. These measures are vitally important on the critical spring and 
early summer feeding ranges." 

Life Histories: Kite, Mississippi 

Sutton, George M . The Mississippi kite in spring, Condor (W. Lee 
Chambers, 2068 Escarpa Drive, Eagle Rock, Calif., 50 cents a copy), 41(2), 
March- April 1939, pp. 41-53, figs. 17-24. 


WILDLIFE HEVIEw': No. 20 May, 1939 

This bird, which many ornithologists have never seen, is common in 
western Oklahoma, but subject to decimating influences of which the commercial 
egg collector is most threatening. The paper describes kite habitat, and givoa 
notes on migration, behavior and physical conditions of the birds in spring, 
nest-building, nest and nest site, oviposition and incubation, eggs, young, 
food, and parasites. The food in May and June according to 16 stomach analyses 
made in the Biological Survey is almost exclusively insects, largely Orthoptera 
and Coleoptora. 

Life Histories: Mammals, breath holding 

Irving, Laurence . Respiration in diving mammals, Physiological 
Reviews (19 Chase St., Baltimore, Md. , $2.50 a copy), 19(1), Jan. 1939, 
pp. 112-134, 4 tables. 

Publication not abstracted but merely called to attention. It is a 
physiological and anatomical review of a complex subject, accompanied by an 
extensive bibliography. It includes tables citing duration of dives in 17 
species of mammals, endurance of forced submersion of 6 species, and oxygen 
capacity of the blood in 9 groups. 

Life Histories: Marten 

Brassard, J. A., and Richard Bernard . Observations on breeding and 
development of marten, Martes a. omericana (Kerr), Canadian Field-Naturalist 
(582 Mariposa Ave., Rockcliffe Park, Ottawa, Canada, 25 cents a copy), 
53(2), Feb. 1939,- pp. 15-21, 1 pi. , 4 figs., 3 tables. 

Notes on animals in the Quebec Zoological Gardens indicating annual 
production of from 1-3 young and gestation period of 220-230 days. Growth in 
weight and dimensions of the young are tabulated and those in weight expressed 
in graphs for 4 individuals. There are remarks upon the development of various 
characters, including the fur and the teeth. Bibliography of 6 titles. 

Life Histories: Muskrat 

Erring ton, Paul L . Reactions of muskrat populations to drought, 
Ecology (Prince and Lemon Sts. , Lancaster, Pa., $1.50 a copy), 20(2), 
April 1939, pp. 168-185. 

Consideration of adaptations of the muskrat for existence, attachment of 
the animals for homo range, territories and movements, intraspecif ic strife, 
predators, foods and feeding routines, digging and building, and drought mor- 
tality. Author's summary: "Recent drought seasons have provided exceptional 
opportunities for the study of muskrat populations living under emergency con- 
ditions. Although the animals may show considerable tolerance to habitat change: 
and may modify their living routines accordingly, their bohavior remains basic- 
ally rather stereotyped. A large proportion of the muskrats resident in drying 
out habitats tend to stay in familiar home ranges, and, while they may suffer 
heavy or even amiirilative mortality, they are usually more fortunate than the 
animals that attempt to go elsewhere. As vicissitudes become intensified, there 
is a conspicuous increase of intraspecif ic strife, vulnerability to predation 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 ..'May, 1959 

(notably by nink), rand on, and often lethal wandering, and, in winter, losses 
fron hunger and cold." Bib.lipgrr.phy of 10 titles. 

L ife Histories: Napaeozapus 

Sheldon, Caroly n. Vemont jumping nice of the genus Napaeozapus, 
Journ. Mammalogy (Wn. TL Davis, College Station, Texas, #1.00 a copy), 
19(4), Nov. 1938, pp. 444-453, 2 pis. 

Notes on live-trapping and the results of the study as to. habitat pref- 
erences, hone range, abundance, general habits, parasites, food, nests, breeding, 
developnent of young, and hibernation. 

Lifo Histories: Otter, Sea 

Fisher, Edna M . Habits of the southern sea otter, Journ. Mannalogy 
(Wn. B. Davis, Colleg"e Station, Texas, $1.00 a copy), 20(1), Feb. 1939, 
pp. 21-56, 27 figs. 

Observations illustrated by line sketches of a group of 60-80 aninals 
off the coast of Monterey County, California. The notes pertain to resting, 
feeding, mating, swimming, sleeping, guarding, and vocalizing. 

Life Histories: Pheasant, Ring-necked 

Green, Wm. E . The food end cover relationship in the winter survival 
of the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus torquatus Gnelin, in northern Iowa, 
Iowa State College (Anes) Journ. Sci. , 12(5), April 1958, pp., 285-514, 
9 pis. , 2 tables. 

Report on a study during the nost severe winter (1955-56) recorded for 
Iowa. A considerable variety of cover was used and the author suggests that at 
tines even bare ground has refuge value. Herbaceous cover lost its value througl 
being filled with drifted snow. Evergreens were not observed to be used. Escape 
cover did not seen to be needed as at no tine were pheasants noticed to be dis- 
turbed by a predator. The birds seoned to have forewarning as they began to 
congregate in cover several hours before a snowfall. Foods in the order of theii 
inportance included field corn, sweet corn, oats, and pigeon grass and other weed 
seeds; the feeding habits are described. Winter losses are discussed and tabu- 
lated; in all they amounted to 48.2 percent of the early winter population. 
They are attributed to 7 causes of which the nost important was direct killing 
by the severe winter weather. Survival was highest in flocks that roosted in 
dense cover adjacent to a satisfactory food supply. 

Life Histories: Pheasant nesting, Ohio 

Leedy, Daniel L . Pheasant nesting study, Wood County, 0hio--1957, 
Ohio Wildlife Research Station (Ohio State University, Columbus) Release 82, 
9 pp., 1 fig., 2 naps, 5 tables, nineographed , Feb. 1958. 

"During the 1957 mowing season 197 meadows (about 10 per township) were 
checked in Wood County. Those totaled 2,566 acres and 914 pheasant nests were 
reported, or an average of one nest per 2.8 acres of hay mowed. For each 100 


•..TLDLIFE REVIEu': No. 20 May, 1939 

nests, 9.9 hen pheasants wore killed and 20.8 hens Wore crippled. Thus the per- 
centage of hens killed or crippled was 30.7$. 

"Or. this basis the 41,820 ceres uf hay in \tooC County (Soil Conservation 
Service figures for 1935), contained 15,512 nests and the mowing. season resulted 
in the death of 1,536 hen pheasants and the crippling of 3,226 others. Probably 
most of the crippled pheasants are killed by predators or die because. ■ only three 
of the 1,610 hens trapped on refuges in 1936-37 wore believed to have been 
crippled by moving machines." 

The relative density of nesting in various types of cover is described 
end graphed; and the distribution of nests with respect to distance from an edge 
is stated in 3 categories; the nests aro very evenly distributed. Data arc 
recorded on various phases of nesting, decrease in broods after hatching, and 
sex ratio of young birds. There is a summary of 16 paragraphs. 

Life Kistor icsj _ Quai l, Valley 

G lad ins , Ben. Studies on the nesting cycle of the California valley 
quail in 1937, California Fish and Game (Ferry 31dg. , San Francisco, Calif.), 
24(4), Oct. 1938, pp. 316-340, figs. 101-111, 2 tables. 

Author's summary: "The nesting cycle of the valley quail in the foot- 
hills of the Sierra Nevada is considered to bo an important phase of the ganc 
nanagenent problem of this species in California. In a study on the San Joaquin 
Experimental Range of the U. S. Forest Service in Madera County, California, 
.during 1937, a total of 96 nests of valley quail was found. Courtship and nest- 
ing behavior are outlined. The maximum number of nests was found in the month 
of May. The average clutch size in 40 incubated nests was 10.97 eggs. The 
average brood size in 16 hatched nests was 10.18 young. A wide range was exhib- 
ited as to choice of nesting cover, with dry grass being used most commonly, 
both as cover and as lining for the nests. Methods of identifying the work of 
nest predators are given. Seventeen of the 96 nests xrcre successful. Ground 
squirrels arc inferred to have robbed 30 of the 96 nests. An increase of quail 
has followed reduction of ground squirrels by poison on a 300-acro area for two 
years." There is a bibliography of 9 titles. 

Li fe Histories: Rat, wood 

Lay, Daniel ',/.,_ and Rollin H. Baker . Notes on the hone range and 
ecology of the Attwatcr wood rat, Journ. Mammalogy (Wri. B. Davis, College 
Station, Texas, ^1.00 a copy), 19(4), Nov. 1938, pp. 413-423. 

The home range is small, about 80 feet in diameter in the most definitely 
ascertained instance. Homing occurred from distances up to 1,360 foot in wood- 
Land, but failed when the animals were released in grassland. There arc obser- 
vations on population density, habitat relationships, dens, food, fighting, 
animal associates, and ectoparasites. The food included fruit and leaves of 
water oak, hackberry, end yaupon, and leaves of sevcrrl other plants (named). 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

Life Histories: Sex ratio of birds 

Mayr, Ernst . The sex ratio in wild birds, American Naturalist 
(Science Press, Lancaster, Pa., $1.00 a copy), 73(745), March-April 1939, 
pp. 156-179. 

Summary and discussion of available information. Author's abstract: 
" (l) The principal purpose of this paper is to show that in birds a great deal 
of well-documented evidence exists proving the occurrence of strongly uneven sex 
ratios; (2) the sex ratio may be high or low, favoring the male or the female 
sex; (3) the evidence points to the existence of this unbalanced condition 
already in the primary sex ratio, although physiological and environmental fac- 
tors may modify it during prenatal and postnatal life; (4) in nearly all well- 
studied cases unequal sex ratios have been found to be correlated with peculiar- 
ities in the life history of the birds; (5) the study of the cytology and 
genetics of sex determination in birds is a promising and practically untouched 

Life Histories: Squirrel s 

K elway, Phylli s. The grey squirrel, Game and Gun and the Angler's 
Monthly (34 Victoria St., London, S. W. 1, England, 1 shilling a copy), 
16(162), March 1939, pp. 159-162, 4 photos. 

Comparison (fairer than usual) with the native red squirrel. The gray 
species has a wider range of food and is more voracious; both species eat birds' 
eggs. There is no serious conflict between them. Miscellaneous notes on their 
life histories are included. 

Life Histories: Thrush, Wood 

Weaver, Florence G . Studies in the life history of the wood thrush, 
Bird-Banding (Charles B. Floyd, 210 South St., Boston, Mass., 75 cents a 
copy), 10(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 16-23, 1 fig. 

Two years study at Ithaca, N. Y. , reported under the headings of Terri- 
tory, Song, Courtship and mating, Nest, Social. parasitism, Number of eggs laid 
and survival of the young (43.13 percent) , and Second brood. 

Life Histories: Woodchuck 

Twichell, A. R . Notes on the southern woodchuck in Missouri, Journ. 
Mammalogy (VJm. B. Davis, College Station, Texas, $1.00 a copy), 20(1), 
Feb. 1939, pp. 71-74. 

Dens, non-colonial habits, population density, cruising radius, food 
(in captivity) , time of activity, watchfulness, hibernation, breeding season, 
and parasites in central Missouri. 


i'/ILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

Life Histories: Woodpecker, California . », 

R itter, Wm. E . The California woodpecker and I, University of 
California Press (Berkeley, Calif., #3.50 a copy), 340 pp., illus. , 1938. 

Titles of the life history chapters are: The species — its relatives, and 
its place on the earth: Foods — storing — solution of the food problem; Reproduc- 
tion and domesticity; problems of settlements and journeyings; and The defense 
of home and food sources. Most of the book is rambling philosophy which the 
author terms "A study in comparative zoology, in which are set forth numerous 
facts and reflections by one of us about both of us." There are 4 pages of 
bibliography and a comprehensive index. 


C ahalane, Victor H . Integration of wildlife management with forestry 
in the Central States, Journ. Forestry (Mills Bldg., Washington, D. C. , 50 
cents a copy), 37(2), Feb. 1939, pp. 162-167. 

Favorable .and unfavorable effects of wildlife on forests are discussed 
and the correlation of forest management and wildlife management treated under 
the heads of forest protection, grazing, and silviculture. Author's conclusion: 
"If wildlife resources are given adequate consideration, managers of public 
forest lands will not be forced to overemphasize wildlife practices as a result 
of pressure from recreationists, and private landowners will have an opportunity 
to cash in on cooperation with the sportsmen. With knowledge gained from 
research on the interrelationships and needs of plants and animals, wildlife 
management can be integrated with sound forest management in all regions of tho 
country, and especially in the well-settled Central States." Bibliography of 16 
titles. Brief discussion by 5 individuals is reproduced following the article. 

Management: Attracting barn owls 

A. , R. Helping the useful barn owl, Game and Gun and the Angler's 
Monthly (34 Victoria St., London, S. W. 1, England, 1 shilling a copy), 
16(162), March 1939, pp. 147-150, 4 photos. 

By providing nesting accommodations in the form of boxes or barrels 
(preferably the latter) securely fastened in suitable trees. Bedding as saw- 
dust or peat-moss should be supplied. Barn owls accept such quarters and return 
to them year after year. There are notes on competitors and their control. 
More than in the case of any other British owl. rets seem to constitute the 
principal item in the barn owl's diet. The value of the services that they 
render to keepers and farmers would indeed be hard to compute. 

Management : Beaver 

Smith, Laurence H . Beaver and its possibilities in water regulation, 
University of Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Dec. 1938, pp. 85-88. 

Primitive abundance of beavers and their decimation by trapping. The 
value of dam construction by a colony of beavers may be a hundred dollars and 
the dams, furthermore, are kept in repair. Estimates of beaver values on the 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

Ochoco National Forest in water conservation and associated forage production 
arc impressive enough to justify any reasonable program of transplanting and 
management. The most successful plantings were made among aspen-poplar growth, 
and following those, in aspen-willow, and lodgepole-willow-aspen. Beaver trans- 
planting is an economical offset to practices destructive to watersheds. It 
should be based on studies of beaver requirements and of the available food 
resources, end calls for rigid protection of the new colonies. 

Management: Big game 

Hatch, A. B . Big game management, University of Idaho (Moscow) Bil. 
33(22), Dec. 1938, pp. 49-54. 

Public interest in hoofed game, the applicability of knowledge of live- 
stock to those animals, and the distressing phenomena of overpopulations point 
to the feasibility and need of big game management. The large ruminants have 
been forced out of their original plains and foothill range into unnatural 
environment at higher elevations, where, it is not surprising, difficulties 
arise. "The primary objective of big game management today is to maintain an 
optimum number of removable animals on all lands on which the raising of wild- 
life crops does not seriously interfere with agriculture, with the livestock 
industry, or with forestry." Methods of managing big game are discussed under 
four headings: (1) Artificial restocking, (2) predator control, (3), restric- 
tion of hunting, and (4) creation of game refuges. Changes in present 
practices must be gradual and should be guided by research. 

Management: Bobwhit e 

Lehmann, Valgene W . Fenced areas for bobwhites, Texas Game, Pish, 
and Oyster Commission (Austin), Bui. 12, 2 pp., 1 pi,, June 1938. 

"Properly planted half -acre plots, fenced to exclude livestock and 
spaced about 250 yards apart, offer landowners one of the most effective and 
inexpensive means of improving habitat conditions for Bobwhite Quail. The plots 
provide protected 'islands' in which Quail can find plenty of food and x x x 
cover in which to build their nests and raise their young. There are many Quail 
ranges in Texas that produce few Quail because they are overgrazed by cattle, 
sheep and goats, or cultivated so intensely that little food or cover is left 
for birds. The half-acre fenced plots, square or rectangular in shape, are 
recommended to remedy this situation." Directions are given for laying out and 
planting fenced areas for two kinds of situations, namely where woody cover is 
already present, and where it is absent. Quail are quick to find and use these 
half-acre shelters. 

Management: Burning 

Heywqrd, Frank . The relation of fire to stand composition of long- 
leaf pine forests, Ecology (Prince and Lemon Sts. , Lancaster, Pa., $1.50 a 
copy), 20(2), April 1939, pp. 287-304, 7 figs., 6 tables. 

This article is drawn to the attention of readers of WILDLIFE REVIEW who 
wish to keep informed as to debate in this controversial field. The author 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

refers to the relation of woodland management , particularly burning, to wildlif e , 
basing his remarks in that_ respect upon Stoddard's publications. He shows that 
exclusion of fire results in the increase of hardwoods, in a longleaf pine forest 
and states that "it seems evident that pines will ultimately be completely ex- 
cluded from the forest by hardwoods. " [Comment. It is thus further evident 
that burning, a game management practice in longleaf pine forests, is necessary 
to perpetuation of those forests, the most valuable known for their region.] 
The article includes a bibliography of 12 titles. 

Management: Burning 

Stoddard, Herbert L . The use of controlled fire in southeastern game 
management, Cooperative Quail Study Association (Thouasville, Ga.), 21 pp., 
Jan. 1939. 

Supersedes a 1935 report on the same subject (abstracted in WILDLIFE 
REVIEW, No. 1, September 1935, p. 13) but has been entirely rewritten. Quail 
land in the Southeast, varying from 10 to 75 percent cultivated, may produce 
satisfactorily provided the uncultivated part is maintained in proper condition 
for the birds. That involves chiefly cover control for which fire is the most 
economical agent. It has long been used, and despite propaganda against woods 
burning, it is not generally destructive as claimed, has known positive values 
and, properly used, is definitely recommended. The author says, "Due to the 
accumulation of evidence we believe that burning at the right time , in the right 
amount , with the proper frequen cy, and in a way to accomplish the desired results 
with the least damage to other inte rests, is the most important single operation 
involved in quail management in the region. We differentiate sharply between 
controlled burnin g and unc on tr o lied burn i rg . If a choice had to be made, how- 
ever, between late winter burning of the kind long carried on by natives of the 
region (who know more about fire use than they are usually given credit for) and 
the total fire exclusion policy so strongly advocated by some, the former would 
be vastly preferable _so far _as wildlif e i nterest s are concerned ." 

Fire exclusion damages lands for quail production and builds up firo 
hazards in the form of dense ground cover and litter. "Then all too frequently, 
during a period of summer drought and high wind the inevitable happens—the 
woods catch fire accidentally (from lightning, a cigarette butt or other cause) — 
and the result (owing to the accumulation of ■ highly combustible ground cover) is 
denuded land and a fire-damaged forest, destitute for a time of valuable wildlife 
and scenically an eye- sore. Eire-damaged areas > resulting from mist eke n attempts 
at fire exclusion without adequate safeguards, are becoming all too numerous over 
the deep Southeast. Properly controlled burning at intervals of from one to 
throe years is the best known insurance against destructive conflagrations in. 
pine forests." 

Controlled burning is' discussed as to the proper season, frequency of use, 
proportion of land to burn, block and spot systems, night and day application, 
and tools for control. 

A game production program in the Southeast fits in well with a type of 
forestry that has as its objective selective cutting of the largest trees or 
clean cutting of small acreages. The longleaf pine, of leading value, is 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

especially fire resistant and controlled burning may be effectively used in 
establishing and maintaining stands of this species. Other pines should be 
given complete protection from fire during the seedling and early sapling 
stages. Then too dense ground cover under them can be thinned by light late 
winter night burning. Upland hammock of mostly deciduous trees should not be 

There is special discussion of burning in relation to wild turkey produc 
tion, of fire as a means of cotton rat control, of burning to maintain the 
floral beauty of pinelands, and in relation to ticks, chiggers, and disease. 

Management: Correlation of post control and soil conservation prac tices 

Harris, Kenton L . Soil conservation versus insect control, Proc. 
Entomological Society of Washington (U. S. National Museum, Washington, D.C. 
50 cents a copy), 41(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 20-26. 

Quotations from authorities on the subjects noted in title. The recom- 
mendations, to some extent opposed, are discussed and tabulated. In general, 
insect pest control policies call for elimination of ground cover--the funda- 
mental resource for soil conservation. For the two agencies concerned to meet 
on common ground will probably depend upon advances from the entomologist's 
side. Bibliography of 31 titles. 

Management: Deer, VJlii to- tailed 

Swift, E rnest . The problem- of managing deer, Wisconsin Conservation] 
Bui. ( Wisconsin Conservation Dcpt. , Madison), 4(2), Fob. 1939, pp. 8-27, 
6 figs. , 2 tables. 

Mostly discussion of differences of opinion about the door population a 
its management but includes some data and maps of general interest. The maps 
show distribution of the deer in winter and summer. A graph and a table recor 
the number of deer tags issued and the estimated kill from 1917 to 1937. 
Increase in the bag, and in damage by deer as well as observation indicate 
growth and spread of the herd. Deer drives are discussed; in a considerable 
number the deer scon were from 23 to 32 per section, averaging 30. The sex 
ratio varied with locality from 1:1.5 to 1:5. Overpopulation especially in 
winter yards has begun and winter feeding has been resorted to, although re- 
garded as biologically unsound. Dressed weights cited are an average of 166 
lbs. for 79 bucks, and 315 lbs for the heaviest specimen of the ye^.r. 

Management: Deer in Michigan 

Bartlett, I. H . White-tails — presenting Michigan's deer problem, 
Michigan Conservation (Dcpt. of Conservation, Lansing, Mich.), 8(2), Oct. 
1938, pp. 4-5, 7, 1 photo; 8(3), Nov. 1938, pp. 4, 6, 8, 11; 8(4), Doc. 
1938, pp. 6-7, 10, 3 photos; 8(5), Jan. 1939, pp. 8, 11; 8(6), Feb. 1939, 
pp. 6-7, 2 photos; 8(7), March 1939, pp. 8, 11. Also printed in pamphlet 
form with numerous illustrations (samo source), 64 pp. (5-1/4 x 7-1/2 
inches), 17 photos, 1 map, tables, Oct. 1938. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

Statement (illustrated by map) of original ecological conditions as 

related to deer. In the southern pert of the Lower Peninsula, agriculture at 
first favored, but later suppressed, deer. In a few areas, herds propagated 
from reintroduced animals do much damage on farms. In districts less suitable 
for agriculture, logging of heavy timber stands brought about food and cover 
conditions that resulted in un increase in deer; then repeated burning decreased 
the deer carrying capacity of cut-over lards; and in comparatively recent times 
effective fire control has swung the balance again in favor of the deer. At one 
time market hunting and use of doer for food at logging camps threatened exter- 
mination, and from 1831 on increasing restrictions on the killing of deer were 
enacted into law. The control thus achieved together with the environmental 
improvement mentioned havu been follo»;od by increaso in the herds that has been 
very apparent since 1925. Now the tendency of food plants to grow out of reach 
of the deer and destruction of much browse by ovorcon3umption, especially in 
winter yards, seem to indicate that the deer herds aro likely to undergo another 
decline . 

A test of management is predated, but fortunately much of the investiga- 
tion basic to management has been accomplished. It includes survey and classi- 
fication ef deer yards (70-80 percent complete), studies of the sex ratio, 
counts by deer drives, calculation of the kill based on hunters' reports, 
experimental study of food consumption, studies of trapping and tagging, and 
diseases and parasites. Inventory shows that in the Upper Peninsula deer 
average 18 per square mile, that the total number is about 300,000, of xvhich 
1 in 5 are bucks. Hunters kill about a third of the bucks, a number consider- 
ably less than the annual increase of both sexes. Winter crowding is severe, 
food supplies are failing, and there is much fawn mortality. In what is con- 
sidered doer country in the Lower Peninsula, the animals average 50 to the 
square mile, about 10 percent of which are bucks. Protection on club lands and 
on refuges has increased winter losses from starvation and winter feeding has 
not proved a feasible method of reducing them. The number of hunters has 
rapidly increased but in the last 7 years their success ratio h,.s dropped from 
37 to 24 percent; the annual kill varied from 8,000 in 1951 to 26,000 in 1937. 
The findings as to the two Peninsulas are summarized in a State table. Manage- 
ment requires control of both the habitat raid the herd, and must be correlated 
with desirable forestry practices in every area. In winter yards, white cedar 
should be cut on a 25-year rotation to establish and maintain a good supply of 
browse. Sumner food is now in great excess. The numbers of deer should be con- 
trolled by regulated hunting, differing from area to area as mny be needed. 

Manageme n t: Electric fen ce in 

McAtee, W. L . The electric fence in wildlife management, Jouru. 
Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalane, National Park Service, Washington, 
D. C, 75 cents a copy), 3(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 1-13, 2 pis. 

Electric fencing promises to solve outstanding difficulties of the wild- 
life manager, but the device needs perfecting and constantly cautious and 
intelligent use. Types of fences, means of electrifying them, and nethods and 
difficulties of installation are described. Experiences reported to date in 
controlling animals are quoted with reference to antelope, bear, buffalo, cat, 
coyote, doer, elk, fishes, livestock, rabbits, and raccoon. The article con- 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

tains suggestions, objections, and cautions relative to the use of electric 
fences, and concise directions as to what to do in case of severe electrical 
shock. Bibliography of 15 titles. 

Management: E lk 

P arsell, Jack . The elk problem in the Selway, University of Idaho 
(MoscowTbuI. 33(22), Dec. 193S, pp. 23-25. 

From small numbers in 1900, elk have increased until parts of the range 
are overpopulated. The present kill by hunters does not offset the annual 
increase and it loaves some of the herds untouched. Management needs are: 
"First, to regulate the size of the game herds to the carrying capacity of the 
winter ranges; and second, to obtain in some manner a proper distribution of 
hunters to make balancod use of the game resource." A companion paper, "The us 
of controlled hunting in the Selway in 1937," by Jess Robertson and A. B. Hatch 
(pp. 29-30) reports on a special hunt intended to reduce the numbers of oik on 
remote overpopulated area; tfco results were "disappointing." 

Management : Farm game 

Dam bach, Charl es A. , and Ernest E. Good. Profits for the farmer, 
Soil Conservation (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. , 10 cents a copy), 
4(9), March 1939, pp. 227-228. 

Wildlife on farms is desired by sportsmen .ami nature lovers but "The 
farmer's interest in maintaining this resource, which only he is in a position 
to control, depends, however, upon his conviction that wildlife management is a 
profitable practice on his land." Farmers may get returns from trapping and 
selling furs or from collecting and marketing food animals, as rabbits; example 
arc given. Problems of the farmer in relation to hunter trespass are discussed 
and some of the methods (Williamston Township, Mich.; Wood and Butler counties, 
Ohio) of solving them are reviewed. "Control of hunting, however, is only part 
of wildlife management, though it is becoming increasingly necessary, especiall 
near large urban population centers. A direct cash return from the sale of fur 
and of hunting or fishing rights is important as an incentive to the farmer to 
make positive provision for the welfare of his wildlife. The greatest v~luo of 
sound wildlife management on the farm, however, is biologic, for the natural 
flora and fauna profoundly affect every farmer in his economic and social rela-J 
tionships with the land." 

Management: Farm game 

Davis, Kenneth S. Game fits in — to a system of soil- saving, money- 
making farming; and affords a Minnesota neighborhood real enjoyment in the 
bargain, Successful Farming (1714-24 Locust St., Dos Moines, Iowa, 5 cento 
a copy), 36(10), Oct. 1938, pp. 9, 40-43, 2 maps. 

A popular account cf soil conservation practices in relation to wildlife 
and good farming. A land-use pattern cutting across farm boundaries leaves are 
where game fits in. Notes o:i strip- cropping, woodland management, and food 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No* 20 May, 1939 

Management : Farmer- s port span rola 1 1 onship 

Baker, John H . No wondlor the farmer's frantic, Bird-Lore (1006 Fifth 
Ave, Now York, N. Y. , 50 cents a copy), 41(2) , March-April 1939, pp. 96, 
97-98, 1 cartoon. 

Tho serious problem that hunting trespass presents to farmers is illus- 
trated by examples. An underlying aggravation of the difficulty is the policy 
of State game departments of soiling e-rarmorc licenses. "If hunting and fishing 
as sports are to prevail, basic policies will have to be, not , as is too often 
the case today, opposition to the posting of land and seeking maximum current 
income from the sale of licenses, but earnest desiro to protect the rights of 
farmers and other landowners, and. solicitude to assuro observance of the laws 
and regulations and considerate, sportsmanlike conduct." As a step toward 
restriction of the number of licenses, tho author suggests examinations for 
applicants. It would help also if trespass regulations were incorporated into 
game laws and enforced by game wardens. w Wc believe that landowners deserve 
protection of their rights by tho stato, and that, by and largo, they aren't 
getting that service. It seems to us that, given tho leadership of tho Conserva- 
tion and Fish and Game Departments, tho hunting and fishing fraternities have it 
well within their power to quit committing gradual suicide. Will they do it? 
We think so, when it sinks in that it is they, not tho farmers, who need to 
change their tune. The handwriting is on the wall, as clear as clear can be. 
The 'Sell more licenses' policy spells the end of hunting and fishing as legal 

Management: Farmer- sportsman relatio ns] lip 

Burroughs, R. D . When farmers and hunters cooperate, Michigan Con- 
servation (Dept. of Conservation, Lansing, Mich.), 8(1), Sept. 1938, pp. 
4-5, 2 photos, 2 tables; 8(2), Oct. 1933, p. 11, 1 table. 

There are about half a million pheasant hunters and 12 million acres of 
pheasant range — one hunter to every 27 acres of pheasant territory in 1936. The 
law providing penalties for hunting without permission is quoted and trespass 
troubles are discussed. The Williaraston plan is described as well as its spread, 
which in 1936 included 33 projects in 13 counties. Cooperation of the State 
Conservation Department in extending the system; in 1937 there were 34 coopera- 
tive exchanges in 16 counties. Working of these projects is summarized. A 
higher proportion of sportsmen than of farmers were satisfied; the farmers still 
need assistance in curbing trespass. Difficulties are discussed and suggestions 
for improvements made. Flans have been revised and each farmer participant 
receives a printed sot of instructions. The merits of the cooperative plan are 
summer i zed . 

Management: Jarmer- sportsman relationship 

Conklin, W. Card . The Pennsylvania cooperative farm-game program, 
Pennsylvania Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harrisburg, 10 cents 
a copy), 10(1), April 1939, pp. 4-7, 30-31, 2 photos, 2 maps, 1 tahle. 


May* 1939 

A rert0 , o f the p^ cn^ts^ss in 3 =3 ^« -- poratloI 
revealed no insurmountable aifficuitius anu j.u ±« ^ Proiocts m;<v be 

S both farmers ana sportsmen it w 11 - - ^ fill inv^infmore . thai 
established in 27 counties and in 1938 there were o ^ , n . satisfactory num- 

73,000 acres. Pheasants and rabbits wore gon ^"^fg^ ^ medium crop 
hers but a scarcity of quail was reportc d on a P o e « ^acting excessive 
ef game is disappointing to sportsmen while ^^/^^^ it ally got out 
hunting would be objectionable to farmers. What tbe ^g^^toe/^ufui 
ef the arrangement and what they mos \^f e ^^ C d J^if s G ^r" employed and this 
er careless destruction by hunters. J^^SrS^ Sib1StSii5 cannot be 
was one of the most costly features of the^ PW^a . ™* j^ volunteer ac- 
indefinitely extended by the State o* A ^^^SSS^T was reported-^ 
tion on the part of sportsmen Not a single *^^<^^J tQ P reserv- 
fine record compared to that of other are.-. ;™ f in unha rvested , 

cover, and paid for making food patohjfl, leaving ^^ ^ tho Ganc c.ommissio 
and for rearing pheasants to 6 weeks from chi ^s suppl ie ^ ™ ind icate that 
The Commission also does considerable direct ^^^^.rthelollowing game wa; 
41,534 hunter-days were spent °\ th * ™Y~/ a Zil 859 squirrels 7,857; grouse 
Sr^"^!^! 8 '5SUSS 5 &TW=& S-SU and explained; 6 
they amount to about 32.8 cents per project acre per year. 

Hill R 0. The Willicmston plan of controlled hunting, Michigan 
TTBfrfe&atta Blvd., Detroit, Mich.), Oct. 22, 1938, pp. 3, 12, 

Farmer (1632 Lafayette Blvd. 
4 photos. 

tho identity of hunters. The Villionston Pl-n, ooti b j 

both gunners end femurs, ■»** "J* .f?*"^ £ roller through frequent 
17 Pointics The plan is described but it must do j..a.u.-i.x 
Ltion to roodors'of HUELUI HBVUW, so is not further noticed. 

Msnqgencnt: jamcr-spo rtsne.n relationship 

Wonzol, HSSS 0. R^or-srortsnen cooperation Minnesota Oonsorvn- 
tlenl ^lSept! of Oonser ratlon, St. Paul, limn., 15 cents n copy), ,3, 
Doc. 1933, pp. 6-7, 26, 10 photos. 

t t +v> -> a+.-*+/>*s e-iraa fams conbinod 
"Farmers can produce more game than all t*o rtato * ^ ™ „ 

^t/,«ri +-v>o+ enrH aano is a tangible asset xo tuoi-i. x^w 
if they can be convinced that mob gJ» " M0 ^ Qnlos the article believes 

Xf S=£ SET^i- ESS t» g&W-- t ion excites sc 


'JILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

Managemen t^ Feed patches 

Leopold, Aldo, El lwood B._ Moc re , and lyle K. Sowls. Wildlife food 
patches in southern .Wisconsin, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalane , 
National Park Service, Washington, D. C. , 75 cents a copy), 3(1), Jan. 1939, 
pp. 60-69, 2 tables. 

Authors' abstract: "Ninety food patches of 30 grains were offered during 
four years, and their consumption by wildlife deduced frcn tracks, flushing, 
observation fron blinds, end stoiiach analyses. The authors conclude that desir- 
able summer and fall foods must be palatable and easily lodged; winter foods must 
be stiff- stemmed and unpalatable en Dug:, to escape earlier exhaustion; spring 
foods nust be unpalatable and easily lodged so as to remain protected by winter 
snow. The 30 grains are classified according to those criteria, and according 
to their value to quail, pheasants, and v/intor songbirds. Their phonology is 
recorded in tabular fom. A key is given for the design of composite patches 
which conbinc the properties needed at various seasons. Some grains show a dif- 
ferent palatability when offered on the stalk than when exposed as shelled grain 
in hoppers. Consistency or inconsistency with hopper tests is pointed out." 
Bibliography of 9 titles. 

Manager.iont; Field bo r ders 

Davis o n, Verne E . Putti?:g eroded field borders to good use,. Soil 
Conservation (Supt. of Document s, .Washington, D. C. , 10 cents a copy), 
4(9), March 1939, pp. 224-225, 2 figs. 

The Soil Conservation Service has been developing methods of vegetating 
field borders and "It is hoped that crops and woodlands at last can be made to 
live together as good neighbors, with benefit to farm wildlife, in those parts 
of the country where farms once wcro cr.rvcd out of tho primeval forest." In the 
Southeast, particularly, trees tend to encroach upon the fields and their roots 
draw food and moisture from tho field border so that commonly thore is a marginal 
zone on which it is impossible to produce profitable cultivated crops. Frequent- 
ly enough is spent on fertilizer and seed to pay for establishing cover that 
would effectively protect the soil and provide almost ideal wildlife habitat. 
Details .arc given of the damage an. 1 , of its treatment, including planting shrubs 
in the edge of tho woodland and Lc sp o d o za s or i c e a and ot^er herbs on the field 
border. To discourage encroachment by weeds, the field border nay be disked. 

Manageme nt: Forest ma nage ment and w i Id 1 i f e manageme nt 

Edninstcr, Frank C. Improving farm woodland for wildlife, Soil 
Conservation (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. , 10 cents a copy), 
4(9), pp. 212-214, 223. 

Wildlife is a woodland crop that may be profitably maintained by the 
farmer. Suggestions aro made for management beneficial in relation to trees, 
wildlife, and erosion control. To preserve edge effects, no point within a 
woodland should be more than 300 feet from a margin. Variety in vegetation 
should be sought and succession allowed for. Cover should be provided by plant- 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

ing or other methods, and food production encouraged by liberation of useful 
species, selective cutting, or planting. Devoting field borders to shrubbery 
promotes the edge effect and increases food and cover, besides benefiting both 
crops and woods. Specific recommendations are given for a hypothetical- case in 
the Northeast whore the ruffed grouse, gray squirrel, cottontail, and small bird! 
arc to bo encouraged. 

' Management : Fo re st wildlife 

Ackers, C. P . Practical British forestry (Oxford University Press, 
Amen House, London, E.C. 4, England, $4.00 a copy), xviii+387 pp. , 14 pis., 
14 figs. , tables, 1938. 

Part (pp. 139-157) of chapter 4 describes damage by vertebrates: black 
game and capercailzie eating terminal buds and transplanted seedlings of coni- 
fers; roosting starlings bending over the tops of young trees and fouling the 
soil with their droppings; squirrels consuming seed and girdling trees near the 
top; deer nipping off the loading shoots of young trees; mice and voles oating 
bark; hares devouring tips of transplants; and rabbits damaging both softwoods 
and hardwoods. In each case, control measures arc suggested. 

In chapter 5 on Nursery Work, attention is given to the destruction of 
seeds and seedlings by larks, tits, mice, and moles; together with control 

Chapter 9 discusses Sport and Modern Forestry. Despite the shading out 
effect of maturing plantations, "The private landowner can, ~by judiciously mixi 
high forest conifer stands with high forest broad-leaved trees and efficiently 
run coppice areas, still ensure a maximum yield of high class sport from his 
estate." Gamekeepers usually hostile to forestry, workmen and farmers apt to 
poach; all must be coordinated under competent estate managers. Suggestions for 
management to favor game in woodlands in thicket, pole, and mature forest stagosi 
Remarks also on marginal coverts, coppice, small forests, and strip plantations. 
How to bring birds to the guns in high forest woodlands. Covert plantings 
receive special attention and a list is given of recommended plants according tc 
height classes. Under shady pure stands whore live cover plants cannot be suc- 
cessfully grovm, artificial dead cover can be substituted; directions arc given.; 
Use of willows in improving wot grounds, and formation of partridge driving 
belts also arc discussed. The author concludes that "a combination of well- 
chosen covert plants, artificial dead cover, and well-placed stops will make 
shooting in high forest every bit as easy to arrange as in the old-fashioned 
standards with coppice." 

Managome nt: Fore st wildlife 

Anon . Virginia's wildlife future, American Wildlife (Investment 
Bldg.., Washington, D. C. , 25 cents a copy), 27(5), Sept. -Oct. 1938, pp. 
86-87, 94, 1 drawing, 1 map. 

Recent legislation by the Virginia General Assembly authorizes coopera- 
tion of the State Commission of Gome and Inland Fisheries with the U. S. Forest 
Service in improving the fish and game resources of the State. Tho present con- 


WILDLIFE REVIEW j No* 20 May, IS 39 

dition of the forest lands is described anfl plans and eoop@rr.tiVe arrangements 
are outlined in some detail. "The three immediate objectives are: (1) Restock- 
ing the area with wildlife and fish; (2) protection; (3) improvement of the 
environment. These will bo accomplished and supplemented in the long run by 
seven major efforts: To effect, insofar as possible, a natural balance of all 
wild birds and animals; to maintain sufficient breeding stock of all species so 
that there will be provided the maximum surplus of gone animals, fur bearers, 
birds and fish for annual harvest by sportsmen and trappers on a sustained basis; 
to increase and stabilize the carrying capacity by improving the environment; to 
maintain animal populations not to exceed the maximum natural carrying capacity 
of any one species; to effect and maintain wildlife populations in harmony with 
all other forest users; to protect and preserve the aesthetic value of wild 
animals and birds of both the game and non-gnme species; and last, to control the 
number of undesirable species where and when it is necessary to effect a good 
ecological and biological balance." 

Management: Forest wildlife 

Melis, Pe rc y E . The relationship of the Forest Service to game 
management in Idaho, University of Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Doc. 193S, 
pp. 4-9. 

After discussion of the functions of Federal and State governments and 
their administrative agencies under the .American system, the author makes this 
statement about his organization, in particular: "The Forest Service is a land- 
managing agency and as a land manager is vitally interested in all of the 
resources and in all of the forms of life — flora and fauna — that are present on 
national forest lands. The soil and water, the timber and forage, the fur and 
game, the fish and fowl, and even the scenery and solitude are resources of the 
national forests. Good forest administration requires correlated consideration 
of each and all of these items in management activities." There is some over- 
lapping of functions with respect to wildlife but cooperative effort has thus 
far prevented any serious conflict in Idaho. Suggestions have been made that 
authority be centralised but the author recommends continuance of the existing 
system. "The Forest Service is definitely committed to a policy of cooperation 
with the state authorities and has no plan or desire to supersede any state 
authority in game management. The Forest Service insists, however, that wildlife 
in the forests be managed in accordance with the natural, laws governing its 
existence and that other resources be protected." 

Management: Forest wjldlifo 

Varner, I. M . Special gome problems in the national forests of 
southern Idaho, University of Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Dee. 1938, pp. 9-11. 

The great difficulty is shortage of winter rarigo. Foe ding animals on that 
range aggravates overbrowsing, is too exponsive to continue indefinitely, and is 
otherwise undesirable. Maintenance of refuges characteristically results in 
overpopulations. The animals usually do not move out of the refuges prior to the 
hunting season, hence the kill is small, averaging about 10 percent; in excep- 
tional years, it may roach 50 percent. Game cannot bo properly managed under 
such conditions. Other problems are more briofly mentioned. "One of the most 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

needed things at the present time is a state gomo lav; under which it would be 
possible to take prompt action in managing all came wherever the need arises. 
Most certainly we wish to produce mere game, but before we do so wo must provide 
for its maintenance, and in the meantime we must properly provide for and manage 
what wo now have." 

Management: Fur animals 

Anon. Fur bearers bost managed as one group, Michigan Conservation 
(Dept. of Conservation, Lansing, Mich.), 8(2), Oct. 1938, p. 10, 2 photos. 

Because their furs are prime at about the same time and because all are 
taken by about the same methods. Trapping on land controlled by individuals is 
likely to be best managed. It should have regulative aspects as building up 
populations when prices are low or reducing them when the animals threaten to dc 
harm. Placing any fur animal on the unprotected list is poor practice as it 
jeopardizes the protected species. When all are protected and damage occurs, 
relief can be afforded by permit to trap out of season. 

Management: G e nera l 

Leop o ld, Aldo . Game policy — model 1950, Bird-Lore (1006 Fifth Ave., 
New York, N. Y. , 30 cents a copy), 4-1(2), March-April 1939, pp. 94-95, 97. 

Review of the American Game Association statement of policy of 1930 end 
comparison of the situation then and now with respect to the following "basic 
actions": (1) Extend public ownership and management of game-lands; (2) roco{ 
nize the landowner as the custodian of public game on all other (i.e., non- 
public) lend; (3) experiment with ways to bring land, farmer, and sportsman 
together; (4, 5) trainmen. Find facts; (6) recognize the- protectionist and the 
scientist as sharing the responsibility for wild life; (7) provide funds. The 
greatest single gain since 1930, the author thinks, "lies in the growth of 
detail in the idea that resources are interdependent." He illustrates this by 
discussion of the relations of game and prodators. Overpopulations of browsing, 
animals prove the need of prodators. Moderate losses whether due to hunting or; 
predation have no effect upon average populations. "In predation, however, tho:j 
is some kind of automatic adjustment that tends to keep losses moderate. I wis' 
we could claim the some for gunpowdor.*' Solf -regulation of some populations is 

Management: General, Ohio 

Chapman , Floyd B . Recommendations concerning wildlife management in 
southeastern Ohio, Ohio Wildlifo Research Station (Ohio State University, 
Columbus) Release No. 98, 16 pp., mimeographed, Oct. 1938. 

Condensed from an 800-page research report based on 4 years of research, 
this paper lists accomplishments in management of wildlife #n Ohio public lands 
1935-38 and gives numerous administrative' recommendations. Wildlife management 
suggestions relate to controlled hunting; refuges, sanctuaries, and safety zone 
food, cover, and water development; and to various animals, incliiding gray 
squirrel, deer, bear, raccoon, skunk, fox, woodchuck, rabbit, ruffed grouse, or 
other upland game birds, shore birds, and waterfowl. Bibliography of 16 titles 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

Manage ment : Harvc st ing 

Ilickj^Lowr once E . A survey of hunting by permit holders of con- 
trolled hunting associations, Wood County, Ohio, 1957, Ohio Wildlife Research 
Station (Ohio State University, Columbus) Release 90, 14 pp., 4 figs., 12 
tables, mimeographed, Aug. 1938. 

"The controlled hunting system is essentially a democratic and non-profit 
one. It provides goad hunting for more sportsmen — not less, x x x [it] provides 
cm orderly harvest system without abuses, safeguards the seed stock, and creates 
ideal sportsmen- land owner relationships. It includes active participation of the 
landowner in both the production and harvest of the crop." The leaflet reports 
on the participation and experience in the harvest of 3 classes of hunters, rural 
and non-rural residents, arid visitors. The statistics relate to man-hours of 
hunting, to bags of pheasants, Hungarian partridges and rabbits, percentage of 
hunting done and of game killed on various days of the season, participation by 
the various groups, crippling losseSj and illegal kill (hens). The material is 
presented in tables and graphs, and in 20 summary paragraphs. Bibliography of 
16 titlos. 

Management: lie- rye sting far m game 

Leedy, Daniel L . A survey of hunting by farmer-Landowners in Wood 
County, Ohio, in 1937, Ohio Wildlife Research Station (Ohio State University, 
Columbus) Release 80, 15 pp., 3 figs., 5 tables, 4 naps, mimeographed, Fob. 

About half of the male farm residents arc hunters, the proportion being 
highest where game was most abundant. Statistics are given of the kill of 
pheasants, Hungarian partridges, and rabbits, and there is some information on 
crippling losses in the first group. Tee number of birds taken decreased almost 
regularly during succeeding days of the open season. Results and hunting pres- 
sure are analyzed, graphed, and mapped. Hunting pressure is severe and the 
question is asked whether it accounts, at least in part, for the lack of increase 
in the number of pheasants. 

Management: Harvesting pheasants 

Burroughs, R. D . An analysis of hunting records for the Prairie Fo.rm, 
Saginaw County, Michigan, 1937, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. 
Cahalane, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. , 75 cents a copy), 3(1), 
Jan. 1939, pp. 19-25, 2 pis., 1 map, 3 tables. 

Author's abstract: "The Prairie Farm (8,401 acres) is so isolated by 
rivers and canals that it is possible to register all hunters, and to determine 
their success. The survey involved 2,181 man-days of hunting. The average num- 
ber of hunters per day was 128, which is equivalent to 9 hunters per sq. mile of 
range. The total kill of male pheasants was 616, which is equivalent to 47 per 
sq. mile, or /for ecch 13*6 acres. Sight records indicated a sex- ratio of 1 male 
to 2 female pheasants. Comparison of the kill per gun-hour on the first three 
and the last throo days of the hunting season indicated that less than half of 
the cocks inhabiting the area were killed. These data were used for estimating 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1932 

the total pheasant population on the Prairie Farm at the opening of the hunting 
season, which was calculated to have been 3,696 birds; or 1 pheasant for each 
2.2 acres. Subsequent observations did not disclose any evidence of overshoot! 

Management : Har ve st ing p ho a sant s 

Lcedy, Daniel L. A study of the 1937 hunting season in Wood County, 
Ohio, Ohio Wildlife Research Station (Ohio State University, Columbus) Re- 
lease 91, 8 pp., 2 figs., 3 tables, mimeographed, Sept. 1938. 

"More than 10,000 hunters participate in the yearly gone harvest of Wood 
County — an area of 612 square miles, x x x Pheasants continue to increase 
[however] in spite of the heavy hunting pressure" (17 hunters per square mile). 
Development of the Ohio Pheasant Refuge System, controlled hunting, excellent 
law enforcement, and ideal [environmental] conditions are, in a large measure 
responsible for this increase." Hunting pressure in 2 townships is analyzed, 
tabulated, end graphed; it is by far the most severe during the first 2-3 days 
of the season. Comparisons arc made also of the amount of hunting on lands 
managed, and those not controlled by game associations. "The attitude of fame 
towards pheasants and hunters is more favorable in townships with game protects 
associations than in non-organized townships." There arc some general observa- 
tions and a bibliography of 6 titles. 

Management: Herd regulation 

Edwards, 0. T . Report on the 1938 winter deer range survey and deer 
census, Malheur National Forest, Oregon (U. S. Forest Service, John Day, 
Oreg.), 31 pp., 5 pis., 5 maps, 4 tables, June 1938; text mimeographed, 
illustrations multilithed. 

Preliminary report on a cooperative (Forest Service- Biological Survey) 
investigation of an overpopulation problem. The objectives of the survey and -j 
methods and personnel employed are stated. Counts of deer and estimates of the 
population and carrying capacity arc given for all parts of the Malheur Forest 
and adjacent areas. The better types of range harbored one yearling to every i 
adults but the average for the whole area was 1:3. Seasonal movements are 
described and browse plants and food preferences commented on and tabulated. 1 
most important species arc bitterbrush, mountain mahogany, snowbrush, and juni] 
The condition of the winter range is described for a number of representative 
areas. The limiting factor is winter range mostly in private ownership. Con-i 
trary to popular opinion sheep compete less than cattle with game. Proper nan* 
agement of grazing is desirable but the deer population also must be nonaged. 
Insect and rodent damage to browse plants is mentioned, the former being more j 
important. The effect of predators on the deer herd was of no material conse- j 
quence. Deer drift out of refuges to some extent but also move into thorn duriij 
the hunting season. The tendency for the refuge-protected population is to 
increase to and beyond a safe carrying capacity. "The proper function of a deel 
refuge is not to act as a permanent and inviolate sanctuary, but is rather to 
permit a rapid increase in the deer herd until it can support legal hunting. 
Whenever that objective has been reached, the refuge should be discontinued. 
When handled in this manner the refuge becomes a valuable tool in game manage- 
ment seeking a stabilized maximum yield." 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

Two refuges on the Forest are described} both are overstocked. Eanagemeat 
problens and suggestions are presented in synoptic fom, the publication is sum- 
marized, and the following conclusions drawn: "(1) A serious problen of over- 
population exists on the most .important units of the winter range; (2) the browse 
on these areas is severely damaged and the present productivity and carrying 
capacity is greatly reduced; (3) an immediate reduction in the dear herd is ossen- 
tial to prevent further range damage and a heavy winter loss of doer in the near 
future; (4) done s tic grazing does not materially reduce the game carrying capac- 
ity when the range is properly nanagod; (5) elimination of all livestock fron the 
national forest land would not solve the present deer problen nor would it 
materially benefit the doer herds; (6) elimination of all big gane fron private 
land and the national forests would not materially benefit the livestock industry 
nor would it eliminate the necessity for proper range practices; (7) the future 
game producing capacity of the land on and adjoining the Malheur National Forest 
is dependent upon efficient game nanagenent of the area; (8) it is very desirable 
that a system be devised whereby the land owner possessing winter deer range will 
in effect trade part of the use of this land to the public for gane production in 
return for the use of public lands for livestock production." 

Management: Herd regulation 

Olson, A. L . The 'firing line' in the management of the northern 
elk herd, University of Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Dec. 1938, pp. 36-42. 

History of increase of the Yellowstone elk and of efforts to provide suf- 
ficient winter range. "Any plan which fails to provide for the systematic removal 
of the increase of a herd of animals on any range which is fully stocked must 
necessarily fail." Account of hunts arranged by cooperation with State officials. 
Change in personnel interrupted efforts to reduce the herd until the new 
officials could be educated as to the need — an argument for more stable tenure of 
office in game departments. 

Management: Inventory, fur animals 

Wade, Do uglas. Economic survey and general inventory of native 
Pennsylvania fur-bearers, Pennsylvania Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commis- 
sion, Harrisburg, 10 cents a copy), 10(1), April 1939, p. 10, 1 photo. 

Report of progress of an investigation begun in Snyder County but to be 
extended later. Results from interviewing more than 1,000 families as to their 
trapping activities and income. The trappers are mostly youths, sell largely 
to local buyers, chiefly depend upon the receipts for incidental income. The 
animals most commonly trapped are skunks, muskrats, opossums, and weasels. 

Management: Inventory, Wisconsin lakes 

Bordner, John S. , et al . Inventory of northern Wisconsin lakes, 
State Planning Board (Madison, Wis.), Bui. 5, 64 pp. (7-3/4 x 10-3/4 inches) , 
illus, , many tables, Jan. 1939. 


WILDLIPE REVIEW': No. 20 May, 1939 

Discussion of aquatic plenti includes references to their value as food 
for ducks and other wildlife. The coi.r.ion food plants of heavers, nuskrats, and 
wild ducks arc listed and those of the last- named group tabulated to show the 
parts of the plant utilized, the favorite habitat of the plants, and their valua 
in providing food and cover. There is a short discussion of predators, includin 
turtles, birds, and "brush wolves. tt Lakos favorable for ducks are listed and 
the leading features of nany lakes, including their aquatic vegetation are brief 
ly characterized in tabulations extending over pp. 26-64, :j.nclus£79. ,• 

Management: Land utilization program. 

P eterson, waiter A . Wildlife in the land utilization progran, Soil 
Censer vat ion (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. , 10 cents a copy) , 
4(9), March 1939, p. 229. 

"The land utilization progran of the Department of Agriculture has been 
concerned primarily with effecting needed adjustments in the p'attorn of land 
ownership and land use in distressed subnarginal agricultural areas. Four najoi 
types of development have been planned and initiated on land utilization project 
areas: (1) grazing, (2), forestry, (3) wildlife conservation, and (4) recrea- 
tional facilities." The rather checkered career of the project through- 5 organ- 
izations is summarized in a footnote; it is now in the Soil Conservation Service 
Examples of the work are given as purchase of 32 refuges' totaling 722,000 acres 
for the Biological Survey, reclamation cf marsh lands for States, development of 
quail lands and propagating plants in the Southeast, and of hatcheries for the 
Bureau of Fisheries; small lakes and ponds have been created for fish production 
and wild fowl utilization; streams have been improved; raid sanctuaries estab- 
lished in cooperation with State governments. A table summarizes accomplishment 
according to typos of development for a 3-year period ending with 1938, inclusin 

Management: Leasing shooting rights 

Towns, Homer G . Cash in the rancher* s pocket, Soil Conservation 
(Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C, 10 cents s copy), 4(9), March 1939, 
pp. 226, 232. 

"Though without rights of ownership, in the game itself, the landowner 
who protects 'wildlife, and controls ingress to the land occupied by it, is now 
conceded to have the right to charge the hunter for the privilege of shooting 
over his holdings. 11 Several examples arc given of returns from leases in Texas 
in 1938, the highest at the rate of 33 cents per acre. Control of grazing and 
strict regulation of hunting are necessary to the success of these projects. Il 
general gone is increasing on the leased lands, decreasing elsewhere. Criticise, 
cf commercialization is heard but, "The sportsman who cannot pay' the price does 
not even get the 'free' game; and each season the price readies a new high 
because the gene population drops to a new low. Actually free hunting passed 
with free land. It is now a delusion for which we pay a terrific toll in wild- 
life of all sorts, x x x If We can set in operation a system that will make it 
worth while for the landowner to practice wildlife management we can without 
question reverse- the p reseat downward trend in farm and ranch game." 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

Man ag erne nt : Lodging in relation to wildl ife 

Ch apel, Wm. L . Wildlife vs. logging, Arizona Wildlife and Sportsman 
(125 Nortn 2nd Ave., Phoenix . Ariz., 15 cents a copy), 1(1), Jan. 1939, 
p. 9, 1 photo (on cover of magazine). 

Observations on logging operations south of Williams, Arizona, in rela- 
tion to wildlife. Nothing is said as to whether the loggers wore killing wild- 
life in or oat of season — the greatest hazard in connection with cutting 
operations in some regions. The author, however, thinks that wildlife was little 
disturbed. His conclusions are: "In any discission of game there are three 
essentials to be considered, namely; food, water, and cover. Naturally, logging 
affocts these, as does any force which disturbs the forest. Under modern con- 
servative logging methods the food supply is increased, the water supply is not 
affected, and cover is increased tremendously. Whenever game is in an area, 
some factor decides the maximum number, and is thus the limiting factor. If 
water was the limiting factor before logging, the total number of game animals 
would be unchanged, but if either food or cover was the limiting vactor and 
those are increased by logging, the restriction is raised and the number may 
increase until stopped by a new limiting factor or the old one raised to a new 
point. In a wildlife program certain things are done in the forest to aid game 
in one way or another. It is interesting to note that many of these, such as 
opening the forest stand to increase the areas of food supply, building brush 
shelters, building fire lanes, are all done in logging. When the work is done 
by lumberjacks, the results will be the same as the the work was done inten- 
tionally and for game purposes, and under conservative logging the forest is not 
opened enough to make deer much more visible while hunted." 

Management: Marsh and aquatic plants 

McAtee, W. L . Wildfowl food plants. Their value, propagation and 
management, Collegiate Press, Inc. (Ames, Iowa, $1.50 a copy), ix+141 pp., 
17 pis., 4 figs., tables, Jan. 1939. 

This book discusses briefly the productivity, food value, and utilization 
by wild fowl of aquatic plants. The longest chapter treats important food 
plants by families, giving notes on their variety, recognition, ecology, and use 
by waterfowl. Chapters are devoted to environmental limitations on the growth 
of aquatic plants, as illumination, fertility, quality of water, and pollution; 
to planting suggestions including storing and handling, together with recommen- 
dations of plants for particular environments; to construction of ponds for 
various sites and preparation of planting areas; and to control of undesirable 
plants and animals. There is also a glossary of vernacular names of wild fowl 
food plants, a bibliography of 37 titles, and a 15-page index. 

Management: Miscellaneous 

Anon. North Carolina wildlife conservation (Division of Game and 
Inland Fisheries, Raleigh, N. C. ) , 2(11), Nov. 1938, 15 pp., 4 photos; 
2(12), Dec. 1938, 15 pp., 4 photos; 3(2), Feb. 1939, 15 pp., 4 photos; 
3(3), March 1939, 15 pp., 4 figs. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 20 May, 1939 

November. In an article on Conservation Education, it is emphasized that 
the public must be enlightened if wildlife is to be preserved. Hunting exploits 
seem to have mere news value than management procedures, but the hazards of 
extinction and the means of conserving wildlife must be brought home to the 
people. Sporting magazines concentrate on game species and other agencies dwell 
on specific topics to the neglect of general conservation. The only remedy is 
to teach it in the schools of all grades. The economic, esthetic, and recrea- 
tional values of wildlife havo a natural interest to youth which should be 
appealed to in an effort to make them good conservationists. 

December. The great response of gray squirrels to provision of nest 
boxes (kegs, and sections of hollow logs) and food on a North Carolina farm is 
noted. Birds nested successfully in the same area, only one nest of 9 found 
being destroyed. House cats were deadly enemies of the young squirrels. The 
surplus population of squirrels migrated to nearby woodlands. 

February. An article on game as a crop emphasizes that good distribution 
of food and cover is just as important as adequate quantity. As a rule it is 
not difficult to provide desirable interspersion on North Carolina farms, but 
"clean farming" apparently on the increase is a menace that must be met. In a 
brief sketch relating to ditch banks, it is pointed out that these are often 
important as wildlife highways, and it is urged that cleaning them be restricted 
to one side at. a time, or to blocks with areas between them left, undisturbed. 

March. Notes on destruction of wildlife by automobiles with plea for 
more care by drivers. Suggestions as to the placing, preparation, and planting 
of food patches with list of 18 recommended plants and dates and rates per acre 
of sowing. In a discussion of estimating quail populations, the counting of 
whistling cocks is said to bo useful only in spring and of no real value in 
forming estimates. Trapping is impracticable, and the most feasible method for 
the average landowner seems to be counting of coveys and roughly estimating the 
number in each during February and March. There are notes on possible densities 
of quail population and on safe harvest proportions. In. an article on the wood 
duck by J. W. Eos tier, arc quoted observations on these birds eating acorns 
dropped into water by squirrels, and of a mother wood duck carrying her young 
singly from the nest to water on her back. 

Management : Mi s c e 1 1 a neous 


Ruhl , H. D . Game Division. Ninth Biennial Rep. Dept. of Conserva- 
tion, State of Michigan (Lansing) 1937-1938, pp. 191-254, 1 pi., 1 map, 
21 tables. 

About 22 pages of this report are devoted to deer; "they cover in part the 
some material as Bartlett's paper (abstracted elsewhere, pp. 20-21, in this 
issue of WILDLIFE REVIEW) but also supplement it. Phases of the subject treated 
are history of the Michig-.n doer herd and its food supply, summary of present 
conditions, crop damage by deer, experiments with electric fence, feeding 
experiments, food and cover plantings, release cuttings, yarding conditions, and 
pathology. Progress in re-establishment cf the moose and elk is reported. 
Under the head of small game is discussed the bad effects of drainage, especi- 



May, 1939 

ally on muskrats; decline in the cottontail population (best remedy — reduction 
in .'.mount of hunting) ; the ruffed grouse cycle now on the upgrade (more hunting 
can bo permitted), end management and other studios of this bird; plan birr'; of 
sharp-tailed grouse; status of the Hungarian partridge; the closed season on 

squirrels; and wildlife investigations on the W. 

Ke 11 ogg San c tu ary 


areas. A report on cooperative study of the food habits of predators gives 
definite information on 5 species: coyote, wolf, red fox, mink, and otter. The 
fur crop continues to rank with several of the more important agricultural com- 
modities and three-fourths of it is produced on the hotter agricultural lands. 
Information is given on public shooting grounds, wildlife sanctuaries, State game 
farm, roadside zoos, cooperative farm-game program, and extension activities, 
and there is a summary of the status of the principal fur and game species of the 


Ackers, C. P. 
Aldous, Shaler E. 
Bailey, W. W. 
Baker, John H. 
Baker, Rollin H. 
Bartlett, I. K. 
Bennett, Logan J. 
Bernard, Richard 
Bond, Richard M. 
Bordner, John S. 
Brassard, J. A. 
Burroughs, R. D. 
Cahalane, Victor H. 
Chapel, wm. L. 
Chapman, Floyd B. 
Chitty, Helen 
Clarke, C. H. D. 
Clarke, Talbot t E. 
Clemens, W. A. 
Conklin, W. Card 
Cottam, Clarence 
Cox, W. T. 
Criddle, Stuart 
Dambach, Charles A. 
Davis, Kenneth S. 
Davison, Verne E. 
Deck, Raymond S. 
De ITio, R. M. 
Dery, A. 

Edminster, Frank C. 
Edwards, 0. T. 
English, P. F. 
Errington, Paul L. 



























2, 13 

Fisher, Edna M. 
Ford, John 
Gabrielson, Ira N. 
Giles, LeRoy "W. 
Gladirg, Bun 
Cod den, F. W. 
Good, Ernest E. 
Graham, Edward H. 
Gray, Anderson M. 
Green, YJm. E. 
Gutzman, L. T. 
Harris, Kenton L. 
Hatcn, A. B. 
Hendrickson, George 0. 
Heyward, Frank 
Hicks, Lawrence E. 
Hill, R. G. 
Irving, Laurence 
Kelway, Phyllis 
Kestler, J. W, 
Knappen, Phoebe 
Knowlton, George F. 
Langenbach, John R. 
Lagler, Karl F. 
Lay, Daniel W. 
Lecdy, Daniel L. 
Lehmann, Valgene W. 
Leopold, Aldo 
Lewis, Harrison F. 
Little, Elbert L. , Jr. 
Mayr, Ernst 
McAtee, ¥. L. 
McCami, Lester J. 



























14, 29, 30 


25, 28 




21, 33 

— O' 5— 


McDowell, Robert D. 
Melis, Percy E. 
Middleton, A. D. 
Middour, J. C. 
Moore, Ellwood B. 
Morton, James N. 
Munro, J. A. 
Mirray, T. B. 
Olson, A, L. 
Nelson, A. L. 
Par sell, Jack 
Peterson, Walter A. 
Plattes, Cyril 
Ritter, Wm. E. 
Ruedemann, Rudolf 
Ruhl, H. D. 
Salyer, J. Clark, II. 
Schoonmaker, W. J. 
Sheldon, Carolyn 







11, 12 





10, 11 


Sherman, H. B. 
Simp son, Thomas W. 
Smith, Laurence H. 
Sowls, Lylo K. 
Stoddard, Herbert L 
Sutton, George M. 
Swan , Charles 
Swift, Erne si 
Towns, Homer 0. 
Trump, George E. 
Twichell, A. R. 
Vomer, I. M. 
Wade, Douglas 
Weaver, El ore nee G. 
Wenzel, Herman C. 
White, H. C. 
Wolf, Fred T. 
Wolf, Frederick A. 
Wooster, L. 

u D. 


























Management : 

Planting . 


Partridge peas .... 


Storage of seeds of 
aquatic plants . . . 
Planting for birds . . . , 
Planting for wildlife, 


Planting for wildlife, s 

Planting for wildlife and 
erosion control .... 

Pond development 

Present trends 


Refuges for pheasants . . 


Seal, Fur 

Seed, breaking dormancy of 


Soil conservation in rela- 
tion to lyildlife .... 
Spraying wild fruit . . . 




Game birds, Pennsylvania 


Transplanting elk . , . , 
Trapping caribou ..... 
Trapping prairie grouse 
Wildlife on the range . , 

Winter feeding 

Winter feeding, squirrels 
Winter range ....... 









Natural history: 

Birds, Allegany State Park 

N. Y 14 

3irds of Tenacsscc .... 15 

birds of Texas 15 

Fauna of Olynpic National 

Park 15 

Flora and wildlife of 

Tennessee 15 

Fur and game mammals of 

Alaska 15 

Indication of age of water- 
fowl 16 

Legumes of Wisconsin ... 16 

Ilammals of Idaho 16 of Quebec 17 

Mammals of Tennessee ... 17 

Papaw 17 

Reptiles of Arkansas ... 17 

Reptiles of Ohio 18 

Warblers of Hew Jersey . . 18 

Wildlife of salt marshes . 18 

Predation , 18 

Propagation 19 

Research 22 

Weights: Birds 24 

Wildlife research and management 

leaflets 24 

Special article 27 

Notes and news 29 

Author index for this issue ... 31 

Washington, D. C, 

No. 21 

May, 1939 

iilLDLIEE R3VIEW: No. 21 May, 1939 

Mana geme nt: Planting 

Anon. Permanent food and cover planting for* wild life, Ivlinnesota 
Dept. of Conservation (St. Paul), 3 pp. (3-1/2" x 12"), 2 pis., nailtl- 
lithed, April 1952. 

Preparing such facilities is ;, the most necessary work to be done in 
Minnesota for the better conservation of valuable wild life." The leaflet 
recommends triangular plantations (apex to the north), describes their advan- 
tages, and suggests planting arrangement and species selection. The illustra- 
tions clarify the suggestions. 

Managemen t : Planting 

Ben nett, J. M. Specifications for trees and shrubs, Parks & 
Recreation (327 west Jeffersor. St., Rockfcrd, 111., 25 cents a copy), 
22(3), Nov. 1933, pp. 100-110, 6 photos. 

The information in this article should be helpful to anyone having the 
responsibility of placing largo orders for woody plants. Suggestions are made 
as to preliminary communications with bidders and as to the form of contracts, 
besides those relating to specifications for the. plants and stipulations as to 
their handling. 

Man agement ; PJ^ant ing 

Connors, Charles H. Woody plants with ornamental fruits, Now Jersey 
Agr. Expt. Sta. (ifow Brunswick) Circ. 300, 23 pp., 6 pis., October 1238. 

With the exception of a short paragraph on birds in the garden, this 
publication does not treat wildlife directly. It contains, however, consider- 
able information that may bo useful to the wildlife manager. Tables of trees 
and shrubs with fleshy fruits indicate the height of the various species, the 
color and season of their flowers and fruits. Much the sane information is 
given for vines, and there is supplemental data on other plants with interest- 
ing flowers or pods. 

Management : PI an t i ng 

Pear son , A . M v , and _J. W. Webb. Planting food crops for game birds, 
Alabama Polytechnic Institute (Auburn, Ala.) Agr. Expt. Sta., 5 pp.. 3 figs, 
1 table, mimeographed, March 1939. 

Directions as to x.herc, what, when, and how to plant, with table of 14 
crop plants showing season of availability of the seeds and their utilization 
by bob-whites and doves. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: Ho. 21 May, 1939 

Ma nagemen t : _ PI ant ing 

Shepherd, Iferry W. Woody plants for landscape use in California, 
California Agricultural Extension Service Circ. (University of California, 
Berkeley) 109, 48 pp., 15 figs., 3 tables, Aug. 1938. 

Besides general instructions, this publication includes tables listing 
native and exotic trees, shrubs, end vines suitable for California conditions. 

Management : Plan ting: 

Wyman , D on ald . Hedges, screens, & windbreaks (McGraw-Hill Book Co. , 
330 West 42nd St., New York, N. Y. , £2.50 a copy), £49 pp., illus. , 1938. 

This voIulic treats rorc than 250 plants that can be used for hedge or 
screening purposes. There is an alphabetical descriptive list, with notes on 
use, care, and hardiness (indicated by figures referring to zones on naps at 
both the beginning and the end of the volume). The uses of hedges, planting 
practices, and care after planting are discussed, and there are selections of 
plants for different purposes as for ornament , protection, screens, windbreaks, 
and shclterbolts, and for particular regions. Exotic as well as native plants 
arc included. 

Management : Plant ing ,_ Minnesota 

Booglin, Loui s. Hardy plcn'Gs with ornamental fruits in Minnesota, 
Parks and Recreation (327 "..est Jefferson St. , Roekford, 111., 25 cents a 
copy), 22(4), Dec. 1938, pp. 186-188. 

Listed according to seasons end colors; a section on plants v/hosc fruits 
are available in summer and ir; .antcr. There are special notes on bittersweet , 
crab apples, luulbcrry, mountain-ash, and elders. 

Management; Plant i ng, part r idgo poas 

Ma s soy, A. B. Native food plants. The partridge peas, Virginia 
Wildlife "(Elacksburg, 7a.), 2(2), Oct. 1938, p. 5. 

Cas sia nic ti tans and 0. fasciculate . Appearance, value to birds; col- 
lecting and scarifying seeds; treating seed with boiling water and sand; 
sowing . 

Management ; Planting, s h oltorbelts 

Tron ic, P. B. Wisconsin's shclterbolts groxv longer, Wisconsin Con- 
servation Bui. (Wisconsin Conservation Dcpt., Madison), 4(4), April 1939, 
pp. 3-8, 4 photos. 

Value of shclterbolts in enhancing crop production; interest of farmers; 
more than 4 million tree sets distributed from State nursery in 5 years. A 
secondary value is the added winter cover afforded game birds and animals, more 
needed novo- than ever because natural groves on farms are being depleted. 


./ILDLIF2 REVITJ: No. 21 May, 1939 

Ik-^-S^EfGlj Plc.nting i? ^sto rage of jffip d s . of j^ucjjic^ 2^i2£§. 

Sharp, ' Jard M. Propagation of Potamogotoii and Sagittaria from seeds 
American Wildlife (Invcstmort Bldg. , Washington, D. C, 25 cents a copy), 
28(2), March-April 1959, pp. 87-95, 5 photos. 

Large scale methods developed at the Valentino Migratory Uatcrfowl 
Refuge, Nebraska, for harvesting, preserving, and planting seeds of Po tamogctp 
poctinatus , P. zos toriformi s, end Sagi ttar ia la tifolia . The Sag ittaria seeds 
were stored semi-dry and those of ffojiamog oton wet. Treatments for breaking 
dormancy of the seeds so as to shorten the period of storage arc 

Management: ■ Plan ting jfpjF b ir_d_s 

Z?. n -5. c ib-Ji.•-Z• Pruit and berry- bearing trees and shrubs, Parks and 
Recreation (327 'Jest Jefferson St. , Rockford, 111., 25 cents a copy), 
22(5), Nov. 1958, pp. 116-118. 

"Birds add greatly to the charm of any landscape, and by providing then 
with proper food and shelter wo may be sure of their abundance. " Nativo and 
exotic trees and shrubs usoful in Missouri are listed together with informatic 
as to the color of their fruit and as to their bearing season. 

Managomont: Planting for triL l d l i f e ; muskrat s 

Gill esc, John. Muskrat forming, Hunt or -Trader-Trapper 
(586 South 4th St ., "Columbus , Ohio, 15 cents a copy), 78(1), Jan. 1959, 
pp. 49-50. 

Consists mainly of statements about the value to muskrats and methods c 
planting the following: 'Jildricc, spattordock, cattail, wapato, sweet flag, 
white watorlily, pink pond lily, bulrush, wildcelcry, and bur-reed. 

Mana gomont: i Planting fer vdldlif o > .shpJLtprbolt s 

0* Cornell, Frank B . Shelter bolts for wildlife, Outdoor America 
(1167 Merchandise Mart", Chicago, 111., 10 cents a copy), 4(2), Doc. 1958, 
pp. 4-5, 5 photos. 

Sheltcrbolts while planned to increase agricultural productivity are oi 
value also to wildlife. They have the advantage too of being an adjunct to 
agriculture of which the farmer can approve that is helpful in relation to wi]j 
animals. In Texas the usefulness of shelterbolt plantings to wildlife has 
already been demonstrated and such areas have been used for refuges on cooper* 
tivc game preserves. Similar objectives are in view also in other plains 
States. The nature of the belts, the trees used in them, and the ways in whic 
they aid crops and midlife aro noted in some detail. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 21 May, 1939 

Management : Plant i r.g for wildlife and erosion control 

Rule, G-lor.n K. Soil defense in the Northeast, U. 3. Dopt. Agr. 
Farmers' Bui. 1810 (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. , 15 cents a 
copy), 69 pp., 39 figs., 1938. 

Pago 36 is allotted to Wildlife Plantings. Wildlife can survive and 
multiply only where there is sufficient cover and food. When planting for 
erosion control, conservationists keep in mind needs of wildlife. A list of 
shrubs and trees suitable for planting in the region is given. 

Management: Pond development 

Davi s, Cecil N. Utilizing farm ponds for wildlife, Soil Conservation 
(Supt. of Documents", Washington, D. C, 10 cents a copy), 4(9), March 1939, 
pp. 230-232, 1 table. 

Drought in the west stimulating interest in water conservation, facili- 
tated the Soil Conservation Service's program of gully control by impoundment. 
Not only wcro water control needs met, but by planting and other special treat- 
ment, water supply sites were made into excellent wildlife habitats. Results 
in Missouri arc described. Fencing to exclude livestock is of first importance; 
the animals can be watered at troughs outside the area being developed. Cover 
restoration, planting of shrubs and trees for windbreaks and shade, and estab- 
lishing marsh and aquatic vegetation to control vjavc action, strain out silt, 
and bind banks, are other measures employed. Directions for planting arc given 
and the species recommended are listed. Tho table indicates the utility of 26 
groups of plants as silt- strainers, bank-binders, wave-breakers, and spring- 
inhabitants, and as wildlife foods. 

Managem ent: Present^ tre nds 

S immon s_,_ J ames R . Feathers and fur on the turnpike, Christopher 
Publishing House (Boston, Mass., $1.75 a copy), 148 pp., 10 pis., 3 figs., 
4 tables, 1938. 

2. A study of the present trends in wildlife conservation, pp. 11-12, 
95-148. "Wildlife conservation, with its accompanying profession of wildlife 
management, is emerging as a distinct unit, just as forest conservation with 
its accompanying profession of forestry emerged some fifty years ago in 
America." The discussion is by a forester with a sympathetic attitude toward 
ivildlife management. "Forestry practice and wildlife management should 
develop together." Game technicians and foresters should strive to compromise 
between extreme points of view. The writer is not in favor of concentrating 
all Federal conservation activities in one Department. He urges that wildlife 
management benefit non-game, as woll as game, species. Considerable space is 
devoted to the prospects of correlating forost management and wildlife manage- 
ment , the outlook boing, in tho writer's opinion, hopeful. On the vexed ques- 
tion of burning, he says: "In the untouched forest Nature had to make some of 
her openings by tho use of fire. Hence, if wc want the wildlife in managed 
forests wo must substitute clearings to a reasonable extent" (p. 116). On 


WILDLIFE REVIEW. No. 21 May, 1939 

another controversial question lio xvritos: "The raore it is studied the less 
enthusiasm can he mustered in favor of the combination public shooting ground 
and wildlife sanctuary" (p. 116). Activities of arms and ammunition interests! 
whilo on the whole commended, arc criticized as being' toe exclusively for the 
benefit of game species and as putting too much emphasis on "vermin" control. 
Cooperative research on wildlife is praised. The effect of silvicultural 
operations upon wildlife arc discussed with largely favorable comment. There 
is a chapter on the training of a wildlife conservationist, and a prophetic 
postscript entitled, "The Work Ahead." It portrays wonderful opportunities, 
forecasts groat improvement in the relations of mankind and wildlife, and 
asserts that, "wildlife conservation is on the march." 

M anagement ; Re fuges 

Cox, "Jilliam T. Marsh firebreaks — a boon to wildlife, American 
Forests (919 Seventeenth St. , N. VI. , Washington, D. C, 35 cents a copy), 
45(3), March 1939, pp. 109-111, 137, 6 photos. 

On the Beltrami project, Minnesota, an unwisely drained area, construc- 
tion of numerous small dams in marginal ditches, protected the area from fire, 
and held up the water level so that the soil became saturated, and small ponds 
filled. The response of wildlife has been gratifying, especially in the case 
of beavers and waterfowl, but all resident species, including deer, elk, 
caribou, and moose, arc profiting. The cost of development did not exceed 
Ol.OO per acre. 

Management : Refuges 

Gabriel son, I ra N . Range restoration, Bird-Lore (1006 Fifth Ave., 
Now York, IT. Y. , 30 cents a copy), 41(2), March-April 1959, pp. 63-66, 
2 photos. 

Restoration of vegetation chiefly due to elimination of grazing domestic 
animals has been amazing on the Charles Sheldon Antelope Refuge and Range in 
Nevada and the Kart Mountain Refuge in Oregon. It seems quite probable that a 
moderate reduction in the number of livestock on many ranges will result in 
equally rapid recovery. The author is of the opinion "that a large part of the 
overgrazed lands of the West can be rapidly improved and that the real problem 
areas are much smaller in extent than we have been led to believe." 

Management: Refuge s 

Many/oil e r, Jack . Minnesota's "big bog," Minnesota Conservationist 
(Dept. of Conservation, St. Paul, Minn., 15 cents a copy), 63, December 
1938, pp. 12-13, 24-25, 28, 3 photos; r/ildlife management in Minnesota's 
"big bog," 65, January 1939, pp. 14-15, 23, 27, 5 photos; Woodland caribou 
in the "big bog," 65, February 1939, pp. 16-17, 23, 30, 4 photos. Evi- 
dently there is an error in the serial numbers. 

December. The big bog is an unsuccessfully drained area of about 
2,000,000 acres in northern Minnesota. It is the site of the Beltrami and 


May, 1939 

Pine Island land utilization projects. The first installment describes the 
tract and some of the things done to develop it, and gives general information 
on the wildlife present. 

January. This part comments briefly on work with a variety of animals. 
Banding, population, and disease investigations of snowshoe hares are in 
progress; a new filarial parasite has been discovered. Transplanting and 
artificial feeding of beavers have been undertaken and a means worked out of 
identifying beaver blood as a clew to poaching. Creating of ponds both by 
impoundments and excavations (blasting) have improved the habitat for moose; 
Bang's disease, an important livestock malady, was identified in one moose. 
A nervous disturbance called moose disease also is reported upon. Parasites 
of elk, starvation of deer, control of wolves, study of game birds, and food 
and cover planting also arc discussed. 

February. Account of the dwindling caribou herd and of the capture and 
transportation of Canadian animals to restore it. The subject is treated in 
other articles by the same author abstracted elsewhere (pp. 11, 12) in this 

Management : Refuges 

Rut ledge, Archibald . Private game preserves, Farm Journal 
(Washington Square, Philadelphia, Pa., 5 cents a copy), July 1938, p. 7. 
Also in Conservation (919 - 17th St. , N. W. , Washington, D. C, 20 cents 
a copy), 4(5), Sept. -Oct. 1938, pp. 33-34. 

Hunters arc so numerous that in the author's opinion it will soon be 
necessary for success to go to a wilderness or join a club which controls a 
private game preserve. "I surely sec fchis day coming if every landoxvner on 
whoso property any gome has its range does not set aside a certain part of his 
property as an inviolate game refuge." Illustrations of the value of such 
refuges are given. 

M anagement: Rcfugos 

Wake man, Max. Wildlife laboratories — the gene refuges, Michigan 
Conservation (Michigan Dcpt. of Conservation, Lansing), 8(3), Nov. 1938, 
p. 10. 

Though hunting is prohibited on some and closely restricted on others 
of the State game areas, they, nevertheless, contribute to the improvement of 
hunting by serving as testing grounds for a variety of experiments. The 
research program is outlined, and classification of the areas (20 in number), 
their location and combined acreage stated. 

Management: Refuges f or pheasants 

Loedy, Dani el^L. What constitutes a good pheasant refuge?, Ohio 
Wildlife Research Station (Ohio State University, Columbus), Release 85, 
4 pp., mimeographed, Jan. 1938. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 21 May, 1939 

Summary of extensive Ohio experience with areas managed to populate 
surrounding territory by overflow or to produce stock that is trapped andv 
moved elsewhere. As to size, a refuge of 200 acres largely in crops, but ' 
including 40-G0 acres of woodland will winter 2,000 pheasants. Because of the 
risk of crop damage, it is usually inadvisable, however, to maintain popula- 
tions of more than 150-200 birds to the square mile. It is important to take 
farmer sentiment into consideration in selection of a refuge site. A central, j 
and 4-5 scattered auxiliary, refuges to a township are recommended. They arc 
safer for the birds if remote from main highways. Large acreages of grain 
crops succeeded by weedy stubble are necessary, and there must bo plenty of 
well distributed cover. Winter roosting sites may bo in woodlots, thickets, 
or fields of old sweet clover or weeds. Sites in which pheasants can nest 
undisturbed arc very desirable. Fox squirrels and rabbits compete for food but 
do not otherwise interfere with pheasants, but large populations of raccoons, 
skunks, opossums, weasels, hawks, and croivs may be harmful and require control. 
"However, the most important predator control is that directed against men, 
cats, and dogs." 

Manag ement : S al t i ng_ 

Case, George. The use of salt in sparing winter range on the Sclivay, 
University of Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Dec. 1938, pp. 27-29. 

This material has previously been abstracted from 2 sources; sec 
WILDLIFE REVIEW, No. 15, July 1938, pp. 28, 35. 

Management : Se al , Fur 

Bowe r, Ward T. Alaska fishery and fur-seal industries in 1937, 
U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, Administrative Report 31 (Supt. of Documents, 
Washington, D. C., 15 cents a copy), 150 pp., 1938. 

Notes on protection of walruses and sea lions. Take of x/halos,thc 
first under the international treaty for the regulation of whaling, was 
slightly in excess of that for the previous year. The status and utilization 
of blue foxes and reindeer on the Pribilof Islands arc discussed and there is 
a 25-page report on the fur-seal industry. The herd numbered more than 
1,800,000 and the take of skins was 55,180. Tho full account of a computation 
of the fur seals by sexes and age classes, with remarks on mortality at sea, 
and suggestions as to management, is by Harry J. Christoff crs. 

Management: Seed, breaking dormancy of Crataegu s 

Flc mion, Florence . Breaking the dormancy of seeds of Crataegus 
species, Boycc Thompson Inst. (Yonkcrs, N. Y. ) Contributions 9(5), July- 
Sept. 1938, pp. 409-423, 2 figs., 7 tables. 

Materials, methods, end results arc described and tabulated. "All 
Crataegus seeds have dormant embryos 'which must be subjected to a period at low 
temperature in a moist medium before germination occurs." A separate inhibit- 
ing coat-effect in some species can be overcome by treatment with acid and high 


iJTLDLIFE REVIEW: No. 21 May, 1939 

temperature. "By proper troatment soodlingfl of all Crataagus_ specios studied 
can bo obtained on a large scale the first spring after the seeds ripen." 
Bibliography of 11 titles. 

Management: Soil conservation in relation to wildlife 

Fox, A dr ian C . Annual crop buffer windbreaks, Dakota Farmer (The 
Bushncll Co. ,~ Aberdeen, S. Dak.), March 11, 1939, pp. 96-97, 3 photos. 

Corn, millet, sorghum, and sunflowors planted in long rows .on, field 
borders and on contours to decrcaso vand erosion and hold drifting snow proved 
to be of considerable value in providing travel lanes, cover, and food for 
both native and introduced game birds. The utility of conventional food 
patches with a greater variety of both tall and low growing seed producers also 
is emphasized. 

Management; Soil conservation in relation to wildlife 

Holt, Ernest G . Birds and boasts aid erosion control, American 
Wildlife (Investment Bldg. , Washington, D. C. , 25 cents a copy), 28(2), 
March-April 1939, pp. 79-86, 5 photos. 

Popular account of wildlife benefits due to erosion control practices 
as revegotation, control of grazing and firo, strip cropping, terracing, and 
soil protection on areas not undor cultivation. 

Management: Soi l co nservation in rela ti on to wildlife 

Turner , ^ L. T. , and A. B. Hatch . The influence of soil .conservation 
practices on upland game birds on Idaho farms, University of Idaho 
(Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Dec. 1938, pp. 67-69. 

Most practices that favor soil conservation also benefit game. Control 
of hunting and prcdation, even if supplemented by restocking, mostly has failed 
to maintain abundance of gome but success has come from adding to these, 
environmental development. Soil conservation practices now used in Idaho pro- 
duce optimum conditions for Hungarian partridges and ring-necked pheasants. 
Suggestions arc given for dry farms, irrigated lands, and cattle ranges. 

Manag eme nt: Spraying wild fruit 

Chapman, Floyd B. Use of chemical sprays to increase yiolds of 
fruits utilized by wildlife, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. 
Cahalano, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. , 75 cents a copy), 3(2), 
April 1939, pp. 141-143, 1 table. 

Author's abstract: A survey of natural wildlife foods and factors con- 
trolling their production in southern Ohio indicated that certain insect posts 
and fungus diseases, some of which attack domestic fruits also, arc responsible 
for decreased palatability, premature abscission, decay before ripening, or 
complete destruction of wild fruits. The valdlife manager might profitably 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 21 May, 1939 

utilize certain chemical sprays, especially in rarjiagod refuges, in order to 
iioprovo the yield and quality of certain fruits and to prolong their avail- 
ability into critical periods. The use of a lead arsenate spray on tuo species 
of wild grapes (Yitis aestivalis and J. lab rusc a) save excellent results in 
controlling the grape berry moth. Vines treated with two applications of a 
spray prepared by dissolving 4 level table spoonfuls of load arsenate in one 
gallon of water with a soap spreader retained their fruits until midwintor 
when they were most useful to ruffed grouse, songbirds, and certain mammals." 

Management : S tocking 

Allen, Pur ward L . Nature versus the incubator, Michigan Conservation 
(Michigan Dcpt. of Conservation, Lansing), 8(4), Dec. 1938, pp. 4-5, 8-10, 
3 photos. 

Reproductive potential is such that any species unchecked vrould soon 
overrun the earth. "This fact is vital in comparing the rato of natural repro- 
duction to the possibilities of artificial propagation. Svcn if wo spent the 
last penny of all available gasric funds wo could not artificially propagate as 
many animals of any species as vwuld bo reproduced naturally, under favorable 
conditions. Artificial propagation is inevitably limited by financial cost and 
many other practical considerations, anil the number of animals that can be 
reared artificially is but a fraction of the number that can be reached in 
natural reproduction. From this it reasonably follows that if the natural 
production of a species is continuing normally and 3till the amount of game is 
deficient, there is little hope of creating an abundance through artificial 
propagation. That would be like pouring a teacup of water into a hole down 
which a barrel already has been poured. Plainly, attention needs to be given 
to that other essential consideration — percentage of survival — and an investi- 
gation be made of the habitat." 

Habitat must be favorable if restocking operations are to succeod and 
nothing is accomplished by stocking beyond carrying capacity. References are 
included to illustrative findings in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, 
and description of hypothetical examples of useless rostocking. Stresses the 
need of more detailed knowledge of all the factors involved but ends by saying, 
"One conclusion seems quite clear. If wc persist in reducing the carrying 
capacity of game range by the destruction of cover and continue other damaging 
practices, and then proceed to overshoot those maltreated areas, wc can rolcaso 
imported or coop-roarod game into then indefinitely without gaining anything 
but experience." 

M anagement ; Stocking 

Hatch, A. B. The refuge trapping system of pheasant management, 
University of Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Dec. 1938, pp. 60-63, 1 table. 

Reviews Connecticut and Pennsylvania experience as to the relation of 
stocking of pen- raised pheasants to the hunting kill and says: "The truth is 
that birds which are raised in the wild at no cost to the state apparently 
provide the bulk of the hunting kill, and the larger the release program, 

-10- , 

uTLDLIFE REVTE"./: No. 21 May, 1939 

although the cost per bird nay be lov/or, tho loss effective become the dollars 
spont in artificial propagation. In recognition of this situation, nost states, 
which have boon studying these problems for a number of years, have finally 
directed their major attention to methods for increasing the success of wild 
propagation. One of the nost successful techniques found 30 far has been tho 
so-called refuge trapping system. " Ohio and Idaho illustrations arc cited 
vhich show that this system is highly efficient and economical. 

M anagomo nt: 3 toe kin g_ caribou 

Manv;e i lor , John , "./oodland caribou study in northern Minnesota, 
Parks end Recreation (327 Ucst Jefferson St., Rockford, 111., 25 cents a 
copy), 22(2), Oct. 193C, pp. 74-78, 2 photos, 1 map. 

Decline of the Minnesota herd to 4 individuals. Reasons: Li.rLted 
range, lack of winter food, drovming of young in drainage ditches, poaching, 
parasitism and disease, inbreeding and sterility, and lack of calving range. 
List of 20 foods in the order of their preference in March and April. Environ- 
mental conditions have been improved and predators combat tod. Ten individuals 
from Saskatchewan have been brought in, and kept in an enclosure of electrified 
fencing to serve as tho nucleus of a herd, which it is hoped can be protected 
and v.lll increase. 

Managemen t : St oc k i ng _cot tont ail 

Hick io, B..ul. Rabbits — and some of the costly myths about restock- 
ing them, Michigan Conservation (Michigan Dcpt. of Conservation, Lansing), 
8(6), Feb. 1939, pp. 4-5, 8, 10-11, 2 photos. 

Review of experience, particularly in F jni^sylvanic. and Ohio, and con- 
clusion that there have been no beneficial results, and that neither importation 
nor propagation of rabbits has boon demonstrated to be financially justifiable. 
The parallel to pheasant management inferred by sportsmen is falso for the 
vital reason that eggs end young of pheasants can be heaidlcd by machines 
while the young of rabbits can be cared for on any extensive scale only by 
their mothers in the wild. The author comments, with respect to pheasants also 
that "once the state is populated there is little that can bo done vath game 
farm stock to build up the wild population." Sec also abstract under Diseases 
and Parasites: Tularemia a bar to importation of rabbits, in UILDLIFE REvIEU, 
No. 19, April 1939, p. 24. 

Ma nagement; Sjto_cki_.ig gano_ birds_,_ Ponnsylv ania 

jfcjsjscll.?, CLtas^ ~J. The chukar partridge, Pennsylvania Game News 
(Pennsylvania Gene Commission, Harrisburg, 10 cents a copy), 9(12), March 
1939, pp. 10-11, 31, 3 photos. 

Discussion of the chances of success, -and account of experiences to 
date, with this species. Of exotic birds already tried, the ring-nocked 
pheasant is well established, the Hungarian partridge is still on trial, and 
the Rccvos pheasant has proved unsatisfactory. 


wTLDLLFE REVIEW: No. 21 May, 1939 

M anagement: . Stocking pheasants 

ubsscl l, Charles U . The six-\;cck old pheasant program, Pennsyl- 
vania Gone Nous (Pennsylvania Gone Commission, Harrisburg, 10 cents a 
copy), 9(10), Jan. 1939, pp. 4-5, 30, 6 photos. 

Directions for rearing pheasants received at the age of six uccks , 
including description and illustrations of holding pens; and instructions for 
care and feeding, netting and handling birds; treatment of diseases and vices; 
and for liberating the birds, 

Management: n Tr ansplanti ng elk 

Bagle y, Lester . History of the Big Horn Mountain elk herd, Wyoming 
Uildlifo Magazine ( Gome and Fish Department , Cheyenne, Uyo.), 3(11), Nov. 
1938, pp. [1-3], 1 table, iniuco graphed. 

Methods and cost of transferring elk fron Jackson Hole to the Big Horn 
Mountaine. Steady grovrth of the herd in the nev; environment tabulated. 
Animals uerc first moved in 1910 nnd open seasons have been allov/cd since 19E5. 

Management : Trapp i ng or. r i bou 

Manwcilor, John . Woodland caribou from Saskatchewan. , Parks and 
Recreation (^27 "./est Jefferson St., Rockford, 111., 25 cents a copy), 
22(3) , Nov. 193G, pp. 134-150, 3 photos. 

The successful method uas snaring with, quarter-inch rope, v/hich is 
described in detail. Eighteen caribou end one moose v/crc captured of v/hich 11 
escaped. Roc ommundat ions for transportation and care based on experience are 

Management: _ Trapping^ p rair ie - rouse 

Kamc rs trom, F. IT., Jr .^ an d M illard Truax . Traps for pinnated and 
shr.rp-tailed grouse, Bird-Banding (Charles 3. Floyd, 210 South St., Boston, 
Mass., 75 cents a copy), 9(4), Oct. 1938, pp. 177-183, 5 figs. 

These birds arc difficult to entice into traps and to guard from injury 
through all phases of trapping. \!i re -netting was finally abandoned almost 
entirely in favor of soft materials. Funnels, buffers, and other details of 
construction are described and illustrated for 5 typos of traps. Directions 
for baiting and operating the traps also arc given. 

Management: 'Jildlifo on the range 

Cqmpt on Jm L a w rence V . "Jildlifo and the range, Soil Conservation 
(Supt. of Documents, Utshington, D. C. , 10 cents a copy), 4(9), March 
1939, pp. 215-217. 


I/LLDLLFE REVIEW: No. 21 May, 1939 

The wo stern range comprises lands support i:ig primarily forage and 
browse plants which arc used mainly for production of livestock; they amount 
to some 728,000,000 acres, or 40 percent of the land surface of the United 
States. Cultivation affects only about 4 percent of the range; its effects 
upon wildlife arc about equally detrimental and beneficial. The range con- 
tinues to be the .main reliance of the principal native species of wildlif o and 
pango deterioration seriously affects them. Control of environment for erosion 
prevention has a counter effect. Retirement of submarginal lands, regulation 
of grazing elsewhere, and conservation and development of water supplies arc 
some of the remedies. Examples are cited of the benefits to wildlife resulting 
from their application. The financial returns arising from the presence of 
wildlife arc summarized. From all points of view, it is desirable that wild- 
life bo managed as one of our valuable renewable resources. 

Manage m ent; Uintcr feedin g 

Bai ley, Robeson . Old John needs a hand-out, National Sportsman 
(275 Newbury St., Boston, Mass., 10 cants a copy), 81(1), Jan. 1939, 
pp. 9-15. 

Need of winter feeding of game birds where considerable snow falls. 
Recommends wide distribution in small quantities (3-5 lbs.) to avoid concen- 
trating birds and thus attracting predators. The food benefits numerous forms 
of wildlife besides game birds and supplying it gives an interest in upland 
gunning that shooting alone can never yield. A corn and oy3tershcll mixture 
was used. 

Management; Uintor feeding 

Miller, Fred . Upland feed, Minnesota Conservationist (Dept. of 
Conservation, St. Paul, Minn., 15 cents a copy), 62, Nov. 1938, pp. 13, 32, 
2 photos. 

"Complete elimination of artificial feeding of Minnesota's upland game 
birds is the goal." Experience with costly feed purchasing revealed that 
winter feeding is less than 15 percent efficient, that rabbits and other 
mammals consumed a large portion of the feed, and that predators took toll of 
the birds concentrated at feeding stations. Planting of black amber cane and 
millet by farmers is the chief reliance now. Seed is furnished by the Depart- 
ment of Conservation, the farmer cuts and shocks the grain but leaves part of 
it in tho field over winter. He shares in the grain crop and gets all of the 
fodder. Food-producing trees arc being planted on refuges, but later will be 
supplied for use elsewhere. Tho now practices have resulted in considerable 
savings. In 1958, 3,984 acres of cane and 2,368 of millet wore planted, 
averaging, respectively, 52-1/2 and 31 acro3 per county. 

Management: Vfinter feeding, squirrels 

Chapman, Floyd B. , and Luther L . Baumgartnor . Winter feeding of 
squirrels, Ohio Conservation Bui! (Ohio Conservation Division, Columbus, 
5 cents a copy), 3(2), Feb. 1959, pp. 6-7, and inside back cover, 2 figs. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 21 May, 1939 

Winter feeding, to bo really valuable, must bo definitely planned and 
faithfully carried out. To correspond "with the range of fox squirrels there 
should be one feeding station to each 25 acres. Feeding apparatus is illus- 
trated and foods rocomuended, as black walnuts, raw peanuts, and corn. A 
table shows percentages of digestible nutrients of 10 possible squirrel foods. 
Directions arc given as to where and how to place winter foods. 

Management : wi nter range 

Olson, Orange A . Winter range as a limiting factor in big game 
management, University of Idaho (Moscow) Bui. 33(22), Dec. 1938, pp. 20-22. 

In general the areas most intensively occupied by men were the winter 
ranges of Idaho's big game. The subsistence resources for wildlife must be 
available at every season as needed, but there is a weak link now in the chain, 
namely, dearth of suitable winter range. The national forests include chiefly 
mountainous country and but little foothills to which big game formerly 
migrated in winter. In severe seasons, about 45 percent of the animals now 
leave the forests and many die. It is hoped under the Taylor Grazing Act and 
the Pittman-Robortson Act for Federal aid in wildlife restoration to make 
additional winter range available. It is around such range that management 
must revolve. 

Mi nno s o t a : Annua l report, De partment of Con serv ation 

Spoako s_, i Harry E. Division of Gome and Fish. Minnesota Dcpt. of 
Conservationist. Paul) Ann. Rep. 1938, pp. 40-99, tables, 1939. 

Contains estimate of the total value, aid annual harvest value, of the 
principal species of game and fish of the State, at $24,500,000 and 04,561,989, 
respectively. Minnesota has the largest area of game refuges of any State — a 
total of 185 covering 3,411,450 acres. Black amber cane and millet food patch 
planting was continued in many counties, aggregating more than 6,000 acres. A 
tabulation of the game kill for 1936 end 1937 is presented; migratory water- 
fowl numbered more than 1,300,000 and made up more than half of tho total head 
of game takoii. The report includes statistics on the population and kill of 
deer on State and national forests, and estimated total bag of door each year 
from 1932 to 1937. There are notes on tho status of the moose, elk, and 
caribou, parasite and disease investigations, and on food habits of several 
species. Analyses of the contents of 54 stomachs of mourning doves revealed 
weed seeds as the most important elements of the diet, 5 species making up 87 
percent of the food. A graph shows the chief rosults of study of 659 stomachs 
of ring-necked pheasants; grains outrank other foods. There are less detailed 
notes on dietary studies of tho ruffed grouse, foxes, skunk, hawks, and 

Natu r al History: Bird s, Allegan y State Park, N. Y . 

Saunders, Arctas A . Studies of breeding birds in tho Allegany State 
Park, New York State Museum (Albany) Bui. 318, 160 pp., 77 figs., tables, 
Dec. 1938. 


MIDLIFE REVIEW: No. 21 May, 1939 

Description of the area and of its forost typos; tabulation of breeding 
birds according to habitat for 3 years, 1932-1934. Annotated list of the 
species, summary, and bibliography of 42 titles. The average number of pairs 
of birds on 225 acres for the 3 years was 173. The red-eyed viroo and black- 
throated green warbler were the most common forms. 

Natural History: Birds of Te nnessee 

Wctnoro, Alexander . Notes on tho birds of Tennessee, U. S. Rational 
Museum ( Washington, D. C. ) Proc. 86(3050), pp. 175-243, 1939. 

Annotated list of 185 species and subspecies based on collections of the 
National Museum, mainly those obtained by recent expeditions. 

Natural History: Birds of Texas 

Rutland, Don . Editor. Preliminary check- list. Birds of East 
Texas, East Texas Ornithology Club (Commerce, Texas), 30 pp., mimeographed, 

List of 215 forms; occurrence, status, and significant dates given. 

Natural History: Fauna of Olympic National Park 

Cahalano, Vic tor H. A wildlife picture of Olympic National Park, 
National Parks Bui. (1624 HSt., N. tf . , Washington, D. C. ) 14(66), Dec. 
1938, pp. 20-24, 1 map, 1 photo. 

Tho map shows the boundary of tho former Mount Olympus National Monument 
and of the enlarged Olympic National Park, Washington. The tqxt discusses the 
more prominent animals and the management problems thoy present. The mule deer 
and mountain goat have been introduced; the native wolf has been exterminated 
and coyotes are coming in. 

N atural History: Flora and wildlife of Ten n essee 

Allrcd, Charles E. , Samuol 'J. Atkins, and Benjamin D. Raskopf . 
Human and physical resources of Tennessee, III, IV, Flora, Wildlife. 
College of Agriculture (University of Tennessee, Knexville) Rural 
Research Monograph 42, pp. v+32-53 , figs. 1+10-13, May 1937. 

General discussion, remarks on regional phenomena (maps) , and bibliog- 
raphies. Tho text on birds, mammals, and fishos discusses kinds and distri- 
bution, values, conservation, and restocking. Treatment of turtles, frogs 
and toads, snakes, and lizards is briefer. 

Natural History: Fur and gamo mam mals of Alaska 

Alaska Game Commission. Distribution of game and land fur-bearing 
animals in Alaska 1938 (Biological Survey, ViTashington, D. C). Cover and 
25 maps, 1939. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW:' No. 21 May, 1939 

Each map shows the distribution of an animal group by dots representing 
100 individuals. The method is not clear for groups entitled to only a few 
dots or confined to the coast where the dark markings of the map are very 
prominent — 6 instances in all. According to the maps, weasels are the most 
widely distributed and caribous the most numerous mammals. 

Natural History: Indication of age of waterfowl 

T ice hurst, Claud B >. On a character of immaturity in the Anatidae, 
Ibis (51 Onslow Gardens, London, S. W. 7, England, 12 shillings 6 pence a 
copy), Ser. 14, 2(4), Oct. 1933, pp. 772-773. 

"Striae", i.e. vertical darker lines on a lighter ground at the tip of 
the nail of both upper and lower mandibles are present in all downy ducklings 
and probably in all goslings. A low power lens may be needed to reveal them. 
In general they seem to fade in the first spring after the year of birth and 
arc gone by the following autumn or winter. In some cases they persist longer 
but "their presence or absence may bo of some help in determining whether a 
duck or goose in adult dross is a young adult or an old one." 

Natural History: Legumes of Wisconsin 

Fassett, Norman C. The leguminous plants of 'Wisconsin (University 
of Wisconsin Press, Madison, $3.00 a copy), 157 pp., 24 pis., 59 figs., 
numerous maps, 1939. 

This book contains an artificial key to the nearly 100 species of 
legumes known from the State and keys to the genera based on flowers and s. There is also a key to seeds of groups, in some cases, genera, in 
others, species. There arc descriptive and distributional notes for all 
species, and maps showing the distribution in Wisconsin or even the entire 
range for many. In addition the work is profusely illustrated with drawings 
by Professor Richard I. Evans and photographs by the author. A section on 
epidermal outgrowths with key and illustrations by Catherine Mose suggests 
that fragmentary material (as from animal stomachs) may be traced to the 
genera at least by the shape and sculpturing of the trichomes. Included in 
the book are a glossary and index. The author is well known as a thorough and 
ingonious taxonomist; as a result, and also in view of the lavish use of excel- 
lent illustrations, the work sots a new high in quality for State reports on 
plant s . 

Natural History:, Mammals of Idaho 

Davi s, Wil l iam B . The recent mammals of Idaho (Caxton Printers, Ltd., 
Caldwell, Idaho, $5.00 a copy), 400 pp., 2 pis., 33 figs., April 1939. 

The author's native State is the type locality for 43 species and sub- 
species of mammals; the complete list comprises 141 forms, of which 15 are 
widely distributed. The type localities arc catalogued and mapped and all 
collecting stations are annotated in a gazeteer. Other chapters of general 
import relate to geography of the State (with relief map), floral provinces, 


;/ILDLIFE RSVIE.J: No. 21 May, 1939 

distributional areas, and problems of distribution. The systematic accounts 
include standard scientific and vernacular names, references to original 
descriptions, synonyms, descriptive and distributional notes, and records of 
occurrence. There are keys to many but not all groups, and numerous distribu- 
tion maps. Several nomenclatorial changes arc made and three subspecies 
described as new. There is a bibliography of more than 9 pagos and a detailed 
index, A thorough work, increasing and summarizing knowledge of mammals in a 
region important for comprehension of the usonian fauna. 

Natural H istory; Mammals of £ucbec_ 

A nder son,. R udolph I .'I, Mammals of the Province of Quebec, Proven c her 
Soc. Nat. Hist. Canada (Quebec) Ann. Rep. 1938, pp. 50-114, 1 map. 

Annotated list of 126 species and subspecies. The scientific name and 
its original reference, and both English and French vernaculars, arc given. 
Tho bibliography exceeds 10 printed pagos. 

Natu ral i His tory; Mc raaals . of Tennosaoo 

Kellogg , _ Re mingt on. Annotated list of Tennessee mammals, U. S. 
National Museum ( Ua shin g ton, D. C.) Proceedings, 86(3051), 1939, pp. 245- 

Account based on National Museum and Biological Survey collections and 
on the literature, citations to which cover 2-1/2 pagos. Eighty-four species 
and subspecies arc included, 

N a tur al H i st ory ; Papaw 

Gould, H._ P. The native papaw, U. S. Dopt. of Agriculture Leaflet 
179 (Supt. of Documents, VJashir.gton, D. C, 5 cents a copy), 5 pt>., Feb. 

The author says nothing about v:ildlife, but as papav/s arc utilized 
managers may wish to know of this source of Information on the name (A simina 
t rilob a) and relationship, range, characteristics, habits of growth, and propa- 

Nat ural ., .History; Re ptiles of Arkansas 

§£^i'Ei'^L'_i"L_ii* Reptiles of Arkansas, Arkansas Agr. Expt. Sta. 
(Fayottcvillc", Ark.) Bui. 357, 47 pp., 53 figs., June 1938. 

General remarks on life histories and economic importance of reptiles 
and on snake myths. Descriptive and distributional notes on snakes and illus- 
trated key to the species. There is a special section on poisonous snakes and 
treatment of their bites. The lizards receive treatment similar to that of 
the snakes except that the key is not illustrated; for the turtles there is no 
key. The number of species included is of snakes, 45; lizards, 11; and turtles, 
20. Bibliography of 22 titles. 


:.1LELIEE HEvTE'J: Ho. 21 May, 1939 

Natural History: ^^tilos of Ohio 

Conant, Ito g ar . The reptiles of Ohio, American Midland Naturalist 
(Notre Done, Ind". , J&.00 a copy), 20(1), July 1938, pp. 1-200, 26 pis., 
38 maps. 

An exhaustive and well-illustrated work bringing to date information 
about 39 species of reptiles known to occur in Ohio. The account of each 
species includes descriptions and measurements, records of specimens examined, 
statements cf general and local ranges (both mapped) , and notes on habitat, 
abundance, and habits. General chapters include a chock-list, a key, notes on 
doubtful records and possible additions, ecological and historical summaries, 
a bibliography (5 pp.),, collecting instructions, and suggestions as to 
first aid in case of venomous snake bite. 

Na tural History: Vjarblers of Now Jersey 

Hausm ,..n , Loon A . The warblers of Neu Jersey. Part 1, Summer 
resident warblers, ! T eu Jersey Agr. Sspt, Sta. (Now Brunswick) Bui. 646, 
48 pp., 20 figs., April 1938. 

General traits including food habits, simplified color key, key to songs 
aid 20 specific accounts each of which includes description, and notes 021 
identification marks, habits, song, and local r;ngc. A woll prepared and well 
illustrated bulletin. 

Natural History: "Jildlife marshe s 

McAtoOj -h_^. Jildlife of the Atlantic Coast salt marshes, U, S. 
Dcpt. of Agriculture Circ. 520 (Supt. of Docvimsnts, Washington., D. C, 
10 cents a copy), 23 pp., 6 pis., 10 figs., March (April) 1959. 

An illustrated revision of Biological Survey "Jildlife Research and 
Management Loaf lot 3S-17 which was prepared primarily for educational use in 
CCC camps; the printed form may be useful also in schools. It discusses zones 
of salt-marsh plants, and several of the spocics of plants in relation to wild- 
life. The birds observable in salt marshes are treated at some length as to 
characteristics and habits, and other vertebrates more briefly. The introduc- 
tion is chiefly a brief essay on conservation. 

Prodntio n: Havdcs vs. quail 

Boa&el, H. L . Hawks vs. quail on quail preserves, Journ. I/ildlifo 
Management (Victor II. Cahalano, National Park Scrrico, "Washington, D. C. , 
75 cents a copy), 3(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 42-45. 

Experience of a lifelong hunter and preserve owner for a score of years 
with hawks in relation to quail. Kills by hanks arc by no means so common as 
ordinarily assumed and these birds often got cripples that arc best 

eliminated anyway. Moreover, the hawks food on rodent and serpent enemies of 
quail. Blue darters or accipitrine hanks are an exception but as the average 


V/ILDLIFE KEVIEVJ: No. 21 May, 1939 

man cannot distinguish them, he had better leave all hawks alone. Plenty of 
escape coverts can easily be provided and they furnish practical protection 
against even blue darters. The author sums up: "My experience indicates that 
an above-average quail population cannot only be maintained, but is more easily 
maintained by leaving hawks unmolested than by killing them." 

Predation: Relative quantities of food con su med 

Uoostor, L. D. An attempt at an ecological avaluation of predators 
on a mixed prairie area in western Kansas, Kansas Acad. Sci. Trans. 
(Topcka) 41, 1938, pp. 387-394, 2 figs., 2 tables. 

Discussion of the role of predators on the basis of food requirements 
per individual, number of individuals per square mile, and time present. 
Average daily numbers of coyotes and birds of prey are estimated by different 
methods that ere explained. Amounts of food consumed arc calculated from those 
given at two leading zoological gardens. A formula applied to the data is 
F x T x N = RI in which "F is food per day in grams; T is time — fraction of a 
year; N is numbers per square mile; RI is relative importance." The figures 
arrived at arc for, tho coyote 381, marsh hawk 611, Swainson* s hawk 226; rough- 
legged hawks 22; and other hawks and owls, together, 27. These figures express 
relative quantities (in grams) of food daily consumed per square mile on the 
area concerned. Annual figures arc for marsh hawks 221,555; coyote 139,065; 
and Swai neon's hawk 82,490. "The annual food importance of the marsh hawk, 
expressed in avoirdupois weight is 494 pounds, or almost one fourth ton. In 
terras of meadow mice the marsh hawks on one square mile would require sixteen 
mice per day, or 5,840 per year. Tho coyotes on one square mile (one half an 
animal), if they ate nothing but jackrabbits, would require 45 per year. To 
supply the annual needs of all dominant predators on one square mile of mixed- 
prairie would require, for example, 150 jackrabbits, or 12,000 meadow mice, or 
50,000 harvest mice." No data are given on the productiveness of prey species 
on the area — information that is necessary, however, to complete value ti on of 
the predators. 

Propagation; Aix 

Parsonson, Vf. J . Foreign and domestic vet erf owl in captivity, 
Modern Game Breeding and Hunting Club News (J. A. Gardy Printing Co., 
28 W. State St., Doylostown, Pa., 25 cents a copy), 8(12), Doc. 1938. p. 10. 

Care of mandarin and wood ducks; nest boxes, food, cover, sanitation. 

Propagation: Gooso, Canada 

Kiehlbauch, V/m . Goose easy to raise, South Dakota Conservation 
Digost (Dcpt. of Game and Fish, Pierre, S. Dak.), 5(11), Nov. 1938, pp. 6-8. 

Account of rearing the birds on "throe city lots." In preparation for 
the breeding season, oats both whole end sprouted with a little corn arc fed. 
First clutches of 6-3 are removed and in about ten days the females again 
start laying and produce 5-6 more eggs. The young are fed some oatmeal but 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 21 May, 1939 

they and the adults as well subsist largely upon grass. Contrary to the usual 

experience, this breeder found that some geese losing mates will pair again in 
a short time. 

Propagation: Irradiation results 

Bissonnette, Thomas H. , and Albert G. Csoch . A third year of modi- 
fied breeding behavior with raccoons, Ecology (Prince and Lemon Sts., 
Lancaster, Pa., $1.50 a copy), 20(2), April 1959, pp. 156-162, 7 tables. 

Progress report on work that has previously been noticed in WILDLIFE 
REVIEW, Nos. 10, October 1937, p. 22, and 16, November 1933, pp. 33-34. 

Propagation: Irrad i ation results, pheasant s 

Bissonnette, T. H. , and A. G. Csoc h. Pheasants activated by night- 
lighting return to normal nesting, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. 
Cahalanc, National Park Service, Washington, D. C, 75 cents a copy), 
3(1), Jan. 1939, pp. 26-30, 2 tables. 

Authors' abstract: "Black-neck (3 hens), ring-neck (2 hens), and Mon- 
golian (5 hens) pheasants, with cocks, vroro night-lighted, Jan. 6-April 3, in 
small pens without cover, then rcloased into largo pens, abundant cover, and 
normal days like those of controls (4 hens and a cock) of each variety. Experi- 
mentals began to lay Feb. 24, 21, 28, respectively, and averaged 0.377, 0.322, 
and 0.573 eggs per hen per day for first 15 days. Controls laid from April 7, 
6, and 3, respectively, 0.483, 0.566, and 0.816 eggs per hen per day for their 
first 15 days. Hatchability of both controls and cxporimentals was high as 
judged by samples set under hons. 

"After release, ring-necks laid only two eggs loose in the pen and built ! 
no nests; black-necks laid some scattered eggs, built a nest, and set on 12 
eggs laid therein; Mongolians did likewise, setting on clutches of 12 and 13 
eggs. Reset under hens, these clutches yielded 91$ fertility and 83$ hatch for 
black- necks and 87$ and 79$, respectively, for Mongolians. These last two 
varieties can bo used to get numerous early fertile eggs and still be planted 
later in suitable regions with good prospects of producing broods in the irame- 
fliatol'y following normal breeding season. Ring-necks seem to be loss adaptable^ 
for such double use. " 

Propagation: Mortality in gallinaceous embryos 

Asmundson, V. S . The position of turkey, chicken, pheasant , and 
partridge embryos that failed to hatch, Poultry Science (Dr. G. F. Houser, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. , 75 cents a copy), 17(6), Nov. 1938, 
pp. 478-489, 6 tables. 

Results in the casts of ringneck, Mongolian, and Reeves pheasants, and 
chukar partridges wore similar to those in poultry — turkeys and chickens. Froc 
the author* s sumnnry: "Embryos with head to the loft or head between the 
thighs, whether in the large or the small end, rarely pipped the shell and 


VJILDLIFE REVIE'J: No. 21 May, 1939 

presumably very seldom hatch. A relatively high percentage of the embryos with 
head to the right pipped the shell and presumably may hatch regardless of 
whether they have the head in tho large or small end or whether the beak is 
over or under the vane or towards or away from the air cell. Relatively more 
turkey embryos have tho head in the small end of tho egg when the eggs are in- 
cubated horizontally than when they are incubated with the large end up for 
the first 24 days. Such embryos, even when the. head is turned to the right, 
arc apparently handicapped by their position and, thorcforc, are less likely 
to hatch than those with the head in the large end. The difference in the 
incidence of embryos with head to tho left from different strains and hens 
indicates that hereditary factors are involved." Bibliography of 18 titles. 

Propagat i on ; Par tridge^ H ungarian 

Bant, Roy M . Experiments with Hungarian partridge, Michigan Con- 
servation (Michigan Dept. of Conservation, Lansing), G(7), March 1939, 
pp. 4-5, 1 photo. 

Four typos of brooding pons tested; report on one season's experience; 
an elevated pen with half-inch nosh cloth seems best. Details of 
construction and of the results with the birds kept in the different types arc 

Fropagat i on: Phea s ant s 

Sil t a, Henr y . Do's and don* to on pheasant raising, Game Breeder 
and Sport soon (205 3. 42nd St., Now York, N. Y. , 25 cents a copy), 43(2), 
Feb. 1939, pp. 21, 23. 

Principal advice is to tror.t all species, common or rare, the same, and 
the best possible. A table gives tho date of first egg laid and period of 
incubation at Groat Barrington, Mass. , of 39 kinds of pheasants. 

Propagation: Quail 

A bcgg, Roland . Quail hatcheries, Louisiana Conservation Review 
(Dept. of Conservation, Now Orleans, La.), 7(3), Autumn 1938, pp. 19-22, 25, 
3 photos. 

Methods employed at a farm established at the State University for both 
practical and experimental purposes. Management of breeders, pairing and egg 
production, incubation, brooding, and miscellaneous techniques are discussed. 
Among the/named is control of picking by the use of rod lighting. There is 
general conservation discussion also and a ploa for discrimination among hawks. 

Propagation: Raccoon 

Mi Ha rd , Cla ronc o . Raccoon experiment, Wisconsin Conservation Bui. 
(uiscoiisiii Conservation Dept., Madison), 4(3), March 1939, pp. 28-29, 1 


V/ILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 21 Jfcy, 1939 

Succoss in broodinc fonalos twice in a season; in November they appeared 
to bo in just as good condition as those that had borne only one litter. 

Propag ation; T eals 

Far son son, W. J . Tlio North American teal, Modern Game Breeding and 
Hunting Club Nous (J. A. Gnrdy Printing Co., 28 U. State St., Doylcstown, 
Pa., 25 cents a copy), 9(3), March 1939, p. 11. . 

Notes on colors, numb or of eggs, and incubation period, besides hints on 
feeding and rearing. 

Prop agat ion: Vices 

Bass , C. C. A practical remedy for the "nose-picking" form of 
cannibalism in younc quail in close conf iner.ient , Modern Game Breeding and 
Hunting Club News (J. A. Gardy Printing Co., 28 IT. State St., Doylcstown, 
Pa., 25 cents a copy), 9(5), May 1939, p. 4. 

Mentions trimming bills, liberal pen room on grass, and balanced rations 
but from his own experience, recommends feeding chicks all the raw moat they 
will cat. 

Propagation; Widgeons 

Parsons on, W. J. The widgeon family, Modern Gone Breeding and 
Hunting Club Nevis (J. A. Gardy Printing Co., Doylcstown, Pa., 25 cents a 
copy), 9(1), Jan. 1939, p. 10. 

Descriptive notes on 3 species, and suggestions as to their care, 
especially feeding. 

Propagation; Wild tur key 

Boyors , Lillian & Rearing wild turkeys in the wild, Game Breeder 
and Sportenan (205" E. 42nd St., New York, N. Y. , 25 cents a copy), 43(1), 
Jan. 1939, pp. 2-3, 14, 2 photos. 

General notes on the wild turkey and its habits with description of 5 
years' experience in propagating those birds. The hens were allowed to select 
their nest sites and rear their broods undisturbed, control being exercised 
later and only as to their reo sting quarters. 

Research: _ Banding woodcoc k 

Mondal l^ Howard L. A technique for bonding woodcock, Bird-Banding 
(Charles B. Floyd, 210 South St., Boston, Mass., 75 cents a copy), 9(3), 
July 1938, pp. 153-155. 
Discussion/4 methods of which the best was use of c well-trained dog to 
locate young after they had left the nest, the dog being tied upon making a 


-.HLDLIFS REGIS'.;: No. 21 Ifcy, 1939 

Re scare h_: Bob-i, /h ito's rosistanco to co Id 

Gorstoll, Richard . Certain mechanics of winter quail losses 
revealed by laboratory experimentation, Pennsylvania Game News (Pennsyl- 
vania Game Commission, Karrisburg, Pa. , 10 cents a copy), 9(2) , May 1939, 
pp. 4-5, 28, 1 fig., 1 tabic. 

References to literature on winter losses, description of the huddling 
habit, and of the experiments. The table shows average body temperatures of 
80 quail tele en in the gizzard and at three exterior points. The author* s 
conclusions arc: "(1) That the characteristic huddling habit of the bobwhitc 
quail nay at least in part represent an instinctive reaction which tends to 
reduce the heat loss fron the bodies of the various individuals which nako up 
:~.^y given covey; (2) tint, at least within certain limits, the ability of a 
covey of quail to withstand low environmental tonporaturos is directly propor- 
tional to the size of that covey; (3) that the body temperature of individual 
quail nay drop norc than twenty-five degrees (Fahrenheit) below normal without 
the bird's suffering a breakdown of its thomal regulatory system which would 
result in death." He also says: "In closing, it scons fitting to call to the 
gone manager's and sportsmen's attention the practical importance of the 
results obtained even from the few czepcriments so far completed. This lies in 
the indication that throughout the northern portion of the quail range, the 
bobwhito coveys should not be shot down to a point where their chances of 
winter survival arc seriously endangered simply by too great a reduction in 
the average size of the bevies." Bibliography of 6 titles. 

Research: Clin at omot_cr 

Gcrstcll, Richard . The clino \ctomctcr. A device designed to 
measure the effects of various meteorological factors upon the activity 
and general physiology of animals, Pennsylvania Game Commission ( harrisburg, 
Pa.) Research C ire. 1, 20 pp., 8 figs., 1938. 

The device described consists of an insulated chamber in which animals 
can be exposed to toirgoraturc, air movement, and precipitation as desired, of 
activity relays for measuring responses, and of an "actometcr" for recording 
them. Illustrations include plans and photographs. Bibliography of 10 titles. 
[Composition of the name appears faulty. The principle of elision would seem 
to bar the use of two vowels together in the middle of the x/ord. The altera- 
tion suggested in the caption of this abstract implies all but the recording 
feature of the machine, which it would seen can be taken for granted, as many 
measuring devices include self -recorders.] 

Re scare h : Ss sent ial basi_s_ c f ma nagemen t 

Taylo r_,_ Walter JP. Value of wildlife research for proper land-use 
management, American Uildlifo (Investment Bldg. , Vfeshington, D. C, 25 
cents a copy), 27(4), July-August 1938, pp. 72-73, 77, 3 photos. 

VJildlif o management is a part N of land use and a natter of national con- 
cern. Wildlife also is greatly worth caring for fron a financial viewpoint. A 
number of questions arc asked relative to practical midlife nanagenent that 
can be answered satisfactorily only fron fuller knowledge than is at present 


May, 1939 

available. The aecessit, o* research as the basis I or a s^ons option : 

Search^M ^s^i^aWS-toa toward desired objectives. 
goaoaro .b; JSojpJ.roactGr 

Boecirtion on, illustration^ a ^^^^^^o^c^u^ 
developed at Harvard University, rtaob porrdts diroct 


Rese arch: Tag fii3g_,gl£ 

ov -rmvi^ Notes on midlife (U. S. 

Feb.. 1959, 5 x-., mltilithod. 

,, -i mv c t°' ,r In?' UaS ^OllC ^l^* 1 

Report on 2 years' work on a snail scale. -• ^ . u^ ^ ^^ can 

least disturbance to tlie elk by run usl ^ f"T\ * t0 - 70rk the S ano area only 
bo found and taocod daily by eacn tt. •» ^ Mother. Uotos are piven on 
one day at a tin, and not ^ J^^^^f on 3 oalvoa killed by coyotes. 
two adults found dead ^^^^^^^ to warrant conclusions. 
Returns fron 4 tappec. anlAJ.8 ~r~ cixca, 
Continuance of the work is rocoiiacnaca. 

IfcirJvts:, Birds 

.„■ q Pr-tiss ard S. Charles Kendc^, Variations in the 
B£MH^JlJ^?^^^ CHicapo, 111., ,,1.00 

woipkt of birds, Auk (Ruayera 3oi ilton, *i 

a copy), 55(3), July 1938, pp. 416-467, 6 fi.,,. , 

* ki +n+T-- -re a "ood source of infor- 
Rcfercaccs in the bibliOGraphy of 51 titl os h o ? ^ n . ialysl3 of 

nation or. average aad estrone »^« ^*J^'^^ "spooles undor differed 
tho variations in tho .itfrt of - • - s ^ ma aiscussod. Ancoc »«oj 
oiroiEBtracoB. A sroat doal oi ua ta is ,r os. ^ afferent individual 

slons arc that "differences occur botnoo- *-J^^ o00ur in the »ci 2 ht 

birds but ouch differences arc ocarccly jr-tor th ^ ^ ^ 

^^fftaf SSSf^wSi* ^ed es well as variations correiated 
with toixpcrr.turc. 


sjij+4«-,^i to those ->roviousl2/ 
issues of interest to "W^^J^^S leaflets can be ob-j 
nontioned arc listed below. Copios o f ^^ r ^ £ A . riC ulturc, Uaskinp- 
tained from the Biological Survey, U. &. Uc.-^- - 
ton, D. C. 


WILDLIFE OTIEI7: No. 21 May, 1939 

33-122. Big-game inventory of the United Stated, 1957, 13 pp., 
17 tables, January 1939. 

Compilation of information from a variety of sources; of which the 
Federal land-administrative agencies were most productive. Data given for 15 
kinds of animals in the wild or in no more than semi -confinement, e.g., the 
bison. Comparisons made when previous figures wore available indicate increases 
for deer, elk, antelope, and black bpar. The data are tabulated by States. 

B5 -125 . Crow damage to fall grain crops in Oklahoma in 1937, by 
Ralph H. Imlcr and Z. R. Kalmbech, 15 pn. , 1 fig. (map), 5 tables, January 

Based on studies made at intervals since 1920, report is made on the 
distribution and abundance of crove and on damage done especially to grain. 
Responses to a questionary on those points from more than 1,100 farmers are 
summarized and the results compared with those of field observations. Annual 
loss in the county most thoroughly studied exceeded #18,000. Further investiga- 
tion is advised. 

B S-12 4. Factors in nesting losses of the California valley quail, 
by E. E. Horn, 7 pp., Jcnur.ry 1939. 

California ground squirrels are the most serious chock upon quail breed- 
ing; other inimical factors, and managcmoiit are discussed. Bibliography of 7 
titles. Reworking of the article witla similar title abstracted in WILDLIFE 
REVIEW, No. 17, December 1938, pp. 34-35. 

BS-125 . Natural plantings for attracting waterfowl to marsh and 
other areas, 5 pp., January 1939. 

Plants arc recommended for improving: (1) areas characterized by muddy, 
fluctuating water (as in the Mississippi Valley); and (2) coastal marshes and 
marshland ponds. Correspondence is invited both as to these and other areas. 

B5-12S . History and significance of American wildlife: II, by 
H. P. Sheldon, 7 pp., February 1939. 

A statement for educational use, commenting on the rapid exploitation 
of American natural resources, present day recognition of the need of conserva- 
tion, planning wildlife restoration in the light of research, progress made in 
that direction and also in protective legislation, and restoration as a govern- 
ment function. 

B3-127 . An efficient trap for the fox ranch, by Charles F. Bassctt, 
. 2 pp., 3 pis.", March 1939. 

Trapping alive without injury is possible with a recently devised trap 
that is described and illustrated. 

BS-128. A feeder for foxes, by Charles F. Bassctt, 2 pp. , 1 pi. , 
March 1939. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 21 May, 1939 

Description, plans, and spoeiile&tia&e of tho feeder found most satis- 
factory r.t the U. S. Fur Animal 2;q?orinent Station, with notes on its use and 


35-12 9 . Cooperative wildlife-management research, 1938, 4pp., 
3 tables, Mrrch 1939. 

Locations, leaders, demonstration areas, subject of study, end student 
concerned in 11 projects. The units have contributed to tho protection and 
raanagenent of wildlife, end to tho training of men for conservation work. 

BSj-130. Seasonal fox rations and quantities to feed, by Charles F. 
Bassctt, 3 pp., 2 tables, April 1939. 

Permissible variations in rations, with especial reference to the raw- 
no at content, with suggestions as to kinds, quantities, and seasons for feeding 
notes also on dietary re qu ir ts of nalcs, fcnalos, and weaned pups. 

3S-151 . Suggestions on attracting birds, with references to 
available literature, 5 pp., 1 fig. (r.rvp), April 1939. 

Brief suggestions with references to available official and current noi 
official literature (12 titles of each) on protection, nesting facilities, anc 
water supply and food supplies. 

BS-152. Sodo California wildlifo-forost relationships, by E. E. 
Horn, 5 pp. , April 1959. 

Effects of forest-wildlife interactions; type of forest affects wildlii 
and vice versa ; results of California studies. About tho sane notorial as 
abstracted under a sinilar title in WILDLIFE REVIEW, Nc. 17, December 1938, 
pp. 10-11. 

BS-135 . A preliminary investigation of the food habits of tho 
nourning dove in Alabana, by Walter Roseno, Jr., 10 pp., 2 tables, 
April (May) 1939. 

Analyses of 287 stomach contents presented in tables and text. More 
than 99 percent of tho food was seeds of which thoso of grasses, especially 
cultivated grains, were nost important (55 percent). Other loading sources of 
food wore: Pokewccd, chickuoed, legumes, doveweeds, evening primrose, and rag 
woods. Animal food was insignificant. 

BS-134. A summary of the gray squirrel investigation in southoastei 
Ohio, by Floyd B. Chapman, 9 pp. , 4 tables, April (May) 1939. 

Results cited as to weights, sex ratios, agc**class groups, dons ard 
leaf nests, nating period and litters, and parasites and diseases. Tlorc arc 
also reports on population studies and an analysis of squirrel hunting; recom- 
mendations as to management ; and bibliography of 12 titles Much the same 
material as previously abstracted in WILDLIFE REVIEW, No. 17, December 1938, 
p. 19. 


'./ILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 21 May, 1939 


Sou rces of material abstracted in VJILDLIFE RT?VIl!:;/ jUu^ibers l-21j^ 

Only a summary is here presented but details can be supplied later if 
there appears to be sufficient deirand. 

Books and other, independent publications accounted for 34 abstracts. 

Sources of others are given in the following tabulation. 



Number of 
Department of Agriculture 

Departmental Series 62 

Biological Survey 97 

Forest Service 60 

Soil Conservation Service 25 

All others 7 

Other Departments and Agencies 22 

Congress 13 

Fe d o ral -State Cooperatives 

Minnesota 30 

Ohio 17 

State Conservation Departments 

California , 23 

Maryland 13 

Michigan 28 

Minnesota 20 

North Carolina 16 

Ohio 19 

Pennsylvania 73 

Wisconsin 24 

All others 34 

Othe r S tate Departments and Agenc ies 

All together . 10 

Agricultur al C ollege s and Experiment Stat ions 

Cornell 5 

Michigan 7 

All others 24 



95±£?-y°^jL e ^ an(3 - University Publications 

Cornell G 

Idaho 20 

Iowa 6 

All others 18 

Publ ica t io n s jii re c t e d t o^^ or sunyi qrt e_d_ by_, S p o r t s men 

American Wildlife Institute 

American Wildlife 39 

Special Publications 5 

Transactions North American Game Conferences 284 

Game Breeder and Sportsman 34 

Modern Game Breeding and Bunting Clue News 31 

All others 71 

Aj3jajiomiG s of S c ijonce 

All 15 

Agricultural Journals^ 

All 55 

Bjird. Efegaz ines 

Bird-Banding 15 

Condor 13 

Wilson Bulletin 27 

All others 29 

Botanical Journals 


Conservation Periodicals 

Journal of Uildlife Management 57 

All others 30 

Entomological^ Jou rnals 

All 6 

Forestry Journa ls 

Journal of Forestry 45 

All others 20 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 21 . May, 1939 

Miscellaneous Periodicals, mostly Scientific 

Ecology 22 

Journal of Mammalogy 74 

Journal of Parasitology 36 

Proceedings of the New Jersey Mosquito Extermination Association . . 23 

All others 87 



Canadian Field-Naturalist 14 

All others 30 

Remainder of British Empire 

Imperial Chemical Industries Advisory Leaflets 19 

Journal of Animal Ecology 14 

All others 29 

Othcr_ Countries 
All 7 


Biological Survey: Federal Aid to the States . — In March it was reported that 
47 States had indicated that they wish to participate in the new Federal-State 
cooperative plan for wildlife restoration and that of 67 projects submitted by 
31 States, 32 had been approved and funds set aside in the U. S. Treasury for 
the work. 

Biological Survey: Refuges . — The Kofa and Cabcza Prieta game ranges in 
Arizona, recently established by Executive Order, have added more than a million 
and a half acres to the Federal areas devoted to wildlife conservation. Set 
apart primarily as refuges for mountain sheep, or bighorns, the two ranges will 
also afford protection and security to other species of wildlife, among them, 
the antelope, peccary, mule deer, and Gambol's quail. The proximity of the 
Cabeza Prieta Game Range to the Mexican border lends an unusual international 
interest. Already negotiations are pending with the Mexican government for the 
establishment of a similar game range adjoining and south of the border. 

Biological Survey: Writing . — A 3-page mimeographed leaflet entitled "Those 
Sporting Plurals" has been issued. It treats the pluralization of animal 
names, especially those often used in sporting parlance in the same form, sin- 
gular and plural. Copies may be had upon application to Technical Adviser, 
U. S. Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. 


1/ILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 21 May, 1939 

In Game and Fish Hews (1(3), Dccenbor 1938, p. 3) is the 
interesting statement that the restocking investment of the State Game and Fish 
Commission for the last three years amounted to 12 cents per acre or about 
$7.60 per square milo for the entire State. 

The largo toad, Bufo marinus , has been introduced from Porto Rico into 
Florida to aid in the control of cutworms and other insects. (Ann. Rep. Fla. 
Agr. Expt. Sta., 1937, p. 142). 

Numerous papers presented at the first and second Idaho Game Management 
Conferences, 1937 and 1938, have been printed in the University of Idaho 
(Moscow) Bulletin (Vol. 33, No. 22, December 1938, 98 pp.). Thirty-two articles 
are printed, of which. 21 are abstracted in the last throe issues of WILDLIFE 
REVIEW. Five papers prescntod but not printed and 6 informal talks also aro 
listed as part of the proceedings. The bulletin was edited by A. B. Hatch who 
also supplied a foreword. 

The Annual Report of the Ohio Wildlife Research Station for 1937-38 has 
appeared in mimeographed form (Release 89, Ohio Wildlife Research Station, 
Columbus, 10 pp., n.d.). The objectives, location, staff, and student person- 
nel arc listed, the status of 16 projects tabulated, the uses to which results j 
of the research program have already been put are recorded, and educational 
activities, publications, manuscript reports, maps, and research forma and out-j; 
lines, summarized. 

From the South Dakota Conservation Digest for November 1938, we learn 
that pheasants were first introduced in that State in 1912. The twentieth con-j 
secutive open season was in 1938 and during those two decades, "a conservative 
estimate discloses that some 17,500,000 of those birds have been legally taken 
by hunters. This makes a total of more than 25 million pounds of dressed moat, ! r 
equivalent to 25,000 two-year-old fattened beeves 'on the hoof, or ten train 
loads of 100 cars each." 

"Smaller Homes. — With the lion's sharo of a continent at our disposal, 
we Americans arc rather given to thinking of wildlife conservation in very 
large and spacious terms. The idea that anything worth while can be done in 
less than a thousand square miles seems hardly worth considering, 


"Yet two of Europe's smaller countries, Denmark and the Netherlands, 
have well -worked- out systems for the protection and encouragement of wildlife, 
despite tho intensive utilization of the last inch of cultivable land neces- 
sitated by their limited territories and dense populations. 



May, 1939 

"In Denmark, tho government may create wildlife preserves, upon suit- 
able compensation to tho landowners. But landowners themselves may set up 
preserves if they so desire, with the scientific advice and assistance of tho 
government. Two types of wildlife preserves arc provided for, intended 
respectively for game-providing and scientific purposes. 

"In the Netherlands the cause of wildlifo conservation is a genuinely 
popular one. There is a well-organized society for nature protection, with a 
membership of 13,000, who arc backed by other and even larger organizations 
such as the bicyclists' union, with over 100,000 members. These groups have 
been so well able to sv/ing public opinion--not to mention fiscal legislation — 
that in tho past 31 years no less than 39 game and wildlife sanctuaries have 
been established. 

"As in Denmark, private landowners arc encouraged to put some of their 
lands to use for the benefit of wildlifo. In the Netherlands, this encourage- 
ment takes the practical and highly tempting form of a partial remission of 
taxation. As a result, moro than 325 largo estates, with a total of over 
125,000 acres, have token advantage of this lav; — and given tho country the 
advantage of their utilization as homos for gome and x/ildfowl. " (Science News 
Letter, 36(7), February 18, 1939, p. 110.) 


Abegg, Roland 
Allen, Durward L 
Allrcd, Charles E. 
Anderson, Rudolph M. 
Asmundson, V. S. 
Atkins, Samuel W. 
Bagley, Lester 
Bailey, Robeson 
Baldwin, S. Prentiss 
Bass, C. C. 
Bassctt, Charles F. 
Baumgartncr, Luther L. 
Bcadel, H. L. 
Bennett, J. M. 
Beyers, Lillian E. 
Bissonnctte, Thomas H. 
Boeglin, Louis 
Boottigcr, Edward G. 
Bowor, Ward T. 
Cahalane, Victor H. 
Case , George 
Chapman, Floyd B. 


25, 26 




9, 13, 26 

Christoffcrs, Harry J. 
Compton, Lawrence V. 
Conant , Roger 
Connors, Charles H. 
Cox, William T. 
Cromer, Albert J. 
Cscch, Albert G. 
Davis, Cecil N. 
Davis, William B. 
Evans, Richard I. 
Fassett, Norman C. 
Flomion, Florence 
Fox, Adrian C. 
Gabrielson, Ira N. 
Gorstcll, Richard 
Gillese, John 
Gould, H. P. 
Hamcr strom, F. N. , Jr. 
Hatch, A. B. 
Hausman, Leon A. 
Hickic, Paul 
Holt, Ernest G. 




















9, 10 






May, 1959 


Horn, E. E. . 



Hunt, Roy M. 


Imlcr, Ralph H. 


Jcnson, L. P. 


Kalmbach, E. R. 


Kollogg,, Remington 


Kondoigh, S. Charles 


Kiohlbauch, V/m. 


Locdy, Daniol L. 


Manwoilcr, J. 

6, 11, 


Mas soy, A. B. 


McAtco, I/. L. 



Mondall, Howard L. 


Millard, Claroncc 


Mil lor, Erod 


Mo so, Catherine 


O f Connoll, Frank B. 


01 sen, Orange A. 


Par sons on, W, J. 



Pearson, A. M. 


Raskopf, Benjamin D. 



Roscne, Yfcltcr, Jr. 


Rule, Glenn K. 
Rutland, Don 
Rut ledge, Archibald 
Saundors, Arctas A. 
Schwr.rdt, H. H. 
Sharp, Ward M. 
Sheldon, H. P. 
Shepherd, Harry W. 
Simmons, James R. 
Silta, Hoary 
Spcakos, Harry E. 
Taylor, Walter P. 
Ti cc hurst, Claud B. 
Trenk, F. B. 
Truax, Millard 
Turner, L. T. 
Uakoman, Max ■ 
Ucbb, J. II, 
"Jcssoll, Chas. XI, 
V/otmore, Alexander 
Uooster, L. D. 
V/yman, Donald 






















Biological Survey. . . . 





Diseases and parasites . 



Eood habits 

Barberry distribution 


Corvidae ...... 


. 2 
. 2 

. 5 

, 6 

, 13 

, 17 

, 17 

, 18 

, 18 


Deer damage , 

Ducks , 


Merganser, American . , 

Owl, Barn , 

Partridge , European . , 

Pheasant , 

Squirrel, Eox 

Squirrel, Red 

Utility of legumes . , 


Life histories: 

Chipmunk, Eastern . . , 
Ground squirrel, Tovm- 

send's , 

Grouse, Prairie . . . . 



Grouse, Ruffed 

Pheasant . . . . 
Plover, Piping . 
Quail, Valloy . . 


Sparrow, English 
Swallow, Tree . . 
Thrush, Bicknell* 



Abstracts — Com 
Life historic] 
Turkey . „ 
Management : 

Apple trees , 

Bob-white , 


Farm game , 

Earner- sport sman rclat ion- 
ship , 

Eecding door in winter . , 

Forest wildlife , 

General , 

Harvest in relation to 

land use , 

Harvesting . . . , 3 . . , 

Bob- whites , 

W:tcrfowl, Illinois . , 
irvosting, crippling loss, 

pheasant , 

Inventory , 

Planting for wildlife and 

erosion control . . . . , 
Planting for v:ildlifc and 

soil conservation . . . , 
Stocking quail, California 
Winter feeding, squirrels , 

Natural history 


Predators , 




Wildlife research and management 

leaflets , 

Special article . . 

Notes and news , 

Author index for this issue . . 








Washington, D. C. 

No. 22 

August, 1939 

WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

.SiolocApsd. Sur vey: C ooperative wildlife research 

Couch, Le o K. Review of cooperative wildlife management research, 
American Wildlife (Investment Bldg. , WasMnctcai, D. C. 25 cents a copy), 
28(4), July-August 1939, pp. 172-177. 

Brief statement as to origin, history, and sot-up of 11 units (10 active] 
and notes on their chief findings as to inventories, natural propagation, 
environmental improvement , and limiting factors on game populations. Tho work 
reported on included also demonstration and other educational activities. The 
titles of several theses by graduate students arc givon in illustration of the 
diversity of the investigational work. 

Biological S urvey: _ F ederal ai d a_ct 

Day, Albert M. The wildlife restoration program under the Pittman- 
Robcrtson Act of 1937, U. 3. Dcpt. Agriculture Miscellaneous Publication 
350 (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. 5 cents a copy), 11 pp., May 

Restoration of wildlife by cooperative Nation-State action: how States 
may qualify to participate; source of revenue; apportionment and method of 
allocating available funds, types of suitable projects and their maintenance; 
projects not contemplated by the Act; personnel; text of the law and regula- 

Biologi cal S urve y; Refuge^ progr am 

Anon. Planning for a permanent agriculture, U. S. Dcpt. Agriculture 
Miscellaneous Publication 351 (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. 15 
cents a copy) , 71 pp. , Juno 1939. 

The section on refuges (pp. 54-68) discusses the need of wildlife for 
land and the steps that are being taken to satisfy this requirement for water- 
fowl, colonial birds, and big game. Present total acreage in refuges is about 
11,500,000 acres; waterfowl have some 7,500,000 and need some 3,000,000 more. 
Relation to this program of the Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration Act. 

Conservation : Bear, B rown 

Hointzlc ma n^ B. Frank . [Alaska brown bear conservation], Journ. 
Forestry (Mills Bldg. , Washington, D. C. . 50 cents a copy), 37(6), June 
1939, pp. 510-511. 

Tho kill on Admiralty Island has not exceeded 35 in any year since the 
existing conservation plan was put into effect (1932) and the animals have 
materially increased in number. Counts have revealed one brown boar to 2.23 
square miles on Chicagof Island and one to 1.85 square miles on Admiralty 
Island; these seem quite dense for such a large wilderness animal. Bear con- 
servation is now thought to be satisfacory throughout Alaska. 


"JILDLIFE HEVTE17: No. 22 August, 1939 

C. _r-3crv r .-tion; Bird en am i 3S _of ; ra 3shoppors 

Barker, Elliott S. Grasshopper plagu :s and bird conscr/ation, Now 
Mexico (£08 % Gold Avo. , Albuquerque, N. Mc::. 15 cents a copy), 17(6), 1939, p. 31. 

Jaofcrci-cos to plagues in other days and lands and to tho universal recog- 
nition of birds as enemies or grc.s shoppers. They constantly check the insects 
on their breeding grounds while human control of the migrating hordes is costly 
and of only temporary effectiveness. Encouragement is urged of natural enemies, 
especially har;ks and curlews, by conservation of the birds and their habitats. 

Co ns ;orva t jLoii ; _ Desert big horn 

Dixo n, Joseph 3. , and E. Lowe ll S umner , jTr. A survey of desert big- 
horn- in Death Valley National Monument, summer 1933, California Fish and 
Game (Ferry Bldg. , San Francisco, Calif.), 20(2), April 1939, pp. 72-95, 

figs. 26-43. 

From 1880, mining developments encroaching upon water supplies and mine 
employes shooting the animals causod sorlous decrease in the numbers of desert 
bighorns. Since the establishment of Death Valley National Monument tho animals 
have tho range to themselves, poaching has boon gradually eliminated, and a 
degree of restoration (10-25 percent) has been achieved. The present investiga- 
tion centered mainly about water holes, the location of 21 of which is shown on 
a map. 

Conservation: Eaglos 

Lumlcy, Ellsworth D. The two eaglos of North America, Emergency Con- 
servation Committee (734 Lexington Ave. , Now York, IT. Y. ) , 19 pp., illus., 
June 1939. 

Edited by Herbert Friedmann and with an introduction by Francis B. s 
Herrick this leaflet has the best of sponsors. It describes persecution of 
eagles, discusses tho fabulous character of some of the most serious accusations 
against tho birds, gives the principal facts in the life histories of both the 
golden and bald eagles and makes a plea for their preservation. Eagles are 
protected by law in 5 States and by provision in 21, but arc still subject to a 
bounty in Alaska. The publication is designed for school use and includes a 
list of questions based upon tho text and a suggested eagle program for a high 
school assembly. Bibliography of 19 titles. 

C onservati on: Guide 

Anon. Conservation guide, Garden Club of America (958 Madison Ave., 
New York, IT. Y. ) , 43 pp., 1939. 

A guide to source material for education, planning, and preservation, 
including many references to books and other publications. Suggested headings 
for a conservation file or library. 


.J3LDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 _ August, 1939 

Conservation: Hawks ■ 

Wickst rum , R . K. Hawks, Arizona Wildlife and Sportsman (125 North 
Second Ave. , Phoenix, Ariz. 15 cents e. copy), 1(5), May 1939, pp. 5-7, 
2 charts. 

Diversity of hawks, limited number of preponderantly injurious species, 
protection of hawks by tho Statos, brief notes on food, end reproductions of 
charts on identification and food habits of western hawks prepared by the 
National Association of Audubon Societies. 

Control : _ Ji sj i_ pro dot ors 

Laglor, Karl F . The control of fish predators at hatcheries and 
roaring stations, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalanc, National 
Park Service, Washington, D. C. , 75 cents a copy), 3(3), July 1939, 
pp. 169-179, 1 table. 

Author's abstract: "In 1937, 15,223 reptiles, birds, and xaamaals wore 
killed at 22S fish hatcheries in 33 States according to figures based on return 
from a nation-wide poll. Of tho sever .1 control methods reported, screening ail 
wiring of ponds and raceways and shooting and trapping of predators afforded th 
greatest protection. Wider use of controls that do not involve tho wholesale 
destruction of actual or supposed predators is recommended. " 

Control: Policy in national p arks 

Crdialano^ Victor H. The evolution of predator control policy in tho 
national parks, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalanc, National 
Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(3), July 1939, pp. 229- 

Author's abstract: "Since establishment of the first national pari: in 
1872, policy as to protection or destruction of predators has fluctuated with 
official and public changes of opinion. With few exceptions until about 1925,, j 
control was pursued as vigorously as financial moans permitted. Methods inclucl 
trapping, hunting with dogs, poisoning and shooting, the latter being used mosi I 
extensively after 1920 due to its greater selectivity. As thought advanced, tl 
list of proscribed spocios became smaller and was finally restricted to the 
cougar, wolf, and coyote. All control finally ceased in 1955. Predators aro 
and will be protected in the same measure as other pari: animals." 


2_ Jii£9-L '• /Pre dators overdone 

Pough^ Ri chard. Arc we ovor-cont rolling predators?, Hunting and 
Fishing (275 Newbury St., Boston, Mass. 5 cents a copy), 16(6), Juno 1939, I 
pp. 15, 37, 1 photo. 

Control to protect livestock nay bo justified but extension of the work 
solely for tho alleged benefit of game is bringing protests from mon who know 
wildlife problems. The function of predators as a sanitative force in rclatioj 


ramLuis wnsui no. &• ^r^t, .195? 

to wild animal speoies aa'S ajfoojaimcns is orpin's i -'el. The nuribor and diffi- 
culty or the activities iaT&lved prevent nan from ruches orally substituting his 
own exertions for those of the predators. If there are not pnough predators 
loft on a given proa to porfbsm thoir impprtutrt natural functions, tkmi control 
lies thore been overdone. 

Cycles; Hhro, Siiow shoo 

Chit 1 7, Dennis^ arrl Charles Liter,. The snowshoe rabbit enquiry 
1937-38, Canadian fiel^'rNaturaliet' {592. 3fluriposa &re« , Rackaliffe Park, 
Ottawa, Canada. 25 cents a jopy) , S2{5), Kay 1939, pp. 63*70, G maps, 

2 tables. 

This prepress ropart based on 585 responses frxi Canada and 55 fron the 
United States tolls of patch-'- recovery ia the toruer country raost narked in the 
southwest, and of recovery, bogun in the latter ecuutr/ especially in the east. 
In some parts of Alaska decline had sot in .vhile ooundence continued in others. 

Cycle st ? 'lie ro t u s 

l-Jho3an ; _R/ V. Yolo plague at SiiOky falls, Ontario, Canadian Fiold- 
Hbturalist ( 582 Ifcr ipo&a A** f , Meckel ixfo Parr, Ottawa, Canada. 25 cents a 
ccpy), 55(4), April 1959, pp,>3~55. 

Rise, climax, and decline recurred in a period of 2 years — 1936-38. 
Numbers wore groat and attracted predator:; in unusual abundance. Da.rae to 
lavas, fruit, ornaaental, and other tr^co and shrubs is described. Tick infos- 
tntior was high. The sex ratio tended strcn ; _a1y toward rules, especially near 
the end of the peak period. 

Dost ruction: Extinct and vanishing birds 

Cowanloch, James H. Vanished £noricans, Louisiana Conservation 
Review (Dept. of Conservation, Nov: Orleans, La.), 7(1), Spring 1939, 
pp. 39-45, 49, 5 fins. 

History and cruses of extinction of the great auk, Labrador duck, Eskimo 
curlew, passenger pigeon, short-toiled albatross, heath hen, masked bobwhite 
(in the United Statos), and Carolina parakeet. Throe species s^ reduced in 
nunbors that their survival is problematical arc the t ruriiot or swan, whooping 

crone, and ivory-billed woodpecker. 

De s t ru c t ion^ Highway 

Pi eke r so n, _ L. M. The problon of wildlife destruction by automobile 
traffic, Journ. VJildlife Minagenont (Victor K. Cahalanc, JJational Park 

Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(2), April 1959, pp. 104-116, 

4 figs., 3 tables. 


l/ILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 2.939 

Author's abstract: "It is auggefitttd that in ©rcperiroental approach be 
made to the problem of reducing tho frequency of fitalit-ies to wildlife result* 
ing from automobile traffic. Tho data used include observations on roadside 
cover conditions associated with the presence of victims observed over a period 
of more than throe years and more than 12,000 miles of travel. A statistical 
comparison is made between data collected by tho writer and similar information 
previously published. Tho frequency of dead animals is shown to be much 
on highways through, plains country where only grass or low herbaceous cover is 
found than in other parts of the country whore woody covor is more common, " 
Bibliography of 10 titles. 

D es truction: } fintor killing 

Troutman, Milton B. , Jilliam E. Bills, and. Edward L. Wiokliff . 
"/inter losses from starvation end exposure of waterfowl and upland game 
birds in Ohio and other northern States, Wilson Bulletin (University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor. 50 cents a copy), 51(2), Juno 1939, pp. 86-104, 
8 figs. , 2 tables. 

Unusually large numbers ( ' c .bulatcd) of watorfOt^S. partly attracted by 
lavish baiting wore on Ohio aarci^os and lalcoa daring the winter of 1931-32 
and a great many of them porishbd* Details ?.ro given as to loss of weight 
compared to "normal" and cross-sections of breasts illustrated, winter killing 
of bob-white, riugnock phcascr,4| . nd ruffed ;;3?onsc also is Ohio end other 
States is discussed. Bibliogrnj^f of 26 titles. 

Authors' conclusions: "Viator mortality of waterfowl and some species 
of upland game birds, caused by starvation, exposure to low temperatures, or a 
combination of both, occurs in widely scattered localities in tho northern 
United States. Such mortality generally takes place during or immediately 
following severe sleet or snow storms when lev; temperatures freeze the surface 
water shutting off tho usual food supply* During the average stress period 
apparently only those birds die which are weakened by disease, parasitism, 
lead poisoning, mechanical injury such as arc mado by gunshot wounds, or ice 
formation over eyes, in bill cud nostrils. In extreme stress periods, and 
especially when the accumulated, adverse effects of winter arc most pronounced, 
mortality of normal birds may occur from starvation and exposure." 

Diseases and Parasites : Anthrax in min k 

Howarth, C. R. , and L. S eghetti . Anthrax in fain- raised mink in 
Oregon, Journ. Amor. Vet orinary Medical Assoc. (221 il. La Salle St., 
Chicago, 111. -1-0 cents a copy), U.S. 74(4), Fart II, April 1939, pp. 
433, 434. 

G-encral notes on anthrax; history of the case reported, pathological and 
bacteriological findings. "A Gran-positive bacillus, morphologically and 
culturally identical with Bacillus anthracis , was isolated from mink. Trans- 
mission experiments in guinea pigs and a sheep produced symptoms and lesions 
typical of anthrax infection." 


"i/ILDLIFE REVIEI7: No. 22 August, 1939 

D isoP-S c_s__nnd_ Paras i tcs: Arthr itis 

Fox, Herbert . Chronic arthritis in vnld i.rmnals , Trans. Ancr. 
Philosophical Society (Philadelphia, Pp.. ), N.S., 31(2), Feb. 1939, pp. 
73-148, 12 pis., 2 charts, 1 table. 

Chronic arthritis sinilar to that affecting nan occurs in other nannals 
even in the wild. Results fron examination of uore than 1,700 skeletons arc 
discussed and illustrated. The disease occurs chiefly in larger aniuals and nay 
possibly be related to loconotion and the associated jolt shock. 

D isea se s and P ar asites: Avian malaria 

Hqgncr, Rober t, and Fruna T ., r olfso n. Association of Plasnodiun end 
Toxoplasna -liko parasites in birds, Ancr. Journ. Hygiene (Prince and Lcnon 
Sts., Lancaster, Pa. $2.50 a copy), 28(3), November 1958, pp. 437-454, 
11 figs. , 1 tabic. 

Expcrincnts with canaries on strains derived fron various wild birds. 
Fron authors' abstract: "Observations arc presented that favor or oppose the 
hypothesis that birds containing both PLasnodiun and Toxoplas ma-likc parasites 
are suffering fron a nixed infection with two different typos of organi sns . 
Our conclusion is tint this is a possibility and that schizogony in reticulo- 
endothelial cells as part of the life cycle of avian Plasmodium is still to be 
proved." Bibliography of 20 titles. 

Disease s^ and_ Parasites: 3otulism in si lver f ox 

Pylo, Noraan J. , a nd Richard M. Broun . Botulism in foxes, Journ. 
Ancr. Yotcrinary Medical Assoc. (221 if. La Salle St. , Chicago, 111. 40 
cents a copy), U.S. 74(4) , Part II, April 1939, pp. 436-439. 

Heavy mortality anong silvor foxes on a ranch in the East i/as traced to 
botulisn caused by spoiled canned fish. Lesions arc described and bacteriolog- 
ical and experimental investigations reported upon. 

Dis eases and . Paras l t o sj _ _3ptul ism^ resist an c c o f vultures to 

£^£^- c Jli_ JLv Ji* Anorican vulturos and the toxin of Clostridiun 
botulinun, Journ. Ancr. Veterinary Licdical Assoc. (221 N. La Salle St., 
Chicago, 111. 40 cents a copy), N.S. 47(3), March 1939, pp. 187-191, 
2 tables. 

The turkey vulture is highly resistant to both oral and injected doses of 
the toxin of this bactoriuri (Type C) and to injections also of Types A and B. 
The blood sera of both the turkey and black vultures have antitoxic offects, 
experimental evidence of which is reported. Bibliography of 6 titles. 


:/HDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 Auoist, 1939 

Diseases and Paras itc sj , Oapil^aria c olurobao 

Uc hr, Eve rett _S_, Studies on the development of tho pigeon capillarid 
Capillaria colunbao , U. S. Dcpt. Agriculture Tech. Bui. 679 (Supt. of 
Documents, Washington, D. C. .5 cents a copy), 19 IT . , 3 figs., 6 tables, 
May 1939. 

Description, illustration, life history, pathology, and control of this 
nematode which infests not only the coixibn pigeon hut also other birds includin 
the mourning dove and turkey. 

Diseases and Parasites: Cyst icercus 

Uhitlock, S_.__G. Infection of cottontail rabbits by Cysticercus 
pisifomis (Taenia pisifomis) , Journ. "Jildlifc Managoocnt (Victor H. 
Cahalanc, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(3) , 
July 1939, pp. 258-260. 

author's abstract: "Infection of Michigan cottontail rabbits by cysti- 
ccrci of the dog tapeworm, T aeni a pi^sifonai_s, is a conaon finding. Many safely 
edible rabbit carcasses arc discarded each year by hunters because of the 
presence of these parasites. Fear of contracting disease and objection to eat- 
ing pane appearing to be abnormal arc the principal factors involved. The 
pathological effect of these parasites on the rabbits in general appears to be 
slight though occasional massive infections ray da-iajc- individual animals." 

Pis oases and Parasites : Decr^ JascoMiii 

Minor, Fred T. , John Hanson, and A. M. MoDorriLd . Report of two deer 
yards in Douglas and Bayfield "Counties, Wisconsin Conservation 3ul. 
(Wisconsin Conservation Dcpt., Madison), 4(5) , May 1939, pp. 18-24, 
1 photo, 1 table. 

Description of yards that arc so over browsed that when the deer arc con- 
fined to then by deep snow the smaller animals especially, not being able to 
reach as high as the others, die of starvation and associated ma.lo.dics. Tabu- 
lation and notes on pathology of 26 deer found dead. The diagnoses arc of 
pneumonia 13, bots 18, and starvation 9. ..side frori the starvation, perhaps, 
none of the conditions found would cause serious loss in a deer herd. 

Diseases and Par.. sites: _ Pi st c. 'Tor 

Grccnj E. G.., and C. A. Evans. A comparative study of distemper 
inclusions, Amor. Journ. Hygiene (Prince and Lemon Sts., Lancaster, Pa. 
0.1. 00 a section), 29(2), March 1939, pp. 73-87, 4 figs., 5 tables. 

Review of study of canine distemper and the characteristic inclusion 
bodies end of parallel Y/ork on fox encephalitis. Iletcs arc given e.lso on the 
pathology of distemper in .links .mid ferrets. Authors 1 conclusions: "(1) Cant 
distemper and epizootic fox encephalitis car. be differentiated with certainty 
their respective inclusion bodies, (2) the virus of canine distemper produces 


JJXDLIFE HEVEU: No. 22 Aupust, 1939 

norpkolocically ido::tical inclusion bodies in do^s, foxes, ninks, and ferrets. 
There arc Liinor diff croncos ir c. 1 o distribution of inclusions in the scroral 
species." Bibliography of 19 titles. ■ 

Diseases and Parasite s: Dist onao r ' :; 

Ott, Gr oor^o L. , J r. Trco.tncnt of for distonpor, Journ.Ai.ioricar. 
Vcterinary Modi cal Assoc, (221 N. La Salle St.-, Chicago, 111. 40 cents a 
copy), U.S. 47(5), Ifcy 1939, pp. 522-525, 1 photo, 4 cherts. 

Description ">f conditions on e neder:.: fox f:.rr: in 'Jisconsin and of out- 
breaks of distorter causing nortnlity of 35-60 percent of tho pups, Treatment 
with houolorous unti-caninc di stamper scrun as a prophylactic avent reduced 
mortality 50 to 66 percent raid in considered ocononically eound. 

DisoaseS | Paras it c s : _ ^ Scjiin^jjc ; ciig 

P dloy , U. A . The need for data relative to the occurreacc of liych.tidc 
and of Echinococc^s jpr^ulosao in wildlife, Journ. Vildlifo Management 
(Victor K. C~.Ijt.1;;.:-.o, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a 
copy), 3(3), July 1939, pp. 235-257 

Author's abstract: "Dccri-h: Jaovffll occurrence of S. granulosus in doncs- 
tic animals in tlio United St. .tee and recent evidence tint it occurs not un- 
conmorly in Minnesota :.ioce.- ; , there is only one authenticated record of t;.o 
finding of tho adult stago in do;;s in this country. In oxrni nations of tikibcr 
wolvos, Canis lupus lye a o n fro: 1 , the aror whore tho infected noose occurred it 
was found tint 5 out of 8 harbored adult E. gra nulosu s. No infested coyotes or 
foxes were found. Attention is celled to the importance of norc extorsive 
studies of the problem and to the opportunities which students of wildlife have 
to nako significant contributions." 

jtisoasos and Para sites : 3ncciJrplon7_cliJn_s 

Van Rookol. II. , and Mirt an X._ G ierke . Equine encephalomyelitis 

virus (Eastern type) isolated fron rin;:-necked pheasant, Journ. Ancr. 
Veterinary Medical Assoc. (221 IT. L . S alio St., Chicago, 111. 40 cents a 
copy), N.3. 47(5), May 1939, pp. 463-438. 

Material fro: pheasants fron c iTcw Jersey cane far;: subjected to various 
laboratory tests which are described, the conclusion bcin/j that the infective 
Qijont appears identical with tho virus that produces the Pastern typa of equine 
encephalomyelitis. Tho English sparrow was found to be highly susceptible under 
cxporincntal conditions, Peviow of recent literature to which 5 citations arc 

P i seaso n s h--"A 1 -_P_ar_'._s it c s : Go . r e worn 

Delai'lane^ J. ?._,_ and J_L C. St u..r t. Use of iodine for gapewoms in 
pheasants, Journ. Aver. Veterinary Modical Assoc. (221 IT. La Salle St., 
Chicago, 111. 40 cants a copy), IT.S. 47(3), May 1939, p. 538. 


VffLDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

A few drops of iodine vermicide (diluted according to the directions for j 
internal medication) placed in the trachea ;vith a pipette relieved the birds; 
autopsies of 2 indicated that all of the parasites had been killed. The articld 
refers to a paper in which barium antinonyl tartrate is recommended for the 
removal of gapewormsi 

Dise ases and pa ras i t e s: Giardia 

Travi s , Berna rd V . Descriptions of five now species of flagellate 
protozoa of the genus Gia rdia , Joum. Parasitology (Rockefeller Institute, 
Princeton, N. J. $1.50 a copy), 25(1), Eob. 1939, pp. 11-17, 1 pi. 

From the American bittern, little blue heron, western meadowlark, swamp 
sparrow, andmuskrat. Descriptions, measurements, illustrations, and discus- 
sion of relationships. 

Diseases and Parasit es: Gull^ Herring 

Harrington, Ro b c rt_ ¥ . _ , _ J r . Parasites of the herring gull Larus 
argentatus smithsonianus, Bov/dcin College (Brunsv/ick, Maine) Bui. G, 
April 1939, pp. 14-18, charts, mimeographed. 

Field notes on the birds, including some on food, and list of parasites 
including 7 kinds of Trematoda, 6 Gestoda, 1 Nematode, and 2 Acanthocephala. 

Di seases and P aras ites: Lead poiso ning 

[McLcaii^ _D. ] Shot poisoning of wild ducks, California Conservation- 
ist (306 State Office Bldg. , Sotsrancirfco, Calif. 15 cents a copy), 4(5), 
May 1939, p. 9. 

Report on dead birds seen on various areas and statistics from screening 
and panning as to the number of shot per acre on 9 different sites (8-56 
thousands). [In this report the presence of shot in gizzards seems to be take] 
as evidence of lead poisoning but on that criterion a very high proportion of 
wild fowl would have to be adjudged as suffering from the malady, Some evidencj 
from symptoms and IcsiDns should be sought; among the .latter, blackening of the 
lining of the caeca is an indication that lead is being absorbed.] 

Disoasos and P^asitcs : _ Malaria 

Staubcr, Lorlic A. Factors influencing the asexual periodicity of 
avian malarias ," Jou^nTparasi tology (Lancaster, Pa. $1.50 a copy), 25(2), 
April 1939, pp. 95-116, 7 figs. 

Results of experiments with canaries. Review of literature of which 30 
titles arc cited. Most of the strains have synchronous rythyms which arc 
multiples of 24 hours dependent upon activities of the host. Author' s summary: 
"(1) A study of the experimental modification of the asexual periodicity of 
avian malaria was conducted on three strains of P. [ lasm odium] cr-tno moriun 
('C,' ' D' and ' N f ) and on one strain of P. relic tun var. natutinum ('R*). One 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

of the strains ('N') was obtained by single-parasite isolation; (2) the synchro- 
nous periodicity of reproduction of avian malaria is affected by alternate 12- 
hour periods of high and low temperature; (3) it is affected by light itself — 
active through the eyes and not through the body surface — if of sufficient 
intensity to cause the host to be active; (4) as a corollary to (2) , it is 
associated with rest or sleep which seem to be important orienting factors; 

(5) it is not affected by host feeding of the type devised in those experiments; 

(6) it is considered possible that the host may furnish a set of critical temper- 
ature conditions which orients the time of segmentation. In such an hypothesis, 
the period of rest becomes important in that it makes possible the temperature 
differential necessary for the appearance of the critical value." 

Disease s_j~nd Paras it c s_:_ _ Mi nno sot a_ jLnvo st igat ion 

Green, _R. G. , ot. al. Minnesota Wildlife Disease Investigation 
(Dcpt. of Bacteriology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), Dec. 1938, 
pp. 37-96, table 4-0, mimeographed. 

HcmoprotcuG in the blood of mallards in winter; lead poisoning may acti- 
vate chronic infections. Results as to trapping snowshoo hares. Notes on 
pathology of 5 hares, 1 skunk, and 2 raccoons. List of publications of R. G. 
Green and associates on diseases of wildlife, Noo. 1-23 o~a studies conducted 
prior to, and Nos. 24-88 subsequent to, the arrangement for cooperation between 
.the University of Minnesota, Minnesota Department of Conservation, .and the 
Biological Survey. 

Disea ses and Parasites^ t Polymorphus 

Van Cleave, Barley J. A now species of the acanthocephalus genus 

Polyjnorphus and notes on the status of the name Prolific_ollis, Journ. 

Parasitology (Lancaster, Pa. $1.50 a copy), 25(27", April 1939, pp. 129-131, 
3 figs. 

P. marilis'n. sp. from . scaup duck described and figured; the two 
generic names mentioned in the title are synonyms. 

Pj- ilPPJiSaL 5-i^L FS^l^J- "k ° G : Sylyatic Plague 

Jolli son, YIJLlliam L. Syl vatic plague: Studies of predatory and 
scavenger birds in relation to its epidemiology. Public Health Service. 
Public Health Reports (Supt. of Documents, 7,b.shi:igton, D.C. 5 cents a copy), 
54(19), pp. 792-798, 1 table, May 1939, 

References to a fox; notes in previous literature on possible transmis- 
sion of pl.'.guo by birds, and account of the author's observations and experi- 
ments in southwestern Montana, The author's conclusions arc: "Predatory 
.species, especially, transport flea-infested rodents and serve as accidental 
hosts of rodent fleas. The abundance raid variety of rodent fleas found in the 
nest of a burrowing owl suggest that this species may prove of particular 
interest. Casts from predator;?- birds fed plague -infected guinea pig tissue were 
consistently infectious. Infection was not demonstrated in two instances in 


\KLDLIFE REVIEU: No. 22 August, 1939 

which portions of i plaguo-infected ground squirrel found deed in nature wore 
used for the infective feedings. Teste on the infectivity of feces of birds 
being fed plaguo tissue wore consistently, nogativc, but were restricted to a fevj 
species." Bibliography of 8 titles. 

jDisoci sos a nd Parasites^ _ S;7lvatic_ pl ag ua 

Stowart , M. A. , and Dj > B. M ackio . The control of syl vatic plague 
vectors, Amor. Journ. Hygiene [Prince and Lemon StS., Lancaster, Pa. )2.50 
a copy), 28(3), Nov. 1938, pp. 469-480, 5 tables. 

Sylvatic plaguo continues to spread m the United Statos. Control should 
be directed against the prirao vectors — fleas — as well as against their rodent 
hosts. The present report is based 3n laboratory experiments. Authors' con- 
clusions: "The control of flees in rodent burrows, as well as control of the 
rodents themselves, necessary in the effective suppression of sylvatic plague 
may be accomplished by fumigation with methyl bromide. All stages from the egg 
to the adult arc susceptible to this fumigant., but the adults aro more easily 
killed than arc the immature stages. It appears from field tests, that the 
dosage of liquid methyl bromide, approximately 10 cc per burrow opening, ordi- 
narily used to kill ground squirrels is also sufficient to kill the fleas in nil 
stages of development. It is believed that the spread of bubonic plaguo occur- 
ring through the transportation of plague-flea infested grains, cereals, etc., 
may be effectively chocked by fumigating these cargoes with methyl bromide end 
that the 'materials so treated tall not in any way bo rendered unfit for humaii 
consumption. " Bibliography of 14 titles. 

Diseases and Parasites: Tick, Rabbit 

Hojrms.n_,_ Carlton M. Occurrence of larval and nymphas stages of the 
rabbit tick, Bho m ghysaYis Ic poris^ palust ris , on wild birds from Cape Cod, 
Bui. Brooklyn"Ent*. SocV (311 East 4th StY, Tucson, Ariz. 60 cents a copy), 
33(3), June 1938, pp. 133-134, 


ords for 6 species of birds trapped on Capo Cod, Mass., and references 
to the literature. Apparently the rabbit tick has boon found on 47 species of 
birds of the eastern United States. Some of those may bo natural, rather than 
accidental, hosts and may have to be taken into consideration if control of the 
tick — a vector of tularemia — should over be necessitated. 

Diseases and Parasit c s_: _ _ T Ick ,_ ^ Sjiowsh oc h arp 

Crccn_,_ J£_._ C-._,__ o£ al . Rabbit tick populations on the Lake Alexander 
area, 1931-0L938T Mimfosbta Wildlife Disease Investigation (Dopt. of 
Bacteriology, University of Mimic sot a, Minneapolis), Nov. 1938, pp. 80-86, 
tables 38-39, 4 graphs, mimeographed. 

Of ticks and fleas infesting the hares, the rabbit tick ( I^.c^aplTy3alis 
loporis-palustris ) is by far the most abundant .aid doubtless most important. 
The tick populations arc discussed and graphed in relation to those of the 
hare; their peaks occur together. IThen the hares nmaborcd from 350 to 475 per 


IHLDLIEE REVIE"./: No. 22 August, 1939 mile, maximum tick infestations were around 4,000 per animal, but whan 
tho rabbits wcro only 30 to 250 per square mile, the tick nc.xir.iun was helved. 
A principle deduced froa the study, which probably Ins broad application, is 
ithct tho nost effective control soon la nature is that exorcised by variations 
in the size of host populations, n 

Dise ases and Pjy^sjLtps: _ _ Tronatocto i n sh o ro -birds ^ ' 

You ng, It. T. The life history' - of a trcnatodc (Lcvir.scniclln cruzi?) 
fron the shore birds (Linos a fedoa and Crtoptrophorus scmipalnatus inornatus) , 
Biol. Bui. (Frinco and Lemon Sts. , Lancaster, Pa. $1.75 a copy), 74(2), 
April 1938, pp. 319-329, 2 figs, 2 tables. 

Locality: La ?olla, Calif.; the birds concerned: narblod godwit and 
western willct; intermediate hosts: snails and sand cr;.bs. Practically all crabs 
over 6-7 nn. in length arc infested but the infestation of the birds is light. 
Bibliography of 12 titles. 

plsoasos and Paras i t os: _ Tularemia 

Grroon, R obort G. Tularemia, a common disease in wild aninals, 
Minnesota Conservationist (Dcpt. of Conservation, St. Paul, Minn. 15 cents 
a copy), 67, April 1939, pp. 14-16, 2 photos. 

Tularemia affect.:; numerous kinds of wildlife in Minnesota, being nost 
serious in relation to the cottontail, raffed grouse, riuskrat, and nice. It is 
spread chiefly by ticks; of those the rabbit tick seldom bites nan e.iid the wood 
tick has a rather low rate of infection. The chance of a hunan contracting 
infection fron tick bite is snail, almost negligible if all ticks arc pronptly 
ronoved. Tularemia is nost prevalent in spring raid fall and its incidence 
reduces rapidly in cold xvoathor. Opening the season on rabbits at the middle of 
October or lator reduces the hazard to tho minimum. 

E cology: _3_iologic_ balance 

flans on, Herbert C. Ecology in agriculture, Ecology (Prince and Lenon 
Sts., L : -lcaVtor*,*l'-."":fl.50 a copy), 20(2), April 1939, pp. 111-117. 

There is onough mention of wildlife in this article to make it worthy of 
perusal by those interested in biologic balance. "Permanent agriculture must be 
In adjustment with tho onviro:-mont u c.nC the services of scientists arc required 
to accomplish that end. 

G rpf fonius, HI. J. A method for determining the relative abundance of 
Microtus porjisylVanieus", .Tourn. Wildlife Mbnagoment (Victor II. Cahalanc, 
National Park Service, Vfcshington, D. C. 75 cents a copy) , 3(3), July 1939, 
pp. 199-200. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

Author's abstract: "Abundance of M. po rmsylv ani c us can be determined by 
noting their effect on oatneal bait-linos placed in different cover types." 

Ecology: Census metho ds 

Loslio, P. H. , and D. H. S. Davis. An attempt to determine the 
absolute nunber of rats on a given area, Joum. Animal Ecology (Cambridge 
University Press, 200 Euston Road, N. Iff. 1, London, England. 20 shillings 
a copy), 8(1), May 1959, pp. 94-113, 3 figs., 3 tables. 

Report on a field experiment in Africa that is of value to those inter- 
ested in theories of anirial populations. Authors* summary: "The results fron 
a scries of trappings, all done on the sane area in Freetown, Sierra Leone, havoL 
boon analysed in the light of a theory of trapping, which is norcly an adaptatiOi 
of the elementary kinetic theory of gases. The development of this theory is 
given in full and the arithmetical analysis of the results has revealed nothing 
which is inconsistent with the fundamental hypothesis. The probable number of 
R. rattus on this area has been calculated and the errors involved in this type 
of estimate are discussed, leading to certain suggestions for the design of such 
experiments in the future." Bibliography of 6 titles. 

Eco logy : _ Cjcn^s_jioj^ij3ds_ 

§il°?ja_. JA°A*- P>_'. r^-i^/J-il JL*. Sollco. A census of red foxes and 
striped skunks in Clay and Boone Counties, Iowa, Joum. Wildlife Management 
(Victor H. Cahalanc, National Pr.rk Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a 
copy), 3(2), April 1939, pp. 92-98, 2 figs., 3 tables. 

Authors* abstract: "A census technique for rod foxos and striped skunks 
developed in Clay and Boono Counties, Iowa is discussed. The data evidenced the 
following populations: Clay County, foxes, 117; skunks, 945; Boono County, 
foxes, 351; skunks, 2,331, The nunbors of these fur-bcarcrs appeared to vary 
with the acreage of land having certain slopos. Slopes under 5 to 10 porccnt 
and bottom lands appeared largely unattractive to breeding animls of these 

©K)logvj_ _ Farm Mrds 

!S£L i^ZPi^J 91 "' i^L* £• Studies on the ecology of secondary communities 
in a deciduous" forest area, Ecology (Prince and Lemon Sts., Lancaster, Pa. 
$1.50 a copy), 20(2), April 1939, pp. 198-216, 5 figs., 2 tables. 

Ecological classification of formerly forested areas in northern Illinois 
as modified by man and their resident bird population. The classification into 
6 communities is based on the absence or presence of trees and shrubs. Their 
characteristics as to other details are discussed especially as to the occur- 
rence of birds. "Animals which survive in an agricultural area do not constitute 
a well-defined ecological group, but rather represent the remnants of integrated 
primitive communities which have survived because of special circumstances in 
each case. " The total density of birds in the area in winter was estimated to 
be 243 per square mile in 1936, and 282 in 1937; corresponding figures for the 


V/LLDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

summer populations are: 504 and 576. There is a bibliography of 20 titles. 

Ecology; Mosqui to control o perations 

Cory, Ernest N v and S. L. Crosthwait . Some conservation and 
ecological aspects of mosquito control, Journ. Economic Entomology (E. N. 
Cory, College Park, Md. 75 cents a copy) , 32(2) , April 1939, pp. 213-215. 

Two sections of this paper relate to vertebrates. One discusses "salinity 
in relation to muskrat food." Ditching allows inflow of salt water that is 
injurious to the important food plant three-square (Sc irpus o lnovi ) , but can be 
controlled by dikes and tide gates. Some ditched marshes yielded more, others 
fewer, muskrat s and further study is neodod for appraising the effects of ditch- 
ing on those animals. Their food, however, has been preserved. As to "ditching 
in relation to duel: food," the writers say that the growth of wigoongrass 
(^HPJPAL M Eritima ) can be preserved by cutting shallow laterals from the main 
deeper ditches into ponds that otherwise dry up in summor. Deep ditchos destroy 
the value of the ponds. Some ponds have boon benefitted by deepening and now 
ones havo boon formed, sods from ditches being used to build up their banks. 
Ditching should be done at other seasons than the nesting period of wild fowl.' 
Increases in black ducks have been noted on the marshes whore the favorable 
methods mentioned have boon applied. "An attempt has been made to do those 
operations necessary for mosquito control in such a manner as to interfere the 
least with the balance of wildlife as it existed at the beginning of the work, 
to improvo conditions for wildlife feeding, breeding and resting and to collect 
data upon which definite conclusions, instead of conjectures based on prejudices, 
can be formulated." 

Ecology; Peat land s 

Dae hno wski -Stokes^ A. P. Improvement of unproductive and abandoned 
pcatland for wildlife and related uses, Ecology (Prince and Lemon Sts. , 
Lancaster, Pa., $1.50 a copy), 20(2), April 1939, pp. 187-197, 1 fig. 

References to extent of peat lands in the United Statos and their classi- 
fication. "It is recognized also that much progross has been made by the U. S . 
Biological Survey toward a solution of the propagation of plants valuable for 
wildlife, and tho relationships of various species of birds and other animals to 
active environmental conditions. These and other investigations on changes in 
plant cover, rate of recovery, wildlifo populations and thoir requirements, havo 
not been considered, as yot, in relation to tho throe classos of poatland men- 
tioned abovo. Research along the linos indicated would clarify an understanding 
of rehabilitating requirements, developmental 3tagos of vogotation, and tho 
plant enct antral cor.iE.urii tics which aro offectivo in changing the appearance of 
habitats, or have an important temporary or permanent of foot upon peat areas 
that have been inundated. Restoration, improvement, and use of these different 
types* primarily for wildlife, are in keeping with conservation and land utiliza- 
tion policies. They differ only in the results sought for-, that is, in prevent- 
ing ill-advised and unsuccessful farming operations, in applying restorative 
acasurcs to meet the needs of difforont kinds of pcatland conditions, and in 
worting burning, deterioration, and abandonment of a valuable national resource." 


\ULHLim REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

Suggestions arc for the imp rov orient of poet areas along river courses 
bordering lakes and ponds, and on upland. Proposals arc made for future peat 
investigations and problems arc listed under 10 headings. 

Ecology;: Populati ons, fluctuations, fur ani mal^ 

Mohr, C ar l . Trappers' reports reveal furbcarcr fluctuations in 
Illinois, Illinois Conservation (Dcpt. of Conservation, State House, 
Springfield, 111.), 4(1), mid-winter 1933-1939 (Fob.), pp. 4-5, charts. 

Analysis of 6,000 trappers' reports for the period 1929-36. Fluctuations 
in the catch, as affected by prices and other factors including actual abundance 
of the animals, are discussed for foxes, the muskrat, mink, opossum, raccoon, 
and wcasols, and skunks. In summary "muskrat populations have increased 
steadily x x x mink and coon populations may not have changed much except 
locally and x x x other predatory furbcarcrs except weasels, have attained high 
populations which are now either lower or declining." 

Ecology : Sonoran biotic pro vince 

ItiBSLi-J^JLlL* Thc Sonoran biotic province, Ecology (Prince and Lemon 
Sts., Lancaster, Pa. §1.50 a copy), 20(2) , April 1939, pp. 118-129, 1 map. 

Definition, outline (mapped), discussion, and lists of characteristic 
species of a zoogoographic area that includes parts of California, Novada, and 
Arizona. Bibliography of 22 titles. 

Ecology; Territory, groat honied owl 

Baum gartrier^ Fred crick M. Territory and population in the groat 
horned Owl', Tho Auk (Rudyord Boulton, Field Museum, Chicago, 111. 0l„OO a 
copy), 56(3), July 1939, pp. 274-232, 2 figs. 

Report on studios near Lawrence, Kansas, and Ithaca, N. Y. Author's 
suramry: "(1) The Groat Horned Owl maintains a definite torritory throughout 
the nesting season; (2) the male's territory is not only patrolled against all 
others of its species with the oxecption of its mate and young but also sorvos 
as the range in which both birds hunt for food; (3) in most cases resident birds 
arc found near tho nost site at all seasons of the year v/ith tho possible excep- 
tion of a few months in the late sunnier and fall; (4) normally no other largo 
species of owls arc found within tho boundaries of tho range sot up by the nolo 
Horned Owl; (5) Homed Owl populations arc limited chiefly by human molestation 
and man-made changes in thoir environment that result in a scarcity of cover and 
less frequently in a lack of nesting sites and sufficient food. In optimum 
range the decided territorial requirements of the males probably determine the 
nesting density. Populations in such areas seem to average from one to three 
pairs of nesting owls to the square mile. Over most of tho range of the species; 
the nesting density .is much lighter; (6) the fact that resident Great Honied 
Owls throughout most of the year restrict their search for food to a relatively 
small area lias an important bearing upon the economic status of this species." 
Bibliography of 6 titles. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

Edu cc. t ion; Con serv ation £lubs 

Gu t em u th^ C . R. Conservation education in Indiana, Pennsylvania 
Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harrisburg. 10 cents a copy) , 
9(2), May 1939, pp. 8-9, 3 photos. 

Conservation clubs, numbering 874, paid for producing fingerling fishes, 
propagating game birds and raccoons, mostly reinvest the receipts in allied 
projects. Their influence lias been good In reducing lav/ infringement. They aid 
in tree planting, emergency feeding of wildlife, and in soil and water conserva- 
tion. Stj.te representatives attend club meetings and give illustrated lectures 
thero and in the schools. 

Education; __ j? ^J3_lic, ^schools 

Anon. Units in conservation for West Virginia public schools, Vol. 1 — 
Elementary Schools (Grades 1-8), 120 pp., illus; Vol. 2 — Secondary Schools 
(Grades 7-12), 128 pp., illus. Conservation Commission and State Department 
of Education (Charleston, W. Va. ) , April 1939. 

Tho courses suggested for the different grades arc presented as to 
general objectives, specific aims, approach, activities, integration, social 
relations, and evaluation. Each is accompanied by a bibliography. A check list 
of vertebrates (except fishes) of the State by M. G. Brooks is included in each 

Ed ucation: Wll dl if a pxjffJ^AP.?. 

Wjirbai^oiij_ C^J/. The educational work of the Extension Service with 
reference to wildlife conservation, U. S. Dcpt. of Agriculture ( Washington, 
D. C. ) Extension Service CirC. 304, 6 pp., mimcographod, March 1939. 

Fitting wildlifo into land-use programs; the farmer is littil to the movo- 
mont and his cooperation must be obtained. Extension work in Texas is described 
as an example, and encouragement of farmer- sportsman cooporation is noted for 
Missouri and 'West Virginia, The main objective, however, is education through 
4-H clubs, progress in which is reported in several States. Conservation camps 
especially facilitate this phase of tho work. 

• Food Habits 

Saar i, Matt, Food for forest folk, Minnesota Conservationist (Dopt, 
of Conservation, State Office HLdg, , St, PofUl, Minn. 15 cents a copy) , 69, 
1! June 1939, pp. 4-6, 3 figs. 

A compiled account with some original observations, pertaining chiefly to 
deer, moose, and grouse. In compiling, some things have been taken too liter- 
s-ally as morgansors eating birch and juniper, and the blue heron talcing spruce. 
Such things are incidentally, perhaps evon accidentally, ingested. 


jTLBLIFE REVIEW:: No. 22 August, 1939 

Z°°A Habits : R^i^jry distribution 

Me lander , L.W. Battling the berberry, Minnesota Conservationist 
(Dept. of Conservation, St. Paul, Minn. -15 cents a copy) , 67, April 1939, 
pp. 17-18, 2 photos. 

Barberries arc the spring host plants for the fungus that causes stem 
rust of wheat, oats, barley, rye, end s one" 25-30 native grasses. Birds, rodents, 
and domestic stock scatter the seeds in viable condition. The robin, catbird, 
cedar waxwing, and "blackbirds" arc specified. No aggressive actions arc recom- 
mended except against the barberry. 

Food Habits: _ _ .Bobcat 

Hamiltont W; 3V, Jr;,, a nd, Russell P. Hunt or. Pall and winter food 
habits of "Vermont bobcats, J oum. vfildl if c Management (Victor II . Cahalanc, 
National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(2) , April 
1939, pp. 99-103, 1 table. 

Authors' abstract: "Stomachs of 140 bobcats taken in Vermont from fall to 
late winter over a three-year period were examined. The results indicate that 
the chief food of the bobcat consists of deer (probably much of it carrion), 
mice, chiefly Micro tus and Pcromyscus, varying hares and cottontails, porcupines, 
squirrels, grouse, shrews, muskrats, carrion, and blue jays. Less frequent 
items are rod and gray foxes, grass, poultry, fishes, mink, and insocts." 
Bibliography of 7 titles. 

Pood Habrts:^ ..SPUl^-P. 

■ tffllo r, $&$ &: jk Comparison of the food of white- necked ravens and 
crows in Oklahoma, vfilson Bulletin (University of Michigan, Arm Arbor. 60 
cents a copy), 51(2), June 1939, pp. 121-122, table. 

Roport on stomach contents of 13 ravens and 14 crows picked- up at a 
bombed roost. Nearly half of the food of oach group was mado up of corn and 
sorghum grains; with respect to other items, the crow socmod more beneficial 
than the raven. 

IPSA. J££iL s i Coyoto 

Bond, Richa rd M. Coyote food habits on the Lava Beds National Minu- 
mont, Jouni. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalanc, National Park Service, 
Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(3), July 1939, pp. 180-198, 3 figs., 
2 tables. 

Author's abstract: "From 273 droppings and 9 stomachs taken, in all 
months but February, on the Lava Beds National Monument (adjacent to the Tulo 
Lake Wildfowl Refuge) in Siskiyou and Modoc counties, California, 706 probably 
non-carrion food items were identified. Of these, 481 or 65.18 percent were 
mammals (19 species: Felidac 1, Sciuridac 6, Hcteromyidac 2, Cricctidac 5, 
Ercthizontidac 1, Ochotonidac 1, Leporidac 2, Ccrvidao l); 26 or 3.67 percent 


IJILDLIFE REVTEVJ: No. 22 August, 1939 

were birds or bird oggs (7 species: Anscriformcs 3, G-alliformos 2, Passori- 
forncs 2); 8 or 1.08 percent reptiles; 145 or 19.55 percent insects; end 46 or 
6.23 percent were vegetable it ens. Evaluation of effects (r.s distinguished from 
activities) of the coyotes is complicated by the occasional or continuous 
presence of at least 34 other predatory vertebrate species in the area. f ... 
although, to some extent, every vortobrato species on the . ». I.Ionumont affects 
the coyote, end is in turn directly or indirectly af??octcd by it, it appears 
that the coyote plays rather a miner role in the ocology of any of the species 
it preys upon. ' No evidence was found indicating necessity of coyote control on 
the Lava Bods National Monument. Bibliography of 8 titles. 

Food_ Ha bits: Door dana^p 

Uolsh, Stanley. Deer damage in the lirulo Rivor valley, Wisconsin 
Conservation Bui. (Wisconsin Conservation Dept., Madison) , 4(6), Juno 1939, 
pp. 41-46, 1 map, 2 tables. 

At a deer yard and on nearby pino plantations, and grounds surrounding 
summer homos on a State forest. Species principally affocted: white cedar, 
balsam fir, and white, jack, and Norway pines. Percentages of survival and 
damage on several sections of a plantation arc tabulated; avorago survival 60 
percent, of which 70 percent are damaged. 

Food Habits: Ducks 

Cott am , C larqnc o . Food habits of North American diving ducks, U. S. 
Dept. of Agriculture Technical Bui. 543 (Supt. of Documents, Washington, 
D. C. 30 cents a copy), 139 pp., 10 pis. (4 col.), 5 figs. 26 tables, 
April (May) 1939. 

This publication completes tho series of formal reports by the Biological 
Survey on food habits of ducks, except for the shovolor and tho mergansers and 
theso have been informally treated (Auk, 39, 1922, pp. 380-336; Leaflet BS-83, 
1937, pp. 11-12). The present bulletin deals vath 22 species of river and sea 
ducks for each of which range and habits arc generalized and, food habits 
detailed. Material permitting, the food of the young is separately discussed. 
Bibliography of 97 titles. The publication is well illustrated, relaxation in 
economy requirements of years standing allowing tho presentation of 4 excellent 
colored plates figuring 16 species. 

Food Habi ts; Ducks 

Martin, A. C, and F. M. U hlor . Food of game ducks in the Unitod 
States and Canado, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Technical Bui. 634 (Supt. of 
Documents, Washington, D.C. 40 cento a copy), 156 pp., 153 pis. (frontis- 
piece col. ) , 137 figs., 11 tables, March (May) 1939. 

The illustrations considerably exceed the text of this publication, which, 
therefore, seems dircctod primarily toward recognition of duck foods. Statistics 
accompanied by graphs based on nearly 3,000 stomach analyses show the importance 
of the principal items in 6 divisions of the United States and 2 of Canada. 


IJILDLIFE RFVIE'J: No. 22 August, 1939 

Tho succeeding section of the bulletin is designed to facilitate identification 
of sono 200 of the norc important foods by ncans of z series of outline .inscrip- 
tions, illustrations, end. distribution ncpsj it corxionts also on the value of 
tho plants to waterfowl, their environmental preferences, end net hods of propa- 
gation. Seventy-eight pages (including nany line dravdngs and distribution 
naps) arc devoted to plant, and 4-1/2 to, foods. Forty pages contain 
discussion of the propagation of waterfowl food plants and of cnvironncntal con- 
ditions affecting then. Harvesting, field care, storage, shipment, planting and 
yields are discussed. Fluctuating water levels, character of bottom, turbidity 
silting, action of waves, currents, .and ice, salinity, alkalinity, and acidity 
are physical factors of the environment that receive consideration both as to 
their effects and possible noons of counteracting then. There is a discussion 
of competitive plants and their control partly based on original investigations 
especially of the introduced water chestnut. Injurious aninals and other adver, 
factors as drainage and pollution also receive consideration. There is a bibll 
ography of 91 titles and an anplc index. 

Food Habits: General 

Hqsloy_,_ N. "J . The place of foods in wildlife rianagenent, Pcnnsylvaiii 
Gene News (Pennsylvania Gone Connission, Harrisburg. 10 cents a copy) , 
9(2), May 1939, pp. 6-7, 31, 6 photos. 

Goncral discussion of methods of learning about irildlifo foods, their 
utilization, and nutritive values, and of the important foods of aninal groups 
including wat erf owl, ruffed grouse, pheasant, bob-white, woodcock, whitc-tailod 
doer, cottontail, snowshoo hare, gray squirrel, raccoon, and rod fox. 

Food Hr.bJ.Js_: Merganser , Aner ican 

Caldwell ,_ Cyril . The feeding habits of Anerican ncrgansers, 
Canadian Field-Naturalist (582 Mariposa Ave., Rockcliffc Park, Ottawa, 
Canada. 25 cents a copy), 53(4), April 1939, pp. 53-55. 

Observations of their feeding extensively upon eels. "In vicx7 of the 
fact that eels arc said to be dctrinontal to valuable food fishes, such as 
trout and salnon, in that they destroy quantities of their spawn, Mergansers 
should be given credit for helping in this vjay to preserve nature's balance." 

Food Habits; Owl , Barn 

3ol and c r , Gor d on . Barn owl pellets, The Gull (1695 Filbert St., 
San Francisco, Calif.') , 21(8), Aug.. 1939, p. 76. 

Report on 1,726 pellets collected fr on March 1938 to May 1939. Meadow 
nice averaged about 50 percent of the occurrences in all lots; other high itens 
wore pocket gophers and white-footed nice. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

Food H abit s^_ Partr i dge, Euro pea n 

Anon . Tho food of partridge chicks, Imperial Chemical Industries 
(Mill bank, London, S.W. 1, England) Gaino Researches, 18, 8 pp., 2 figs., 

June 1939. 


Summary of paper of some title abstracted in WILDLIFE REVIEW, No. 20, 
May 1939, p. 8, and management observations based on the findings. 

Food Habits: Pheas ant 

C ha ddock, T . T. Pheasant food, 'Wisconsin Conservation Bui. (Wisconsin 
Conservation Dcpt , , Madison ) , 4(5), May 1939, p. 44. 

Crop contents of a winter specimen collected whore tho re had boon no 
artificial feeding. Tho principal items wore poison sumac seeds and grass- 
hoppers and their oggs. From their appoaranco, the adult insects arc thought to 
have been dead and dry when oaten, but the oggs had boon dug up in their cap- 
sules; 563 wcro counted. 

Food Ha bits: Squirrel , Fox 

Whitakor, H. L. Fox squirrel utilization of sage orange in Kansas, 
Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalanc, National Park Service, 
Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(2), April 1939, p. 117, 1 pi. 

Author* 3 abstract: "In eastern and central Kansas the seeds of Madura 
poriifora are favored food of S^jurus nigcr rufivo ntor . The larger trees fur- 
nish summer nosting sites, and tho hedges serve as satisfactory feeding and 
rofugc cover. Year-round residence depends upon the presence of mature trcos 
of large specios that decay roadily to make hollows suitable for winter quarters.** 

Fo od Habits: Squirrel, R ed 

Mqllen hauc r , _ _ Wm . , Jr . Table Mountain pine — squirrel food or timber 
tree?, Journ. Forestry (Mills 31dg, , Washington, D. C. 50 cents a copy), 
37(5), May 1939, pp. 420-421, 1 photo. 

Near Huntington, Pa, , rod squirrels to get the cones gnaw off so many 
branches that the trees appear pruned. 

Food Habits: Utility of le gumes 

Qraham, E dward H. Legumes: Their erosion-control and wildlife 
valuos, U. S. Soil Conservation Service (Washington, D. C), TP 23 , 102 pp., 
mimeographed, June 1939. 

Loguncs are discussed as to their valuo in agriculture including their 
roles in nitrogen fixation, as woods, and as poisonous plants, as hosts of 
insects and fungi, and in orosion control. About half of the publication is 
devoted to a discussion 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

of lcgur.os by genera, containing doscriptivo and distributional notos, and rccd 
ing their known wildlife values. There arc indexes of birds end normals accoJ 
panicd by lists of the legumes they arc known to utilize, a 10-pagc bibliograpl 

and a subject index, A useful compilation. 

Food Habit s: Woodcock 

Pott infill t Ol in 3 . a Jr. Additional information on the food of the 
American woodcock", VJilson Bulletin (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 60 
cents a copy), 51(2) , June 1939, pp. 78-82, 2 tables. 

10 c 

Report on 70 sto::iachs from Nova Scotia cxal'iiyiod by the Biological Survey 
Lists of food itcrss and their frequency of occurrence both of the lot ricntiono 
and of another (of 124) from Not.; York and Nov; Jersey previously reported upon. 
The norc important foods arc earthworms, spiders, beetles, and flies. 

Life Histories; Chipr.iu.n k, Eagtora 

A 11 en, _ Els a G. The habits and life history of the oastorn chipnunk, ; 
Tanias striatus lys teri , Now York Stat o Mus. Bui. (Albany), 314, 122 pp., 
43 figs., 11 tables" Sort. 1938. 

This summary of the literature (8 pp. of bibliography) and of personal 
observation and experiment during 5 years by a natron of a buoy household, lik< 
Mrs. Nice's song-sparrow studies, 3hows what can be done nearby and inexpen- 
sively, granted the scientific t crip err. merit and the will to do. The report dec. 
with everything that it could reasonably be expected to cover, treating in nosi 
dotail burrowing, breeding, end feeding habits, and hibernation. Data of 
interest to specialists on other groups than manuals relate to insect guests i: 
the burrows and to ectoparasites. A thorough study, well reported. 

Life Ilistorioa; Ground scpiirrcl, Townsondjjs 

Svihla, Arthur. Breeding, habits of Toijiiscnd 1 s ground squirrel, 
Murrclct (234 Johnson Hall, University of Washington, Seattle. 50 cents 
a c opy ) , 20 ( 1 ) , Jan . -A" ril , 1939 , pp . 6 -10 . 

This resident of south-central Washington, quite plentiful in the local;] 
studied in 1934, was much reduced thereafter possibly by bubonic plague. Gen- 
eral habits are briefly mentioned and breeding habits treated in more detail. ! 
Mating begins shortly after emergence from hibernation; gestation period is 
about 24 days; litters average 4.75 individuals. Progress in size, weight, an 
hairing and other characters in captivity is described. Estivation, which 
passes into hibernation begins in late June about 6 months after spring appear' 
ancc. Bibliography of 6 titles. 

Life Histories: Grouse. Prairie 

B urner stron, F. N. , Jr . A study of Wisconsin prairie chicken and 
sharp-tailed grouse, Wilson Bulletin (University of Michigan, Aim Arbor. 
60 cents a copy), 51(2), June 1939, pp. 105-120, 2 figs., 9 tables. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

Report on a Farm Security Administration project. Notes are given on 
population density on this and other areas; it varies from a bird to 13 to one 
per 100 acres. Mating behavior and dancing grounds are described; some of the 
latter were used by both species. Nesting chronology; number, fertility and 
viability of eggs; seasonal declino in size of clutch; causes of nest failures; 
and occupancy of cover types are tabulated and discussed for each spocies. The 
effect of changes in succession on the birds, including those duo to man, are 
described. Man onco, by accident, mado in central Wisconsin the best prairie 
grouse habitat in the Middle West; can he now, by design, repeat the feat? 
Management studies on the Ncccdah project are intendod to answer that question. 
Bibliography of 22 titles. -» 

Life Histories; _ _ Grouse, Ruffed 

ffish or [ f± Loo \l. Studies of the eastern ruffed grouse in Michigan; 
Michigan State Collcgo, Agr. Expt. Sta. (East Lansing) Technical Bui. 166, 
46 pp., 9 figs., 12 tables, Juno 1939. 

A condensed account of several yoars' technical and obviously successful 
investigations of Bonasa \i . umb_cllus_. Reports on census and habit studies, oach 
separately summarized, make up the bulk of the bulletin. Fluctuations arc not 
uniform throughout the State; the birds prefer the margins of cover areas; 
densest population xvas one grouse to 3 acres, average 1 to 5. Ninety percent of 
the eggs hatched; young were confined in wire netting enclosures about nests and 
fed there from 1 to 6 days after hatching; the female could bo readily caught 
there with a fly net for banding or observation; average range of a grouse brood 
was 40 acres; horned owl and house cat are the most important predators; para- 
sites and diseases appear to be a major factor in the decimation of the birds in 
Michigan; notes on important foods arc included. Bibliography of 7 pages. 

Lifc^ Histcirics;^ Pheasant 

R^dj^lJ.^^PJj3_rj3_c__E. Management of the ringneck pheasant in early 
winter, Pennsylvania Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harris burg. 
10 cents a copy), 10(4), July 1939, pp. 8-9, 30, 6 photos. 

Analysis of winter cover available to pheasants in some of the best range 
in the State; weedy stubblef iclds, hand-picked cornfields, conifer plantations, 
waste lands, end hedgerows were the principal types. The chief food is corn but 
seeds of cornfield x/oeds also arc of value. "There is good reason to believe 
that standing cornfields determine to a large extent the number of pheasants 
that an area in Pennsylvania will winter." Mortality in winter is no more than 
may be considered "normal." "Prcdation docs not appear to be a limiting factor." 
Cover distant from food is not utilized. 

Lif o Histor ies; Floycr, Piping 

Aut hors . The piping plover. Birds of Long Island, No. 1 (Bird Club 
of Long Island, Oyster Bay, N. Y. Ql.00 a copy), 18 pp., 3 pis. (1 col.), 
4 tables, May 1939. 


".JILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August , 1939 

Life history by Lc Roy Wilcox, injury feigning by Allan D. Cruickshank, 
and random notos by J. T. Nichols. 

Life Histories: Qu ail, ValJLey 

Emloh, John T. , Jr . Soasonal movements of a low-donsity valley quail 
population, Journ. Wildlife Management ("Victor H., National Perk 
Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents r. copy), 3(2), April 1939, pp. 118-130, 
3 figs. , 1 tabic. 

Author's abstract: "The movements and social relations of valley quail, 
Lophortyx calif orni ca v allicola , on the University of California Farm at Davis 
were followed in detail through 1937. Colored markers placed on legs and tails 
served to identify individuals in the field. On January 1 there wore 113 birds 
in four coveys. Extra-covey movements were restricted by inter-covey social 
barriers. During late February and March (mating season) yearling birds 
wandered extensively beyond the covey boundaries, effecting a 50$ reduction in 
population on the winter territories. Mated pairs left the coveys for nesting 
early in April. Summer movements, normally restricted by nesting tics, occurrcc 
following nest failure or loss of mate. Despite early displays of social intol- 
erance amongst broods, 4 coveys developed during the fall and half of the 
original birds wore relocated on the territories of the preceding winter." 
Bibliography of 6 titles. 

Life H ist ories: S kunk 

Allen, Durward L . winter habits of Michigan skunks, Journ. Uildlifc 
Management (Victor K. Cahalanc, National park Service, Washington, D. C. 
75 cents a copy), 3(3), July 1939, pp. 212-228, 4 pis., 4 tables. 

Author's abstract: "In a southern Michigan study of the eastern skunk 
( Mephitis m. nigra ) , 143 individuals wore handled by box trapping, steel trap- 
ping, and the digging of burrows. In a scries of weights, 33 males averaged 
1,905.1 grams and 30 females averaged 1,411.8 grams in late winter. Thirty-six 
brooding season autopsies indicated that the older females (separated by weigh! 
bred in late February and young females about a month later. Of 26 burrows exc 
vatcd, 11 contained skunks. In each of two burroxre one male was found with 10 
females. In no case was more than one male present with females. Female skunk; 
became inactive in winter earlier thin males; hence trapping late in the season; 
takes mostly males and preserves the females as breeders. Conversely, the dig- 
ging out of winter dens vail take a high percentage of females and destroy the 
source of a possible new fur crop." Bibliography of 27 titles. 

Life Histories: _J3parrow, English 

Weaver_, Ricliard L. Winter observations and a study of the nesting 
of English sparrows, Bird-Banding (Charles B. Floyd, 210 South St., Boston, 
Mass. 75 cents a copy), 10(2), April 1939, pp. 73-79, 2 figs. 


WUDLIFE REVIEYJ: No. 22 August, 1939 

Study at Ithaca, IT. Y. , Of flocking, winter range, and nesting. There 
was great disparity in numbers between the wintering and breeding populations of 
the sane area. 

Lifo Histories: Swall ow, Tree 

Chapman, Lawronco B . Studies of a tree swallow colony, Bird-Banding 
(Charles B. Floyd, 210 South St., Boston, Mass. 75 cents a copy) , 10(2) , 
April 1939, pp. 61-72, 1 fig., tables. 

A second paror reporting on on additional 4-yoars* study at Princeton, 
Mass. Data for the entire course of the work — 7 ycars-*-arc summarized in a 
table to show such generally interesting features a3 numbers of adults and young 
rof-.urning to the colony, numbers of eggs, and reproductive efficiency. Competi- 
tion with bluebirds and house wrens is doscribod. Humorous parasitic flics 
( Protocalliphora ) wore produced at the oxponso of the fledglings but caused 
little, or no, mortality. Bibliography of 14 titles; tl^c results of some of 
these published studies are ab3tractod in the text. 

Life His tori os: Th rush, Mcknc IV % 

Wallace, Geo rge J. Bickno.ll T o thrush, its taxonomy, distribution, 
and life history, Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. Proc. (£34 Borkoloy St., Boston, 
Mass.), 41(6), pp. 211-401, tables. 

This publication, coming to hand too late for adequato abstracting, has 
been accorded several very favorable reviews in ornithological magazines. Begun 
as a purely lifo history study, taxouoiaic investigation was found necossary to 
fix the status of Bickncll's thrush; this led to a revision of this form and its 
allies, the results of which arc presented. Distribution and migration records 
aro discussed in the text and tabulated in an appendix. The bulk of the paper 
is devoted to the home life of this thrush as observed on Mount Mansfield, 
Vermont; it goos into all phases of the bird 1 3 activities in detail. There is 
a comprehensive summary, and an 6-pago bibliography. 

Life History: Turkey 

Latham, Rogor M. Pennsylvania * n wild turkey range, Pennsylvania Game 
News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harrisburg. 10 cents a copy) , 10(4) , 
July 1939, pp. 3-6, 5 photos, 1 map. 

The present ra:igo, some 2,000,000 acres, is largely restricted to oak- 
pine forests on certain geological formations in the southern half of tho State. 
The original range was much larger and tho decrease seems to have been brought 
about chiofly by agricultural and lumbering activitios together with loss of 
chestnut trees through blight. Environmental factors discussed includo climatic 
conditions, food, cover, range, and disease. In addition hunting, both legal 
and illegal, aro considered. Increase in deer has boon obsorvod in many 
instances to be followed by decrease in tho turkey, grouse, and rabbit popula- 


VJILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1959 

Life His toffies; _ Wo odpcc kers 

Bent , Arthur C. Life histories of North American woodpeckers, U. S. 
National Museum Bui. 174 (Sunt, of Documents, Washington, D. C. 50 cents a 
cony), 334 pp., 39 pis., 1939. 

Continuation of a sow longthy and always useful sorics of volumes on lifi 
histories of North American birds. The specific accounts treat habits, includ- 
ing courtship and nesting, describe the eggs, plumages, food, behavior, voice, 
etc. , and outline the distribution, and give information on migration. The 
treatment varies for the species according to the information available. The 
plates rcproduco photographs of excellent quality. There is an extensive 
bibliography end full index. 

Manag ement: _ Apple trees 

Bradbury, Harold M. Management of apple trees in Massachusetts, 
Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalano, National Park Service, 
Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(3), July 1939, pp. 240-242, 2 pis. 

Author's abstract: "To improve persistence of fruits, pruning and 
releasing in varying degrees and ;iving different exposures wore tried. Best 
results were obtained from a 50$ release to the south and west and no pruning 
of live wood. Grafts of Malus flpribunda ("Bob-white") scions gave speedy and 
excellent returns, one grafted in 1936 bearing 12 apples in 1937. Grubbing 
around trees to remove competitive ground growth and the use of nitrates pro- 
duced larger crops. Because of the difficulty and expense due to isolation, 
those trees arc not sprayed and nay become hosts to diseases and insects that 
would inv-de neighboring orchards. It is recommended that wild apple trees 
within 500 yards of commercial orchards be removed." 

Ma_nngemciit_: Bob-whit 

Stoddard, Herbe rt L . Cooperative Quail Study Association ( T lianas - 
villc, Ga.) Seventh Annual Report, 1937-3S, 31 pp., Juno 1939. 

Besides information of specific interest to Association members, this 
report contains a number of sections of general value in connection with wild-* 
lifo management. One relates to the use of fire, a fuller account of which was 
abstracted in WILDLIFE REVIEW, No. 20, May 1939, pp. 19-20. Another discusses 
the wood cutting policies of paper mills in relation to gario in the Southeast. 
In a division on hawks and owls, it is noted that "the most productive preserve 
appear to bo those that wage no campaign against birds of prey other than * blue 
darters*. " On those preserves, however, "skunks, foxes, opossums, house cats, 
cur dogs, and certain egg-eating reptiles arc systematically reduced in number, 
xxx Preserves that lay major stress on building up food supply end providing 
proper cover for quail, and exorcise moderate control of important mammal and 
reptile enemies when and whore this seems necessary appear to be on the right 
road so far as controllable factors arc concerned, x x x We fool that crows, 
shrikes, blue jays, owls, and most of the hawks can be safely disregarded under 
conditions prevailing below the belt of ice and snow." A special case is 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

accipiters at dove fields where in the interests of good shooting they must be 
controlled. The use of pole traps is opposed on the grounds that they are in- 
discriminate and as generally used, unnecessarily cruel and inhumane. 

Reports on experimental and practical work with game food plants relate 
to sericea lespedcza, scsbania, finger millet, pigconpea, pcrilla, chia, and 
jack-bean. Fall plantings especially designed to produce early spring food arc 
discussed as to composition and management. "The sood consistently giving best 
results xxx consists of sixty pounds of Augusta vetch, thirty pounds of wild 
wintorpca (Lath yrus hirsutus ) , ton pounds of bluostom wheat, and ten pounds of 
abruzzi rye; mixed together before planting." Additions to this mixture that 
arc advisable under certain circumstances arc discussed. Strains best adapted 
for producing fall grains also arc listed. Experiments with dove field plants 
including hayseed and mammaloxi soybeans and Texas seeded ribbon cane are 
reported. Establishment and preservation of refuge cover is advised; wild plum 
and Chinese privet are especially recommended. 

The report gives an account also of studios of mammals and fire ants. 
Blackhead in both quail and turkey is noted as of rare occurrence. 

^naj^prrpjit •: Cottontail 

Gcr stcll ? Richard. A progress report on Pennsylvania's new rabbit 
program, Pennsylvania Gene News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, Ilarrisburg. 
10 cents a copy), 10(3), Juno 1939, pp. 4-5, 31, 2 photos. 

After a 20-year period of decline in the rabbit population, steps were 
baker, to improve food and cover, provide retreat areas, and restock with native, 
rather than imported, animals. Progress during 2 years is reported. All 
DXpcriscs figured in transplanting native rabbits cost 35 cents per animal, loss 
than half the expense for imported cottontails. 

.'Iana_gp_nontj_ _ Farm ^game 

Anon. Game management. What's now in farm science. Part I of 
the Ann. Rep. Director Agr. Expt. Sta. , University of Wisconsin (Madison) 
Bui. 442, Nov. 1938, pp. 48-51, 1 graph. 

Three topics arc discussed. Ups and downs of quail furnish clues to 
oost management. A graph shows variations in the quail population of the 
Prairie du Sac area, so long studied (1929 to 1938) by Errington, Gastrow, and 
ijcopold. Lows seem to be in response to killing winters but also coincide with 

ows of the grouse cycle; the quail peak in 1933 also coincided with that of 
jroucc and rabbits. Winter losses arc greatest when the birds are most abun- 
lant. "From these data," the report says, "has been derived the 'Errington 
?hcory of Prcdation* first proposed by the originator of this investigation," 
;o the effect that predators get more of the birds whon they arc abundant, fewer 
/hen they are scarce. The management deduction is that "it is not necessary to 
lostroy hawks and owls to protect quail in Wisconsin. A more practical vcy xxx 

s to furnish more food and cover." 


jILDLIFE OTISST: No. 22 August, 1939 

[Commont. Tlio "Errington theory of prcdation" is a misnomer. The theory 
is essentially that of probation tending to be proportional to population urged 
by McAtcc in 1932, but earlier stated in its essentials by Seal in 1909. Forbes 
1880 and Muir 1931 came near to it and probably others also have done so.] 

Why do game birds nest in hayfields? They continue to do so despite 
availability of other cover and many nests are destroyed. Flushing bars do some, 
good if attentively used but in practice of ton fail to save the birds or nesting 
"islands" for them. Spring-sown grain, making lower growth by nesting time, is • 
not so attractive as fall-sown fields, but is not so productive over much of the 
State, hence probably will not be used much more commonly than at present. If 
V/isconsin agriculture continues about as it is, wholesale destruction of birds' 
nosts in hayfields will recur. 

Mature, woll-dcvclopcd pheasants survive bost. From an investigation 
under way but not completed, the folloi/ing trends of results arc apparent: 
"(1) VJhc:: very young pheasants aro rclcasod, few of them survive. The older thejj 
are (up to the full-grown stage) the better their chance of survival; (2) 
pheasants too small for their age seldom, if ever, arc able to live long after 
being released; (3) there docs not soon to bo much difference in the ability of 
wild and artificially-propagated pheasants to survive — provided thoy are full- 
grown when released — but what difference there is favors the wild birds, ".Jild- 
raisod pheasants show less tendency to wander away from the range on which they 
arc planted, and arc more apt to form flocks in winter; (4) artificially-raised 
pheasants seldom weigh as much as wild ones of the same ago; (5) localities dif- 
fer in their ability to 'hold* birds — that is, keep them from wandering or drifi 
ing to ncx7 range. Poor food or cover may hold birds through the fall, but not 
through winter. n 

Manag^cmon tj_ _ Fa rm game 

Vaughn , Er n os t_ A . Wildlife report. Eastern Shore Development 
Project, Soil Conservation Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Feb. 
1939. Maryland Conservationist (512 Munscy 31dg. , Baltimore, Md. ) , 16(2), 
Spring 1939, pp. 16-17, 4 photos. 

Mid-winter quail censuses showed great increase from 1936 to 1938 and a 
decided slowing down of the rate in 1939. "During late fall and early winter 
the preferred foods were co\j peas, soy beans, partridge peas, and othor wild 
legumes, bonne, scricca lospodcza, and ragweed. " Experimental plantings of 
bonne produced a fair crop of seeds — an unexpected but satisfactory result so 
far north. Soy beans and clover sown near bird food patches and woody planting* 
will partially protect those from rabbit attack. Soricca lospcdcaa also provod 
a valuable winter food for cottontails. The author considers that too many of 
those animals aro taken by enemies end that the predator problem is yet to bo 
solved. Thinning hardwoods has improved conditions for wildlife, especially 
squirrels. "Wolf" trees were girdled and left for dons. Wild turkeys and deer 
have failed to establish themselves upon the project. 


".JILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

-• : - £°npjitj Fr.imor»sj3ortfiBan relationship 

Cli ao, Justus H . Fanmor- sportsman partnership, Maryland Conserva- 
tionist [512 Munsoy ELdg., Baltimore, Md.), 16(2), Spring 1939, pp. 14-15. 

The destiny of wildlife is in the hands of landowners — public end private. 
The former should sot an example of praiseworthy wildlifo management. The avor- 
ngc farmer is a conservationist but not a sportsman and should bo approached on 
that understanding. The sportsman must join with the farmer in essential 
Husbandry of natural resources. Conservation and restoration of wildlife must 
be definitely correlated with the nation's business and become a fixed habit of 
our lives. Production must precede harvesting. Farmers do not like the idea 
of. commcrcializinG wildlif o but they do have an affection for it and desire to 
preserve it. They will welcome the cooperation of sportsmen to that ond. 

fcnagoncnt ; Farnor-sportsnan rela tionship 

ffi nt flooary^ (toorgo A , Game plan that works, Capper's Farmer (Top oka, 
Eans. 5 cents a copy), 50(5), May 1939, pp. 13, 45, 3 photos. 

Popular account of the Uood County, Ohio, system which has boon described 
in articles abstracted in "WILDLIFE REVIEW, Nos.: 8, April 1937, pp. 21-22; 
12, February 1938, p. 13; 19, April 1939, pp. 27-28; and 20, May 1939, p. 29. 

fciy.gonpnt: Farmer- sportshan rclat i o ashi p 

Short, A. "J, Farmer- hunter relations in Ohio, Ohio Conservation Bui. 
(1106 State Off ice ELdg. , Columbus, Ohio. 10 cents a copy), July 1939, 
pp. 16-17, 34, illus. 

Statement of the difficulties (the samo in Ohio aa in other States) and 
of Ohio's way of solving them. Game management agents employed to cultivate "' 
good will of the farmers, organize cooperative hunting associations, and estab- 
lish safety zones and propagation aroas on farms. The State also has acquired 
100,000 acres of public shooting grounds. Extension has boon carried on 
through youth groups, county agents, and vocational agriculture teachers. 
Sportsman clubs arc taking stops to curb undesirable elements and "farrier-hunter 
relations arc on the up-grade in Ohio." 

Iitnn^em^jrtj _ _ Fjse&jLng d_eer_ in winter 

Teller^ c_.^ Roy_. Feeding snowbound deer, Minnesota Conservationist 
(Dept. of" Conservation, St. Paul, Minn. 15 cents a copy), 67, April 1939, 
pp. 8-9, 3 photos. 

Notes on deer foods, exhaustion of supplies at winter yards, and renew- 
ing tho supply by felling white cedar and other evergreens. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

Ma nagement: J]or_ost_ wildlife 

Cook,_Dayid__B. Thinning for browse, Journ. Uildlifo Management 
(Victor H. Cahalanc, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a 
copy), 3(3), July 1939, pp. 201-202, 1 pi. 

Author's ahstract: "Slashings in northern hardwoods arc commonly used t 
produce browse but arc costly to maintain. Moderate thinnings will produce con 
tinued crops of highly palatable browse without undue disturbance of the forest 
and at low cost. " 

Management : General 

^il^^'-J^Pj-^.' Ecology in wildlife management, Outdoor America 
(1167 Merc hand fsc" Mart, Chicago, 111.), 4(7-8), May-June 1939, pp. 4-6, 9, 
5 photos. - 

wildlife management is applied ecology. Wildlife ecology is dynamic and 
must be managed to produce the results desired by man. Management must take 
into consideration other uses of the land and the welfare of wildlife itself. 
Three leading sections of the article relate to increase of food and cover, 
reduction of kill by man, and killing of predators. Predators have values of 
their own, prcdation is likely to be negligible where food and cover arc abun- 
dant, and killing of predators does not nocossarily increase the survival of 
prey species. The real limiting factor should be identified end modified; it 
may or may not be prodation. Restocking may have value in the field of public 
relations, but seldom has any appreciable effect upon the gone population or 
sufficient ecological justification. Refuges intended to feed a surplus into 
the general gomo supply should be designed with the cruising radius of resident 
species in mind. Trapping and removal is a better way of utilizing the product 
Rofugcs arc justified for vanishing remnants and/or research and educational 
purposes. The best as well as most economical way of increasing the yield of I 
species is by production in nature through improvement of the range. 

Managem ent; Gonera! 

Mo rt on^ Jamos^ N. Stopping up gome production in Pennsylvania, 
Pennsylvania Gomo News (Pennsylvania Gone Commission, Harrisburg. 10 cents 
a copy), 10(5), Aug. 1939, pp. 4-5, 26-27, 6 photos. 

The three lines of endeavor that scorn most essential are: "(1) Improving 
environment, (2) bettering farmer- sportsman relationships, end (3) making more 
effective the program, of propagation and restocking. The first has chiefly 
involved cuttings (described in an article abstracted in WILDLIFE REVIEW No. 1( 
November 1938, p. 26), but also some construction of wildlife shelters and 
travel ways. The second is largely conducted through the Cooperative Game-Fan 
Program (that has been frequently noticed in ;/ILDLIFE REVIEW) but to some c^ctcx 
as well by educational efforts. Under the third head arc noted improvements i: 
the propagation and distribution of pheasants, wild turkeys, and cottontails. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

^\vJ4pncarfaj . _ ^JZ.cst. j_ n _ TQlfcti o n to lend use 

Moss y A, E. Relation between take of upland game and agricultural 
land use in Connecticut, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalane, 
National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(3), July 1939, 
pp. 269-278, 10 figs., 1 table. 

Author's abstract: "The Biological Survey research unit at Connecticut 
State College analyzed the take of game in the State for the years 1927-35 from 
the returns of hunters' licenses. These data wore used in correlating the take 
of pheasants ( Phasianus colohious) and ruffed grouse ( Bonasa_ u. umboJJLus ) with 
the open cultivated and forested areas by towns and with the agricultural pro- 
ductivity of the towns rated from information furnished by the Agricultural 
Economics Department of the State College. The findings indicate that tho 
pheasant population is closely related to soil productivity. The best agricul- 
tural lands produce greater returns to the hunter. Density of liberations docs 
not seem to offset lack of soil quality or area in agricultural lands. The 
ruffed grouse population shows close relationship to forested areas but docs not 
fluctuate with soil quality." 

Ma n agement: _Jly^j3tj-ng, 

Hicks, Lawrence E. A survey of hunting by permit-holders of con- 
trolled hunting associations, Wood County, Ohio, 1938, Ohio Wildlife Roscarch 
Station (Ohio State University, Columbus) Release 100, 20 pp., 4 figs., 
22 tables. 

A 11 annual report; that for 1957 is abstracted in WILDLIFE REVIEW, No. 20, 
May 1939, p, 29. This summary of returns from a questionary is accompanied by a 
bibliography of 18 titles, is carried out chiefly through tables and graphs, and 
is epitomized under 24 heads. It relates chiefly to pheasants but contains 
information also on Hungarian partridges and rabbits. Farmer hunters outnumber 
other local hunters 3 to 1 and outside hunters 10 to 1. Average head of game 
bagged per hunter for the season was: Pheasants 6.13, rabbits 5.39, and 
partridges 0.34. Illegal kill and crippling losses receive consideration. 

fenajgomont: Harvesting^ b ob-w hites 

Bonnitt, Ru d o lf. Reports by quail huntors provide valuable informa- 
tion, Missouri Wildlifo (Chamber of Commerce HLdg. , Springfield, Mo.), 
1(11), June 1939, pp. 9-10, 4 tables, 1 map. 

Information derived from a 3,000-raan quostioiiary from wnich an 18 percent 
return was received. "The 573 cooperators, living in 74 counties, hunted 25,821 
hours and killed 37,301 quail. This represents an average, per hunter, of 45.1 
hours in the field, 65.1 birds killed, and. 1.44 birds killed per hour." Banters 
using dogs had 19$ groator success than those who did not. The evidence indi- 
cates lower quail populations in the prairie regions of the State than elsewhere. 
Hunting success decreased slightly through tho season. The ratio of cocks to 
hens was 112.8:100. 


WILDLIFE REVIEU: No. 22 August, 1939 

M anageme nt : Harv o sting wat erf owl ,, _ I llinois 

I^^Jl^z-ArJ^J^A^ Tho <* uci£ flight and kill 

along the Illinois River during the fell of 19381, American Uildlifc (Invest- 
ment Bldg., "Washington, D. C. 25 cents a copy), 28(4), July-Aug. 1939, 
pp. 178-186, 1 fig., 3 tables. 

Description of the flight end analysis of tho kill. Tables show the pro- 
portion (2-99%) of mallards to other ducks present throughout the coasoia; the 
composition of the kill at 18 duck clubs (mallard 60% of the shoal- water; ring- 
nock 44$ of tho doepwater ducks); and a summary of crippling losses (average 
36%). The total kill was about 65,000 or ono to about each 44 ducks visiting 
the valley. Three of the strongost factors affecting the kill \7crc: (1) unstab] 
water levels, (2) mechanical harvesting of corn, leaving much grain scattered ii 
fields, and (3) refuges. "A storm of protest " came from huntors who believed 
the Chautauqua Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge spoiled their shooting. [To a 
degree, it would seem obvious, that is just what refuges arc for. J Despite 
their protected status, many wood ducks wcro killed. The average kill at duck 
clubs was 6 legal ducks per man day. [The work should be continued as tho qucs< 
tions it poses cannot be answered on the basis of one or a few seasons' observa- 
tions. ] 

M anag ement: Harvesting, Crippling los^s^ pheasant 

^S^iti-L. Jipil . . H m Ringncck pheasant crippling losses, Pennsylvania 
Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harrisburg. 10 cents a copy) , 
10(5), Aug. 1939, pp. 3, 31, 1 tablo. 

Average 32 percent, reduced by retrieval of birds wounded by others, to 
30.4 percent. Losses greater to novices and hunters without dogs. Details 
tabulated and discussed. 

Management; i Inve ntory 

Jj3linso_n^ F._ W^ Deer kill records — a guide to management of deer 
hunting, California Fish and Gone (Ferry Bldg., San Francisco, Calif.), 
25(2), April 1939, pp. 96-165, figs. 44-71, 29 tables. 

A statistical study of data collected on the National Forests of Cali- 
fornia in 1935 and 1936. They concern 18,000 specimens of 5 reccs of doer and 
relate to xroight; antler spread, number of points, diameter of beam, and con- 
dition; pelage; and flesh. Notes wore kept also or, place of kill, end to some 
extent on hunting effort and reward. Analysis was made by tabulating machines. 
Antler beam measurement is tho most accurate single indicator of size in lieu I 
actual weights. Quality and size of deer proved to bo inversely proportional I 
hunting effort. The season of prime of the animals is thoroughly discussed and 
management suggestions based on the findings in general are made. Bibliography 
of 9 titles. 


YJILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

Man^gjpmcnt: _ Plarfting for ^J^J-lfP.. PP-P-,. . Q F°32PR $£P$I£lk 

Gooding, Leslie N. Notes on native and exotic plants in Region 8, 
U. 3. Soil Conservation Service (Albuquerque, N. Mox. ) No. 247, 152 pp., 
5 ?ls., mimeographed, Oct. 1938. 

Miscellaneous notes on plcnts of the southwestern United States, The 
plants ere listed in systematic order, end the remarks refer to their appearance, 
distribution, utility to animals and man, and uso in erosion control ( including 
in some cases planting directions) . Indexed. 

Management: _ i Plant inc. for wil d l if G m a nd J5 oil conserva tion 

Clark, Arthur L. Cash for aiding wildlife, Missouri Rural ist (2206 Pine 
St.," St". Louis, Mb. ' 5 cents a copy), 80(6), March 18, 1939, pp. 5, 18. 

Notes on reimbursable practices of the Agricultural Adjustment Administra- 
tion, of which Missouri farmers can toko advantago. 

jjfgcqiagoiiont: Planting for wil&tifo S^LJ^PJ-^ Ibpv&QVyz &ion. 

Hill, R. G . Farmers receive payment by following soil building 
practices favoring wildlife, Michigan Conservation ( Michigan Dept. of 
Conservation, Lansing), 8(10), June 1939, pp. 4-5, 4 photos. 

Review of reimbursable practices of tho Agricultural Adjustment Adminis- 
tration that can bo taken advantago of by farmers, and of a number of proposed 
additions to the program. 

Management: S to cking quail, California 

Anon . Why upland game refuges. Associated Sportsman (950 Pacific 
Bldg. , San Francisco, Calif.), 6(5), May 1939, pp. 5, 11. 

Some thirty no- shooting and keepered areas wore established as part of 
tho gome bird restoration program. They arc points of release for artificially 
propagated birds. "Game farm reared birds arc not liberated to be shot. It 
just isn't possible from the standpoint of cost. In order to justify tho ex- 
pense for their rearing they must manage to produce a brood or two of youngsters." 
The refuges have served also as areas for study of problems associated with 
■ upland game bird restoration. Banding studios revealed that some ^ quail lived 

from 3-5 years, and that overflow from the refuges was too slow to bo satisfac- 
tory as a restocking measure. Trapping and transplanting were, therefore, 

resorted to; some of tho trapping xics done on urban and other areas whore shoot- 
: ing is prohibited. Birds reared undor natural conditions are superior for 
restocking and tho cost of trapping them is but a fraction of what is required 
to bring a bird to maturity on a gome farm. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1959 

Managem e nt: Winte r feeding^ squirr els 

C hapman, F loyd B. , and Luther L. Riumfinr tnor . Winter feeding of 
squirrels, Ohio Division of Conservation (Colunbus) Bui. 150, 8 pp. un- 
numbered, 1 pi., 1 table, May 1939. 

Roprint of article of the sane title abstracted in WILDLIFE REVIEW, No. 
21, May 1939, pp. 13-14. 

J^^ffjP-l- Y4- s^PJJi, .. J_ n jj- c °- JAP 11 ^ ^ a £,°. .quail 

Loopold, A. Starker . Ago detcrnination in quail, Journ. Wildlifo 
Management (Victor H. Cahalanc, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 
75 cents a copy), 3(3), July 1939, ■ pp. 261-265, 1 pi., 3 tables. 

Author 1 s abstract: "Working with 901 quail skins of nine American spoci< 
in the University of California Musoun of Vortobrato Zoology, it vies found that 
the outer txra priiiarics and the greater upper primary covorts of the juvcnal 
quail plumage are nomally retained through the postjuvcnal nolt and carried 
through the first year of life. The presence of these juvcnal feathers, there- 
fore, marks a quail as a chick of the previous brooding season. The nottlcd 
juvenal coverts arc the nost easily recognized and dependable of those ago 
indicators. " 


rtural His to ry_: Migration 

Lincoln^ Frederick C. The nitration of Ancrican birds (Doublcday, 
Doran & Co.", Inc., Garden City, Lone Id.* N. Y. 0-1. 00 a copy), 189 pp., 
12 col. pis., 22 naps. 

An up-to-dato account of nitration suitable for the general reader. 
Chapter headings indicating the nature of the contents aro: Historical, Origin 
of migration, Mechanics of miration, Influence of the x/eathcr on nitration, 
The dangers in nitration, Tirios of nitration, Distances covered in nitration, 
Pelagic nigration, Vagrant Dilation, Bird bonding, The evolution of nitration 
routes, and The flyxr.y systens. 

Nat ural His t pry: S nako_ bite 

pi t mrsj^ Raynoiid^ L. Snake bites among doncstic animals, Journ. Ancr. 
Veterinary Modical Assoc. (221 N. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 40 cents a 
copy), N.S. 74(4), Part II, April 1939, pp. 383-388, 5 figs. 

Most of the paper is devoted to a description of the mechanism of snake 
bite and to remedial r„oasurcs, Implements for treating snake bite are illus- 
trated. Instances are cited of losses of domestic animals both in tho United 
Statos and other countries. About 1925, a questional*-/ sent to county livostocl 
inspectors in Texas evoked 60 replies that indicated an average loss of about 
1 percent in cattle, sheep, .and goats. One complainant reported a loss of 
approximately 9 percent of caracul-crossed sheep from snake bite on a ranch nan 
EL Paso about 1924. 


JHELOT RETOTfi No. 22 . AugU3t, 1939 


Mor se , Ma rius A. A local study of prodatiou upon hards and rrouco 
during the cyclic doclriction, Tourn. Wildlife Managcnont (Victor H. Qahalane, 
National Pr.rk Service, Ifashington, D. C. 75 coiits r... copy), 5(5), July 1939, 
pp. 80S -214, 4 tables. 

Author* s abstract; "From the spring °f 1935 to the spring of 1938, popu- 
lation fluctuations of Bonasa unbo llu s and L cpus aperican us wore dctoxninod for 

a 2,520-acrc forest area in northern Minnesota "by periodic censuses using the 
strip sanplo Method. Groat ost population losses occurred in 1935 and 1936, and 
decimation in the ranks of the grouse apparently preceded that of the hare. 
Neither was successful in bringing forth any appreciable number of young in 1935. 
Field observations during the winter of, 1935-36 over a period of 4 norths 
indicated that predators, especially raptors, utilized a relatively large per- 
centage of the hares and grouse that were discovered dead. In the sane period, 
disease appeared to be of only very ninor Consequence as a factor directly 
responsible for the extensive hare mortality that was evident." Bibliography of 
8 titles. 

Pred ators 

Swans on, Ha rold B . The predators of Minnesota, Minnesota Conserva- 
tionist (Dept. of Conservation, State Office Bldg. , St. Paul, Mina» 15 
cents a copy), 59, June 1939, pp. 11-12, 4 figs. 

General discussion of economic status of predatory birds, snakes, and fur 

Pro pagatio n; Grouse t raffed. 

Lehmer, C. B. The artificial propagation of ruffed grouse, 

Pennsylvania Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, Phrrisburg. 10 cents 

a copy), 9(3), June 1939, pp. 9, 32, 1 photo; 9(4), July 1939, pp. 11, 31-32, 
1 photo. 

History of progress in the handling of ruffed grouse in captivity. 
Despite all advance, limitation on the number of eggs, and a high degree of 
infertility, still prevent really large-scale production. Selection of birds 
for breeding success and refinement of mothods seem to be the only hope for 
further advance. Bibliography of 18 titles. 

BjLsso nnotto , Thomas Ejumo, and Svcrott Wilson . Shortening daylight 
periods between May 15 and Septumbor 12 and t ho pelt cycle of the mink, 
Science (Lancaster, Pa. 15 cents a copy}, 89(2314), May 5, 1959, pp. 418- 

Some minks exposed to gradually reduced periods of daylight for a few 
iaonths attained primeness cf fur earlier than control animals; others did not. 
The authors refer to the experiment as "rather crudely and irregularly carried 
out . " 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

Research: Carrying capacity 

Cul loy, Matt. The decagon for vegetation studies, Journ. Forestry 
(Mills 31dg., Washington, D. C. 50 cents a copy), 37(6), June 1939, 
pp. 492-493, 2 figs. 

Illustrations and description of decagons and their use in estimating 
density of vegetation. The procedure is somewhat slower than in the square- 

foot-density method but is more accurate. 

Research: _Food h abits 

Anon. What arc the trout taking?, Game "uid Gun and the Angler's 
Monthly (34 Victoria St., London, S.W. 1, England. 1 shilling a copy), 
16(164), May 1939, p. 31S, figs. 

Students of food habits have subjectod wildlife to various indignities 
to which may be added the process .here described. It is worth while, however, 
so far as it yields information without taking life. Illustration and descrip- 
tion of a suction bulb and tube with which water is forced into a fish's 
stomach and withdrawa, carrying with it part of the food content. 

Resea rch; Hi st ology i n s t pm ic ts : r.a lys i s 

Baumga rtnor , Luther I». $ ftr^A. C, Martin . Plant histology as an 

aid in squirrel food-habit st-.idios, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. 
Cahalano, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy) , 5(3), 
July 1939, pp. 266-268, 4 pis. 

Authors' abstract: "A technique for determining finely comminuted mate: 
ial from stomachs has been tested with some seventy fox squirrels' stomachs 
collected in Ohio. A combination clearing and mounting solution which makes 
possible the rapid examination of food materials is described and a detailed 
method of preparing temporary and permanent slides suggested. Permanent refer 
ence slides arc essential for comparison. Some diagnostic characters including 
size and shape of stomata, cell patterns, structural peculiarities of cell 
iralls, distinctive characters of conductive tissue elements, and specialized 
form of pubescence arc illustrated." 

Research: j^rking_ birds^ 

Wright, Earl G . Marking birds by imping feathers, Journ. Wildlife 
Management (Victor H. Cahalano, National Park Service, Washington, D.C. 
75 cents a copy), 3(3), July 1939, pp. 233-259, 1 fig. 

Feathers of ...ny color can be firmly attached to bases of natural fcathc 
by splicing with metal reinforcement. 


■WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

Research: Wildlife of unglaciated Ohio 

Chapinajn^JTloyd^. The development and utilization of the wildlife 
resource's of ungraciated Ohio, Ohio State University Abstracts of Doctoral 
Dissertations (Ohio State University Press, Columbus), 28, pp. 55-64, May 

Three years of field research were required to inventory the wildlife, 
determine land uses, and analyze the ecology of the area. The objectives and 
methods of the study arc briefly outlined in this abstract. Sections are 
devoted to land use past and present, to wildlife food and cover resources, and 
to relation of water to wildlife production. Summaries are given of the results 
of special studios of the gray squirrel, white-tailed deer, and ruffed grouse. 
Copies of this publication may be obtained from the Ohio Wildlife Research Unit, 
or- the author, Ohio State University, Columbus. 

WILDLIFE RESEARCH AHD I'.LIFAGEMENT LEAFLETS of interest to wildlife managers additional to those previously 
mentioned arc listed below. Copies of these mimeographed leaflets can be ob- 
tained from the Biological Survey, U. 3. Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C. 

£S_-vL36. The waterfowl situation: 1938-39, IS pp., 1 graph, 1 mop, 
2 tables, May 1939. 

Comparison of reports on the volume of the flights in both spring and 
fall migrations of 1937 and 1938. Summary of field surveys of the flyways and 
wintering grounds. Results of the annual January inventors' - . Remarks on bag 
limits and total kill. The waterfowl population continues to increase. 

BSj-137. Fall and winter food habits of deer in northeastern 

Minnesota, by Shalcr E. Aldous and Claroncc F. Smith, 10 pp., 3 figs., 
2 tables, Juno 1939. 

Discussion of the food supply and its utilization with report on 72 
stomach analyses. The food items and their frequency of occurrence in stomachs 
arc tabulated. Availability of foods determined by field observations indicates 
decline in the winter carrying capacity of the range studied. Management to 
correct the situation is suggested. 

B3j-_138. Sperm studies as a guide in fur-animal breeding practice, 
by Robert ~K. Endcrs, 3 pp., June 1939. 

Description of equipment and methods used and interpretation of the find- 
ings. The practice may be used to reduce the number of failures to impregnate. 

IB-140. A survey of the annual fur catch of the United States, 
19 pp. ," June 1939. 

Catch for 1934-38 as reported hj conservation departments of 27 States; 
also assembled by species for the year 1937-38. 


■ • August, 1939 



Annual plants of outst and ing value to -wil dlife 

^■^4. „„ pi-nf useful in Upland Wildlife 
■p. • -nrcnarc t ion cf a manuscript on *U«jr&o u.xilj. iu u± 

toaJS^SS experienced ri old investigators .ere asked to co = e 
notes on the valuo of annual plants of ton classed as floods. ^Thc in ^ r 

they furnished has boon summarized in the manuscript but . s ^^ ^ T ' 

few instances remarks 

* * * 

Spartanburg , S . C . 

November 13, 1937. 

"I recognize tho difficulty which is encountered when plant species coal 

«Oy .no^woods ere record for wildlife^ood :i e,or h c^css .hose 
so-cored woods apparently provide a major portion 01 tno ioooj wuj. 
Mrds e°d Le birds use. They have added importance if we roya. ^.^fl 
woods ere the plants best adopted to tho estrones of cli^c =aa of .and 

(or abuse) in each locality. 

mjhem I roc^l] the rr«lt protection ouch plants have given during the 
drought yeaL^nlhe-^eat^Plcins .hen ^ ^^r^^ J 
erosion would have been much more severe it Pluses ^ °^" ^ ° vindl t ^. rd 

woutd not to available in Oklahona except for the spocios which I list- I 

Short ragweed Areola ££!« ^ 

Wcs t orn ragwo cd J ,,. L ., * 

Prostr-tc amaranth Ama.rantnus blitoidos 

,, tt -3T)inosus 

Spiny amaranth • t^ 

Bighoad dovowced Croton capitatus 
Texas dovewced " tosonsifl _ 

Snour-on-tho-mountain Dierophyllum marginatum 

Hairy paspalum Paspalum stramineum 

"My experience with Phlox dn^mondii has been with quail in our cultivaii 
gardens which a resident cov^iiitcd daily to eat the maturing seeds -aid al| 
scratched the bod out. 

"I havo come to the conclusion that crotons as a class arc of P^ticulai 
I have come to * livestock, which, of course, is 

V ? .o ; C ^er^ncc"'in ^ta.d livestock country. Our doves in Oklahoma 
sccf So* P^qSto. texo^s and Am^u. bUtoi^s to the newly ripened 
grain sorghums with which they arc intermingled. 

* Perennial 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 , August, 1939 

"I have found lambsquartcis ( Ch onop odium album) oaten in limited quanti- 
ties. Our studies in tho Southeast arc reflecting considerable credit on Croton 
capitatus, ton glandul osuc , spurge (Cjiama osvc o p rpslii^) , and bullgrass 
( Paspalum boscianum ), ali of which have somo value as cover crops in cultivated 
areas. They arc, I believe, of little danger to growing crops but should be 
recognized as vegotative protoction against soil erosion and 4>r production of 
food for wildlife. 

"In the Northern Great Plains, the Dakotas particularly, x/e should not 
overlook the value of the bristlo graasos (Sojbcria. spp. ) which furnish a large 
amount of food for pheasants and possibly song birds in addition to ground pro- 
toction where it comos into cultivated com late in the season. 

"Of course, you will include tho common sunflower ( .H^i^aiJ^iu^ _____u____it_u__us_) — 
an A-l food for doves, quail, etc. I think you aro quite right in mentioning 
such important annual foods v/hon you write of upland wildlife management." 

Vcmc E. Davison. 
* * * 

Tucson, Arizona 
February 15, 1938. 

"It is my feeling that in evaluating tho various typos of foods composing 
the diets of game birds, too littlo attontion is commonly given to annual plants; 
particularly is this true in considering their relation to gallinaceous birds of 
the semi-desert. If our present data are sound it seems to mo tho value of such 
plants may often equal and sometime* execod that of perennials. 

"Somo thrco hundred plant and animal species are now rceordod from tho 
stomachs of Gambol' s quails — about equally divided between plant and animal 
items. The exact figures arc not readily available, but it is known that the 
volume of annual plant foods greatly oxcoods that of insect matter although 
second in quantity to perennial plant foods. Of the most important annuals tho 
large volume consumed may bo of loss significance than the froquency and time 
of their consumption. Among these arc numbered alfiloria (Erodnum cj^j^rium) , 
carpctwocd (Moljugjs ycrtici llata ) , tansymustard ( Spff hla monziesii Ti Boorh aavia 
watsoni , L_otus trispcrmus , and some of tho grassos. 

"It appears ovidont that the sex-stimulating, fertility-producing, and 
other vitamins necessary to the welfare of wild quail arc obtained from theso 
annuals. If those arc not availablo at cortain seasons, the quails* natural 
functions are thrown out of balance. I have noticed that following wintors of 
little rainfall, with the resultant small or retarded production of winter annu- 
als, the nesting season of quail is unsatisfactory. This may be manifested by 
an unduly large numbor of unmatcd birds, the laying of infertile eggs, an 
impaired hatchability of eggs laid, or a much retarded and short cnod nesting 
season. Seemingly many of the poor quail hatches commonly attributed to drought 
aro the result of a dearth of groon plant food during tho preceding wintor, and 
are not caused by arid conditions prevailing at the moment. 


VJILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

"It is significant that the best ranges in the Southwest arc thosi 
which produce the greatest numbers end varieties of annuals; conversely, 
devastated quail ranges aro narked by the absence of these plants." 

D. M. Gorsuch 

>(c 3|C ays 

College Station, To 
November 18, 1957. 

"Although the analysis, according to approved Biological Survey methods! 
of more than 2,000 crops of bob-white, scaled, and Gambol's quails is virtually 
completed, the data have not, as yet, been summarized. By subordinating all 
other activities, however, I have checked the records on 1,000 bob-white stomal 
for grot on, Dicrophyllun, and other species in which you arc especially inter- 
ested. The stomach contents summarized ivorc collected during December 1934 a; 
January 1935; they cane from every major ecological type in Texas. 

"The records indicate that the twelve most important winter foods of 
Texas quail, on the basis of frequency of occurrence and gross quantity consume 
are as follows : 

1. C rot on (especially C, capitatus, C. nonant hogy nu s , and C_. 
punctatus* ) . 

2. Panicurr, (especially P. toxanum, P. f as cicu latum, and P. capillaro). 

3. Hblcus (H. haloponaig* )". 

4. Q,ucrcus (especially^, nigra*, Q,. virginiana* , Q. s t_cl lx t a_' :< , and 
Q. rubra* ) . 

5. Paspalun (especially P. stram inoum* ) . 

G. Ambrosia (especially A. p s i 1 o s t ac hya* , A. a rt amis iaofol i a , A. apt or; 
and A. trifida) . 

7. Pro sop is" (chiefly!, glandulosa*). 

8. Helianthus ( especially H. a nnuus) . 

9. Dicrophyllun (D. b icolor and D. marg inatu m) 

10. Chamaccrista (especially C_. procumbons and C. fasciculata ). 

11. Bumclia ( especially B. lanuginosa* and B. august i folia* ) . 

12. Ximcnisia (X. oncolioidos ). 

"Spurges aro the basic winter diet of Texas bob-whites. Croton cap it at 

ranks first in the eastern pine belt, in the coastal section west to about the 
Nueces River, and in the oak woodlands of central and northern Texas. Cr oton 
punc tatus has a similar status in the brush country of the Southwest. Croton 
n onant hogynus ana Pi c r ophy Hum ( D. bicolor and D. m arginatum ) arc among the 
first five ranking species in the blacklands of central Texas mid elsewhere in 
bottomlands or areas of tight or heavy soil. Other crotons (C_. a rg y r ant henus , 
C_. glandulo sus , C. t oxonsis , and C_. noo-rioxi canu s) and other spurges (Acal ypha 
Chom aosycc, T ragia* , Sti llingia , Jatropha v , and p'o inse t tia ) , are also readily 
eaten. In winter it appears that bob-whites consume more croton seeds than thl 
do of all trees and shrubs combined. 

* Perennial 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 August, 1939 

"The soeds of Mexican clover (R ichardi a scabra and R. lior.3is) arc 
especially common in quail crops from. "the Rio Grande section (Brooks and Kleberg 
Counties) . They have appeared also in material from McLennan and other counties 
to the east, however, and this plant is doubtless of considerable importance 
throughout regions of sandy soil. 

"Croton capitatus and Ambrosia psilo stachya were the two food species 
which responded best to strip plowing on the quail experimental areas at College 
Station, Texas, in 1936 and 1937. Also important wore buffalo-bur (Sol anum 
rostratum ) and horscnottlo (S^JLanum sp,). 

"The ragweeds- (Ambros_ia) f ranking sixth in importance throughout the 
State, include two especially valuable species; nancly, giant ragweed (^brosia 
apt era) and perennial ragweed (A. p^y^jta^h^a) . 

"Ambrosia ojptcjra, which thrives best in rich soil bordering crocks and 
branches, furnishes considerable cover as well as food. Because of its dual 
utility, giant ragweed is considered to be one of tho major reasons why the bulk 
of the bob-white population of central Toxas wintors along drainago ways. Per- 
ennial ragweed is also valuable from, both the cover end food standpoints, 
espocially in rogions of sandy soil. This low, bu3hy plant holds its foliage 
well into winter and is largely unpalatable to cattle Consequently, perennial 
ragweed is heavily utilized by quail and byAttwatcr's prairie chickens as vjcII 
for shade in summer and for food and cover in winter. 

"Seeds of pigweed (mainly Aa\r^ntlms o lbu a » A. b^t^oides , A. pal mori , and 
ii* rot r o f 1 oxus ) aro a common food" of IPoxas quail, having appeared in quantity in 
crops from Live Oak, Medina, McLennan, Austin, Washington, Lavaca, Crane, 
Winkler, Reagan, Kennedy, Dawson and other counties. Because Amaranthu s is 
relatively more abundant in wostora Texas than in eastern Texas, however, it is 
of greatest importance as a food of the 'Cotton Top' or scaled quail. 

"Aside from Croton, DJ.crophyllum, and Amb£ooi£_, other plants that the 
agriculturalist often d'ocs not desire are: the broomweeds (Amphiachyris and 
^t iorr ozla), camphor weed ( Ketcrotliccti sutoxjlJU-^aris) , Johnson grass (liolcus 
^^Pl^SJ^l^J > marsh- elder (Iva cjTliata. and I. fungus ^tijTolia) , pigwcod ^ Amaran t hus ) , 
thistle or tumblowced (fi fo l s ola kali)', blucwoed (Ximo noaip. onpo lioides ) , sun- 
flower ( Kolianthus ) , wild indigo (Brgtisi a* ) , queen root ( St i 11 i ngi a) , bull- 
nettle ( JaJ|rop_h^ r ) , marostail (Lpp^ilon), xrorm seed ( Chon qpodiun) , and night- 
shade (Sj^^onun*)*. All of those plants, however, are extremely important as 
winter food and cover for quail. Their presence, in abundance, in cultivated 
areas is usually a sign cither of slovenly agriculture or exhausted soil. In 
pasturos, their presence, in quantity, is almost invariably a result — and not a 
cause--of overgrazing. Under such conditions, it is usually better that tho land 
is producing such weeds, which are valuable to wildlife and of some service from 
a soil conservation standpoint, than it would bo if the land were producing 
nothing at. all, 

"In many areas in Texas the so-called noxious weeds, especially Croto n, 
Pi c r o phyllum , Iva, Ajfor^sio_, An^Jaij^hyils, and Cut i e rr ozi a , enable quail to per- 
sist in goodly numbers whore the birds would otherwise be absent or very scarce. 

* Perennial 


".JILDLIFE REVIEW: Ho.' 22 August, 1935 

In some situations tho so-cc.llcd noxious woods do much to save the top soil as 
wall as tho wildlife. Their values in those respects should not go unrecog- 
nized. In fact, it is entirely possible and very probable that rany areas in 
Texas would serve their greatest usefulness producing maximum crops of woods 
and wildlife." 

Valgcnc XL Lohmann 
* * * 

Thomasvillc, Ga. 
November 11, 1937. 

"Ric hard jo. . R. scabra is a very abundant weed in cultivated lands over 
much of the deep Southeast, where it is usually known as 'Mexican clover' or 
'purslcy' . This plant .furnishes excellent green (summer) feed for deer, wild 
turkey, and quail. "Jc have used it extensively as a green feed in artificial 
quail propagating, feeding it chopped up and otherwise. "Jc commonly disk (and 1 
sometimes fertilize, to produce a more tender, succulent growth) wcil-scodcd 
fields at intervals of three weeks or so for the volunteer growth. Then, this 
ground is used as a rearing field, and the movable 'growing pens' shifted aboi 
on it. While the seed is frequently eaten by quail, it docs not scorn to be a 
preferred feed, and wo believe it to bo of low nutritional value, as young qua 
in cart hen- bottomed pens that get tho habit of 'mining' this seed, and the sec 
of the equally abundant buttonwcod ( Diod ia t ores) degenerate into 'runts'. 

"Florida boggarweed (Mcibomia purpurascens) . Doer are extremely fond o 
the growing plant, and frequently make it difficult to produce for quail. The! 
abundant seed furnishes one of tho preferred bob-white feeds Of winter and 
early spring, and it is extensively planted on the south-eastern quail preserve! 
for game food. Tho species is also a good hay and cover crop plant but is 
adapted only to the coastal plain of tho deep South. It is the only member of; 
this genus (most of which arc perennial, and have been experimented with to a 
looser extent) so far used on a large scale, and the only one the sood of whic 
can commonly be purchased or, the market. 

"Pai^cum. The panic-grasses as a group ( we do not know much about thoij 
comparative values) seem to be of outstanding value to the quail and wild 
turkey. This is especially true of tho species which ripen their seed in latdj 
winter and spring, before other grass and wood seeds become available. Some 
that remain green all winter furnish a preferred green food of the wild turkojl 
over its southeastern range. I have long suspected that such green food may l| 
a deciding factor in the a bund, nice of quail under truly natural conditions, 
that a sufficiency of early panicums nay be the reason that quail occasionally) 
reproduce plentifully in regions distant from agriculture. 

"The so-called brox/ntop millet (identified as Pniiicum adspor sun, but w(| 
arc beginning to suspect that this may be incorrect) has become one of the moi 
if not the most, valuable plants utilized xi southeastern quail preserves for 
early feed. It matures an .abundant seed crop in six weeks or loss, produces 
well on a wide variety of soils, and tho seed is greatly relished by quail, w: 
turkey, and dovos; it is no;; extensively planted for all of those species. 11 
seems likely that 'Texas millet' (Panicum toxanum) nay be as valuable in tho 
Southwest for those purposes as * brovmtop millet' is in the Southeast. But oi 



WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 22 fcugust, 1938 

experiments indicate that the 'Texas millet' is not particularly valuable under 
southc .stern conditions, an the seed ctoos not fill uoll at tines. It also 
rcquia.'cs a l_ona_ growing season, so is not valuabla for oajrly feed. 

"Paspa lun. VJhilo seeds of sever -.1 species of paspalun arc extensively 
utilized as lato Sumner and fall feed of quail, the outstanding member of the 
group hero scans to be P. boscirjiur.i, which ranks very high as a food-producing 
plant for the quail, dove, and wild turkey, as well as for a host of finches. 
It is commonly known as •bullgrass' or ♦Tactergrass* and graws luxuriantly in 
rich, low ground in corn and other cultivated fields, where it is considered a 
pest by most farmers. We sometimes plant se efl- ii np re gna t ed ground where we 
desire to pet it started, and it is perpetuated by spring disking. Sometimes it 
is necessary to fortilizo as well as disk on unfavorable upland soils. While 
the seed can be easily gathered, vso have been unable to got dry-stored seed to 
geminate, and believe that it requires special storage methods. Our first step 
in bringing in 'bullgrass* on farsiod-out soils of quail presorves is to raise 
the fertility of the ground by the planting of cover crops for nitrogen fixation 
and humus, as the soils improve in condition 'bullgrass' usually comes in 

"P artrid ge poas ( Chamnoori slto. iJ^SJ-p^S-^S: ;; - n ' i P.* Piotitans) arc of out- 
standing value to quail over the sout ho: -.stern oo-stal plain, the seeds of both 
tarnishing a high percentage of the winter food in nany localities. Should be 
called 'fire weeds' hero, as they thrive and seed heavily in old fields and open 
Sine lands that arc frequently burned over in mid-spring (March in the deep South), 
but disappear where pine straw and dead grasses arc allowed to accumulate. To 
produce then in the vast quantity desired on tlio quail preserve, great care must 
be used to burn at just the right season. If burned too early the seed may 
geminate wholesale, only to be completely killed off by late freezes. They can 
bo produced abundantly also in fallow fields by rotation with a row crop like 
corn--onc year in a crop and two to three years fallow. Fire and rotation of 
crops arc the only practicable methods known of maintaining partridge peas in 
maximum abundance, though disking helps greatly at tines and under certain con- 
ditions, not yet thoroughly understood. The seed is vcrj T difficult and expen- 
sive to gather, duo to the fact that the pods ripen irregularly and shatter as 
soon as dry. Some are shattering while the plant is still blossoming. 

* £> osba nia . S_. ^ cro carpa is now coming into wide use on southeastern 
quail preserves, as the abundant seeds .are valuable to quail throughout the 
entire winter and spring, once a taste for then has been acquired. The plant 
grows naturally around the margins of lakes and ponds and on rich low fields. 
It may become a pest in rice fields, and volunteers heavily in corn on lands of 
the rich delta type. On upland soils not naturally adapted to its culture, it 
must be row-planted, fertilized, and often cultivated. It can be perpetuated 
on wcll-ndaptcd soils by disking in early spring. 

"Ragwee d. In the writer's opinion, the short ragweed ( Ambrosia olatior) 

is probably the most valuable single species of plant in the eastern United 
States to the bob-white and many other seed-eating species. Its disappearance 
would undoubtedly be a limiting factor of vital importance to seed-caters were 
the eradication campaigns waged against it successful., which now seems unlikely. 
In the north it is one of the few abundant and widely distributed seed-producers 


WILDLIFE REVIE'J: No. 22 August, 1939 

tint project above tho Snow and furnish food at critical tines to soed-oating 
birds, including quail, In tiic South it is nost extensively used by quail fron 
September to January, wfecn the birds normally go on to logumes. It is sometimes 
produced especially for quail on southeastern quail preserves by disking wcll- 
seoded ground in lato fall and early winter. Some tobacco-growing experiments 
indicate that it nay have a vitally important placo in soil conditioning. 

"Sovoral species of the native perennial lospodczas, mcibomias, and 
others of this class, and a groat nany annual legumes arc fine prospects for 
quail preserve use, but much more experimentation vail be necessary to demon- 
strate their comparative values. Many have been experimented with and are 
heavily utilized by quail, but the question of whether to use them or not is 
one largely of practicability. For instance, why gather the seed and culture 
a native perennial lespedoza when an exotic like Losp odoza _sj2rij2ea nay prove 
much cheaper and more satisfactory on a large 3calo, and the seed takes the 
place of that of the wholp^ ^ativc^group^, as frequently seens to be the case? 

"lie have disked rather extensively in early spring and summer for choco- 
late wood (Rj^dloa c or chori f olia ) on tho low rich soils of certain South 
Carolina places, for quail and dovo feed, but wo only do so whore the soils aro 
seeded and especially adapted for it. This is determined by examination of tho 
ground. If it grows luxuriantly in a hog rooting or other disturbed spot, v/c 
know the ground is both seeded and adapted, and act accordingly. Otherwise the 
land may continue for years to grow nothing but an inferior group of plants of 
little food value to game. 

"This principle is utilized in disking for rrgv/ced, becgarwood, scsbania 
and many others, we also find that some plants ;j,row on hard, compact soils but 
poorly, and aro stimulated greatly by an occasional disking of the soils. Gome 
managers must become students of the soils and become exports in the production 
of many of tho most important feeds by cheap cultural methods , just as live- 
stock pasture men must do. And the only way they will over do it is to get 
some land and go to work on it. I am losing patience with many of the younger 
generation of scientific gcxic students who think they arc getting somewhere by 
research without getting their fingers dirty. 

"I personally do not find that wo must work with a very largo group of 
plants in any one region for quail and turkey production. IJc have only to 
produce a lot of each important class of feed for the various seasons; the garip 
will bal ance their food themselves by drawing from a variety of nativo spocics 
normally growing on lands adapted to gone. For instance, wo nay plant one 
early panicum ('browntop millet 1 ) to supplement tho nativo group, one perennial: 
lespedeza (L. s^icea) , where it is needed, and so on down the list. It is 
usually a si cm of the amateur to plant a a;reat variety, at much oxponso, for 
upland gone birds; the skilled professional is known by his limited, but vital] 
important, list and the food that he :;cts by cheap and efficient cultural 
methods without planting at all." 

Herbert L. Stoddard 

* *f* *p 


mDLIFE REVTE'J: No. 22 August, 1939 

San Francisco, Calif. 
January 18, 1938. 

"Mc^i_ccvjo hispid a . Tlic bur-clover is important to sccd-oating birds and 
mammals nearly throughout the year. The California quail consur.ics this plant 
norc extensively then it docs any other girdle food species in many parts of 
California. The plant is considered an excellent source of forego by stocla.icn. 
The croon loaves are important to both stock and wildlife during spring end 
summer while the burs arc heavily utilized during tho fall and winter nonths. 
The seed is available fron corxiorcial seed houses. 

"Lupinua (all spociofi) . The seeds are inportant as food for snail birds, 
including quail, and for sccd-oating mammals. The plait is of some value as a 
soil-binder in preventing erosion. However, it should not bo grazed by live 
stock during the summer and fall nonths because the seeds arc toxic, especially 
to sheep. 

^rifoljUg.i (all species) . The seeds and leaves of clovers are of high 
food value to wildlife. The pleats arc also of undoubted value as forago for 
livestock as well as being of uso in fixing nitrogen in the soil. 

"Lotu s aii o ricanu s (and other native species). As in tho case of nost 
other legumes, the seeds and leaves of L-ot u s or ler 1 c anus and others of the genus 
arc highly nutritious and eagerly sought by wildlife. These species probably 
■tend to enrich the pasture lands whoro they occur by providing a lcguiiiiious 
clement in a forego typo wherein tho presses usually dominate. 

"Moli l ptu s iipdica. Some doubt has boon cast on the value of the 
ftjclilotus group to wildlife by ErringtorP s findings with regard to M. alba as a 
food for the bob-whito. However, the writer has observed California quail and 
their young feeding voluntarily end extensively upon M. indica ovor a period of 
several months with, apparently, beneficial results. The seed is available 

"B rodi ur. cic uteriur.i. T'nc value of alfilcria to wildlife scoias to be 
second only to Modi cage his pida. The leaves arc an important source of food 
during spring and early summer while the seeds arc heavily used in fall and 
winter. Tests by agricultural cxporinont stations have demonstrated that this 
plant is almost as valuable as ?-fcdj.cagco hispida for grazing purposes. 

"Bressi ce. The mustards occasionally grow very densely on fallow lands 
and arc then of some value as cover. YJhothcr the seed is of value to any im- 
portant species of wildlife other than rodents I cannot say positively but what 
little evidence I have is negative. At least it scons doubtful that bene- 
fit significantly by these thick mustard stands except to the extent that 
protective cover is thereby available On the other hand the mustards arc con- 
sidered rather undesirable weeds by stoclaicn. 

"Srpi^carpus Sjctij;;e?ru3_. The seeds of turkey mullein arc well liked by 
quail and doubtless by other wildlife. However, in my experience it occurs 
mostly on soils which are arid and impoverished either naturally or through over- 

E. Lowell Sumner, Jr. 
* * % 


".JILDLIFE REVIHr:;: Ho. 22 August, 1939 

tfrbana, 111. 
May 10, 1938. 

"Recent studios of tlio food habits of tho Hungarian partridgo ( Pordix 
pcrdix ) show that adult birds food mainly on vegetable natter at ell seasons. 
Although young birds oat largo amounts of natter, chiefly insects, duriiJ 
the first feu weeks of life, by late summer they have adopted a diet largely of 
seeds, groins, and succulent vegetation similar to that of adults. 

"During a life history study of the Hungarian partridge in s out horn 
Michigan end northern Ohio, the writer nadc regular observations on feeding 
habits end collected for study a scries of 53 stomachs over a period of about 
twenty- one nonths from Novonbor 1929 to July 1931 (4) . The principal food 
classes according to a volumetric analysis of stomach contents riado by the Food Division of the Bureau of Biological Survey were as follows: Cultivated 
grains, 42 percent; wild scods, 26 percent; leaves of grain, grass, end other 
succulent plant material, 25 percent; animal net tor, chiefly insects, 7 percent. 
Inasmuch as the stomach scnglos woro collected for the: most part in a grain grovjj 
ing section, the high total of eultiveted grains is largely attributable to the 
general abundance of waste and uiil.arvcstcd grain, chiefly corn, in this region 
during the fall end winter months. In general faming sections, observations 
indicato that tlio proportion of weed seeds consumed is often considerably hiphci 
than indicated above. It is of intcrost to note that Middlcton and Chitty (3) 
in England found wood seeds and grains approximately in equal anouuts in a 
scries of 429 partridge crops collected during all seasons. 

"Among wild seeds, four* kinds totaling 19 percent of the stoned: con- 
tents appoer to be of cspeciel value as partridge food in the Michigan and Ohio 
rango. Those arc briefly discussed below. 

"Lesser ragweed (Ambrosia art ci li si i folia ) . Ragweed seeds were present i! 
29, or 55 percent of, partridge stomachs examined and constituted appropriately 
7 percent of the total volume of food. Although regi/ccd seeds wore eaten fron 
September until April in this region, they were token in quantity only from 
November to late February. Since neny of the seeds arc retained on the plants 
until past mid-winter, ragweed is usually particularly important as a source of 
food during Deccnbcr and January snows when many of the other seeds becone 
uneveileble. Although ragweed seeds ranked below corn, which constituted 22 
percent of the food for the year, and barley, 11 percent, it is evident fron 
field observations that those seeds frequently constitute the chief itcn of fooc 
of certain coveys for considerable periods of tine. "Jido distribution of rag- 
weeds in this region is favorable to tho partridge since this bird, like the 
bob-white, has a relatively restricted cruising rango. 

"Green foxtail (Chactochloa virions) end yellow foxtail (£. glauca ) . 
Seeds of tho preen foxtail occurred in 15, or 25 percent, of the stomach senploj' 
They were cetcn chiefly fron September to Novonbor, although a few seeds were 
found in stomachs of birds collected in the spring. Yellow foxtail soods were 
present in 10, or 19 percent, of tho sanplcs and were eaten from August to 
November, Seeds of the two foxtails totaled about 10 percent of all food oaten' 
Yellow seeds begin to mature early in August before many wild seeds hav 
become available and ere sought cegerly by young end edult birds. Since seeds 
of tho ycllox/ foxtail shatter early, they ere found in the fell food loss frc- 


I7ILDLIFE REvTEY/t No. 22 August, 1959 

quently than are those of the qroon, which ripens a little lator and 
holds its seeds during; a longer period. 

"Black bindweed ( Polygonum convolvulus) * Black bindweed occurred in 19 
percent of c.ll stomachs and was present in the food fron October until February. 
The seeds arc nearly as large as those of ragweed end apparently arc taken 
readily by the partridge wherever they occur. Lack of general abundance of 
bindweed in this region probably chiefly accounts for the fact that it :iadc up 
only 2 percent of the food. Kelso (2) reports that black bindweed seed con- 
prised 11 percent of the contonts of 96 partridge stomachs collected during fall 
and winter months in tho State of Washington. Eo found it the chief food item 
among wild seeds. 

"About 20 other seeds, chiefly those of cannon weeds, constituted approx- 
imately 7 percent of the diet of partridges in tho Michigan and Ohio range. It 
was found that several of these seeds arc eaten with fair regularity, although 
in snail quantities. Observations indicate that this list could bo extended 
considerably. In this group the polygonums appear to be of some importance. 
These include ladysthunb (P. porsicar ia) , smartwocd (P. pennsylvanicu: : ) , water 
smart weed (P. punctat un) , and knot weed (P. avic ularc ) . Seeds of these plants 
apparently are frequently picked up fron the ground during open periods in 
winter. Casual observation indicates that seeds of this genus suffer somewhat 
loss fron rodent damage than those of ragweed and foxtail, 

"Seeds of pigweed ( Chcnopodiun album ) persist on the plants until wintor 
and arc eaten ^y partridges frequently in late fall and early winter. 

"Grass seeds, especially the larger ones such as those of barnyard grass 
( Echinochloa c rus-galli ), fingcrgrass ( Syntherisna v illosa ) , and crabgrass (S_. 
sanguinalis ) arc found frequently, although in small quantities. Y/itchgrass 
( Panicun sp. ) is eaten to some extent. Hicks (1) states that seeds of blue- 
grass (Poa sp. ) also are eaten by the partridge in Ohio. 

"Among early ripening seeds of wild annuals taken in mid-summer arc those 
of cleavers ( Galium aparino ) , mouse -oar chickwccd ( Ccrastiun vulgatur.: ) , and 
crowfoot ( Ranunculus abort ivus ) , as well as soric of the composites. It is 
evident that partridges take a variety of seeds, although the cultivated grains 
and four wild annuals make up the bulk of the seed diet*" 


"1. Hicks, L, E. Food habits of the Hungarian partridge in Ohio. Bui. 
24, Bureau of Scientific Research, Ohio Division of Conservation. 

"2.. Kelso, Leon. 1932. A note on tho food of the Hungarian partridge. 
The Auk 49:204-207. 

*3. Middloton, A. D. , and Helen Chitty. 1937. The food of adult 
partridges, Pe rdix pcrdix and Alcctoris r ufa , in Great Britain. 
Journ. Animal Ecol. 6:322-336. 

"4. Ycattcr, Ralph E. 1934. The Hungarian partridge in the Great lakes 

Region. Univ. of Mich., School of Forestry and Conservation, Bui, 

No. 5:1-92." 

Ralph E. Ycattcr 
* * * 


WILDLIFE REIT!]?.:: No. 22 August, 1939 


Apparently a national campaign against ragweed is getting under w.y. 
Posters arc appearing > cr.o issued by Tho Garden Club of Wilningto:.:, Delaware, 
urging readers "to dostroy ragweed tho causo of hay fevor. Pull up by the 
roots x x x and burn." As in the case of drainage for r.ialarial control, this 
novo: icnt puts wildlife proponents in an embarrassing position, since regardless 
of natural values involved, they can hardly take a stand that seems opposed to 
public health. Perhaps the main consolation is that noted by Stoddard on a 
previous page (p. 43). 

A booh that does not pertain to any of the subjects regularly noticed 
in WILDLIFE REVIEW but uhich nay, nevertheless, be of interest to many readers 
is. Robert Sncdigar's, "Our Snail Native Marxials, Their Habits and Care," 308 
pp., Illus. , 1939 (Rand on House Inc., 20 East 57th St . , Now York, N. Y. $2.50 
a copy). Tho uorl; is a well-illustrated volune that treats in popular fashion 
nany kinds of animals, froi: rxnnals to earthworms, that arc likely to be kopt 
in captivity. Information on suitable, enclosures, and on food and care, 
therefore, is emphasized. 

California. — A publication by Aaron Gordon and Arthur W. Sampson, "Com- 
position of Common California Foothill Plants as a Factor in Range Management" 
(University of Calif ornia,. Agricultural Experiment Station .Bui. 627, 95 pp., 
24 figs.,. 12 tables, March 1939) is of interest to wildlife managers for its 
discussion of variation in nutritive value of plants according to season, site, 
rainfall, and other factors, for its presentation of analyses of some of tho 
same plants with which they have to. work, and for its bibliography of 52 titles 
of related literature. ■ 

Now Mexico. — An act providing for the protection of non-predator fur- 
bearing animals passed by the State legislature in 1939 designates such 
animals as the "muskrat, mink, weasel, civet cat, masked or blackfooted ferret, 
ringtail cat, raccoon, pine marten, coati-mundi, badger, and all species of 
foxes." The law authorizes the State Game Commission to "issue permits at any 
time for the taking of fur-bearing animals doing damage to game, poultry, or 
livestock. " 

Wisconsin. --The Wisconsin Agriculturist and Farmer (Racine, Wis. 5 
cents a copy) is publishing a scries of short popular articles on wildlife 
management, mostly by Aldo Leopold. Sample titles arc "Wildlife conservation 
on the farm" (65 (24), Nov. 19, 1938, p. 18); "Bob-white whistles at 
Winter" (65 (25), Dec. 3, 1938, p. 16); "Woodlot wildlife aids" (65 (27), Dec. 
31, 1938, p. 4); "The farm pOnd attracts game" (66 (3) ; ''Fob. 11, 1939, p. 7); 
and "Plant evergreens for' bird shelter" (66 (9), May 6, 1939, p. 5). 



August, 1953 


Aldous, Shalcr E. 
Allen, Durward L. 
Allan, ELsa G. 
Barker, Elliott S. 
Baumgartncr, Frederick IS, 
BcllroGc, Frank C. 
Bonnitt, Rudolf 
Ben t , Arthur C . 
Bills, Uilliam E. 
Bis s onnot to , Tii ama s Humo 
Bol r.nd o r , Gordon 
Bond, Richard M, 
Bradbury, Harold M. 
Brovm, Richard M. 
Cahalano, Victor 71. 
Caldxvoll, Cyril 
Shaddock, T. T. 
Chapman, Floyd B. ' 
Chapman, Lavjronco B. 
Cliitty, Dennis 
Clark, Arthur L. 
Clarke, Mirirm K. 
Clinc, Justus IT. 
Cook, David B. 
Cory, Ernost N. 
Cottam, Claronco 
Couch, Loo K,, 3. L. 
Cruickshank, Allan D. 
Cullcy, Matt 

Dachnowski-Stokos , A. F. 
Davis, D. H. S. 
Davison, Verne E. 
Day, Albort 1.1. 
Dclaplano, J. P. 
Dice, Loo R. 
Dickcrson, L. M. 
Ditnars, Raymond L. 
Dixon, Joseph 3. 
Elton, Charles 
Solon, John T. , Jr. 
Eadcrs, Robert K, 
Evans, C. A. 
Fisher, Leo U. 
Fox, Herbert 

Pa-o*o j 



16, 34, 5G 

30, 31 

54, 3 
















6 ! 

3.5 j 
20 ; 

h' t 






G-or st oil , Hi chard 

Gooding, Leslie II, 

Gorsuch, D. II. 

Grov/anloch, Janes IT. 

Graham, Edward H. 

Green, R. G. 3, 11, 

G-roffonius, R. J. 

Cutcrrnuth, C. R. 

H- jnorstron, F. IT. , Jr. 

Jiamilton, 'J. J. , Jr. 

Bhaaasx, BWfeort C. 

Shnson, John 

E- rr i n : ■ j t on, R o bprt 17., Jr. 

Hawkins, Arthur 3. 

gnor, Robert 
Ifcintzleman, B. Frank 
jjtoxoon, Crimen M. 
Sicks , LavjTcneo E. 
Bill, R. G. 
K-sloy, N. I/. 
Howarth, c. R. 
Hi .vt,or, Russell F. 
Trior, Ralph H. 
Jollison, 'Jilliam L. 
Johnson, F. 77, 
Kr.2m.bach, S. R. 

Jj..|_',lvi, XV. ..-J- X • 

Latham, Ro&or II. 
Lohmajm, Tal^eno 17, 
Lchnor, C. B. 
Leopold, A. Starker 

Leslie, F. H. 
Lincoln, Frederick C. 
Lumlcy, Ellsworth D. 
Mackio, D. 3. 
Martin, A. C. 
McDonald, A. M. 
McLean, D. 
Molandor, L. 17, 
Minor, Fred T. 
Ivlohr, Carl 0, 
Mollcnhaucr, ; .fe. , Jr. 
Montgomery, George A. 
Morse, Marius A. 
Morton, Ja?,ics IT. 



12, 13 

3 7 















Moss, A. E. 
Nichols, J. T. 
Ott, George L. , Jr. 
Pott infill, Olin s -> Jr « 
Pough, Richard 
Pylc, Norman J. 

Randall, Piorco E. 

Riley, W. A, 

Saari, Matt 

Scott, Thos. G. 

Soghctti, L. 

Seiko, Lylo P. 

Short, A. W. 

Smith, Clarence P. 

Staubcr, Leslie A. 

Stewart, M. A. 

Stoddard, Herbert L. 

Stuart, H. 0. 

Sumner, E. Lowell, Jr. 
Svihla, Arthur 
Swanson, Harold B. 
Toller, C. Roy 
Travis, Bernard V. 


25, 32 
26, 42 
3, 45 

Trautman, Milton B. 
Uhlcr, E. M. 
Van Cleave, Harlcy J. 
Van Dcvcntcr, Wm. C. 
Van Rockol, H. 
Vaughn, Ernest A. 
Wallace, George J. 
War burton , C. W. 
Weaver, Richard L. 
Wchr, Everett E. 
Welsh, Stanley 
Wholan, R. V. 
Whitakor, H. L. 

Whitlock, S. C. 

Wickliff, Edvraird L. 

Wickstrum, R. K. 

Wilcox, Le Roy 

Wilson, Everett 

Wolf son, Fruma 

Wright, Earl G. 

Yeattcr, Ralph E. 

Young, R. T. 

August, 1939 



















All of the abstracts in this issue of ",/ILDLIFE REVT 
appearing in the 

Transactions of 
the Fourth North American Uildlife Confe 
held in Detroit, Mich., 
February 13-15, 1939. 



Conservation: General .... 2 
Cycles: Grouse, Ruffed ... 2 
Destruction: Habitat by hur- 
ricane 3 

Diseases and parasites ... 3 

Census methods 4 

Census methods, pheasant . 4 

Drainage operations ... 5 
Land-use in relation to 

pheasant production . . 5 

Mosquito control operations 6 

Nesting success 7 

Openings 8 

Overpopulations 8 

Education: Conservation ... 9 

Food habits 10 

Life histories: 

Bighorn 11 

Doer, Mule 12 

Deer, White-tailed .... 12 

Dove , Mourning 13 

Ducks 13 

Grouse, Sharp-tailed . . . ^13 

Muskrat *14 

Prairie chicken 14 

Shoveller 14 

Woodcock „ 15 

Abstracts- -Continued 
Management : 


Farmer- sport sman relation- 


Harvesting antelopes, Oregon 
Harvesting doer, Wisconsin 
Herd regulation . . . 
Inventory, cottontail 
Inventory, deer . . . 
Planting aquatics . . 
Planting for v/ildlifc and 

erosion control . . 
Pond development . . 
Q,uail, Valley .... 


Stocking ducks . . . 
Stocking, partridge, chukar 
S t o c k i ng , t r app i ng 


Swan, Trumpeter 

Natural history: Indication of 


Propagation: Irradiation re- 


Special articles 

Author index for this issue . . . 








Washington, D. C. 

No. 23 

October, 1939 

WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 23 October, 1939 

The Transactions of the Fourth North American Wildlife Conference, a 
paper-bound volume of ix+644 pages, published in September 1939, may be 
obtained from the American Wildlife Institute, Investment Building, Washington, 
D. C. , for $1.00 a copy, postpaid. 

Conservation: _ G-e ne r al 

Lloyd ,_ Hoyes , and Ira N. G-abrielson. A continental review of the 
wildlife resource, pp. 75-86. 

Lloyd. To protect fur animals in Canada, reserves are established where 
only natives may trap. The total area of these reservations is 584,000 square 
miles. Under protection, musk oxen are beginning to increase. The introduced 
reindeer are thriving and their presence will relieve pressure upon caribous. 
Restoration by a number of agencies of water areas beneficial to wild fowl and 
fur bearers is in progress, and bird sanctuaries are being added. Hand-rearing 
of waterfowl to supplement the wild supply is being attempted. The eider-down 
industry gives people a personal interest in conservation of eider ducks that 
is more effective than police protection. In general, 1938 saw increase in the 
number of waterfowl over the greater part of Canada. 

G-abrielson. Comment on increased interest in wildlife,, in personnel 
trained in wildlife management, and in the volume of research. States arc 
showing an increased tendency to apply the results of technical investigations. 
Management is being more widely adopted. Waterfowl arc increasing and the 
Federal refuges arc contributing greatly to protection of the birds. Their 
importance in producing wild fowl also is rapidly growing. The cooperation of 
State representatives working out a constructive program of wild fowl restora- 
tion is acknowledged. The number of hunters, is growing rapidly, hence restric- 
tions on the kill arc, and will continue to be, necessary. Federal wildlife 
refuges of all types under administration by the Biological Survey number about 
250, embracing some 13,500,000 acres. Recent additions have been for the bene- 
fit of the great white heron, the white-crowned pigeon, and the desert bighorn. 
Land's transferred from the acquisitions of the Rural Resettlement Administra- 
tion arc enabling the Survey to protect additional forms of wildlife. The 
Agricultural Adjustment Administration has for the first time included among 
reimbursable practices, specific provisions for the benefit ,of wildlife. The 
Federal aid to the States program of wildlife restoration got rapidly under 
way and is very promising. . . 

Cycles - : _ Grouse,- Ruffed . . . 

Bump_,_ Gardiner. Some characteristics of the periodic fluctuations 

' in abundance of ruffed grouse, pp. 478-484, 2 figs., 1 table. 

' "Analysis of 1,500 records of grouse abundance gathered by the New York 
State Ruffed Grouse Investigation. Prevailing information and impressions 
respecting cycles arc sketched. There is proof of a period of scarcity follow- 
ing abundance more than 100 years ago. The evidence for periodicitjr in number.' 
is discussed and charted; it is not entirely unequivocal but may, perhaps, be 
regarded as indicating cycles modified by type of cover, regional lag, and 


'..TLDLIEE REVTEU: No. 23 October, 1939 

other factors, Bohaviar of the grouse population of the Connecticut Kill area 
nc r Ithaca during 3 phases of the cycle is briefly noted. The primary cycle 
is often obscured by local fluctuations of independent causation. 

D o s truct ion : I lab i t at_ Jo y_ ho. rr i cane 

Gri ffith, Rioha rd' E . Effect of the 1938 -hurricane on waterfowl 

areas on the North Atlantic Coast, pp. 406-410. 

Characteristics of the stom and of the tidal wave it engendered. This 
covered some marshes by washing sand over them, the receding waters scoured 
shallow flats, carrying off large quantities of duck foods, and the cutting of 
now, and enlarging of old, inlets increased the salinity of waters along the 
south shore of Long Island. Freer flow of the tide may compensate in part for 
the drainage effects of ditches in the salt marshes. The sand deposits oblit- 
erated many beds of waterfowl food plants but doubtless enough seed stock 
remains to replace thorn in a fow years. The scouring action was beneficial in 
removing sludge inimical to the production of wild duck foods and harmful in 
depleting the existing supply. Bad effects of increased salinity probably 
vail be temporary. There was x/holesalc destruction of trees and shrubs along 
much shore lino and even far inland. Suggestions are made as to what manage- 
ment may do to repair the damage wrought by the 1938 storm and to minimize that 
from possible future hurricanes. 

Diseases^ e.nd_ Parasites : Botulism 

Q9ji£*£P-j. P_°AJL»jl p-J}& E. R. Q,uortrup. Recent findings in relation 
to the control, of botulism in waterfowl, pp. 359-363. 

Under optimum conditions either flooding or draining can achieve control. 
Conditions often arc not perfect, howovor, and reliance must not be placed on 
methods heretofore considered generally, valuable. Unqualified persons have 
suggested remedies that have seriously objectionable features. 

Authors' summary: "With knowledge that the decomposition products of 
numerous kinds of marsh vegetation inhibit the growth of Clostridium J^otuljjaum 
and neutralise preformed toxins, new and valuable weapons are placed in the 
hands of those concerned with the management of wildfowl areas. Suggestions 
for management include, in addition to flooding and draining already in vogue, 
the use of vegetation for the production of beneficial decomposition products, 
for windbreaks, for repellents to discourage the use of danger areas, and for 
food patches to attract birds to safe waters. A wide variety of emergent, sur- 
face, and submerged plants are available for these purposes. Indirect control 
of water as affected by 'wind action may be maintained by plantings, making 
artificial islands, and by providing deep canals for water return. Direct con- 
trol through a system ef dikes and canals is recommended where other methods do 
not avail. Properly built and located artificial islands will serve as resting 
grounds attracting waterfowl away from dangerous shallows and mud flats. Algal 
growths of the Cladc^i ^ S rou P '- rc potentially dangerous as producers of 
culture medic, and anaerobic conditions. The known role of animal flesh remains, 


WILDLIFE REVIE'J: No. 23 October, 1939 

as favorable incubators of botulinus organisms, makes safe disposal of this 
material necessary. Until further trials of disinfectants are made under field 
conditions their use cannot be recommended." 

Diseases an d pa rasites : JDeer, "./hit e- tailed 

}fflitlook, 5» -G. The prevalence of disease and parasites in 
wMtetail deer, pp. 244-249. 

Review of the subject (giving 8 bibliographical citations) with special 
reference to the deer of Michigan. Running comment upon numerous parasites 
including notes on their occurrence, abundance, and importance. The white- 
tailed doer, given a satisfactory food supply, appears to be well-equipped 
physically to resist the various maladies to which they are susceptible. 
Winter food is a more serious limiting factor but something can be done about 
that. The species thus appears to bo quite amenable to management. 

Ecology: Census methods 

Raff, Frederic]: J. Region 8 technique of wildlife inventory, 
pp. 542-345." 

Game drives are expensive (22 cents per acre) and impracticable in ruggc 
country. Strip censusing is far more economical, can be applied almost any- 
where, and gives satisfactory results. Counting deer or their tracks along 
roads from automobiles arc convenient supplementary methods that soon yield 
more data than pedestrian tactics. These plans and modifications to improve 
them are being tested. The -success achieved in regulated hunting, live-trapping 
and fawn-catching also is indicative of population numbers, and figures repre- 
senting it can be used to compute absolute numbers '/hen applied to suitable 
estimates of relative abundance* Reliable periodic estimates permit satisfac- 
tory formulation of management plans. 

Ecology^ __ Co_nsa_s_ methods , phoa sant 

Rajidall, Pierce E.jj_ and Logan J. Bennett. Censusing ringncck 
pheasants" in PemisyYvania , ppV 451-4367 V ta bios. 

Application of the method developed in Iowa by Bennett and Hondrickson 
to Pennsylvania. Occurrence end pertinent habits of the birds arc described 
and counts in different areas tabulated. 

Authors 1 summary: "(1) The Iowa pheasant census technique is applicable] 
to areas studied in southeastern Pennsylvania and seems to have possibilities 
for large-scale application in pheasant ranges; (2) the cost of such a census 
is very Ioxj, and the method appears to be much more accurate than any other 
method yet devised for largo areas; (3) roadside counts should bo from an 
automobile traveling 15 to 20 miles an hour over gravel or dirt roads; (4) the 
time to make counts is from sunrise to one and one-half hours lator. They 
Should be on clear fall days having normal dew-fall. Rainy, foggy, cloud] 
and dewlcss morni:igs are not satisfactory times; (5) six to eight birds a mile 

'JILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 23 October, 1939 

indicated a population of 1 bird to 2 aoros. Tito to three birds a milo indi- 
cated 1 bird to 4 acres. Seven- tenths to 1.82 birds a milo indicated 1 bird to 
6 or 7 acres. Twenty-five hundredths to 0.G0 bird a milo indicated 1 bird to 
IS or 20 acres; (6) the largest ringnock pheasant populations were in those 
areas that had, the largest acreage planted in corn." 

Eco logy : _ Bra i nag c ope rat i o as 

Bourn, Warren S_. , and Clarence Cotton. The effect of lowering 
water levels on marsh wildlife, pp. 343-350. 

Classification of marshes and description of their principal plant 
associations. Water level is usually the dominant ecological factor and alter- 
ing it nay have far reaching effects on both flor^. Mid fauna. Plants may be 
replaced by others less valuable to wildlife and drainage, lowering the water 
level only a few inchojS, nay bring about great reduction in invertebrate popu- 
lations so important as a food resource for vertebrates. Examples arc given for 
4 plant associations, the reduction by percent -.go ranging from 43.5 to 92,6. 

Eco logy: Land- us e in rpl at i on top he- ;Sa:it pr oduc t i on 

Ljccdy^ .Daniel _L. Some land-use factors related to pheasant 
production, pp. 525*-533, 1 table. 

Author's summary: :f (1) The various methods used in harvesting corn, 
soybeans, and snail grains in Ohio are discussed in relation to pheasant produc- 
tion; (2) the present trends in harvesting methods are in general beneficial to 
pheasant production. Surveys in 4 counties indicated that in 1936, 7.9 per 
cent of the corn was picked, 23.0 per cent in 1957, and 38.0 per cent in 1938, 
making increased quantities of waste grain available for wildlife; (3) less than 
15 per cent of the picked corn in wood County is pastured — a favorable practice — 
and 42.1 per cent of the pastured cornfields observed were partially or entirely 
enclosed by electric fences — an unfavorable one. Less than 20 per cent of the 
mechanically picked corn was repicked by hand, thus leaving waste grain in most 
of the fields; (4) the pheasants on one Wood County refuge consumed about 186 
bushels of corn obtained in cornfields during a four-month period folloxTing the 
hunting season in 1937; more than 91 per cent of this was waste; (5) wheat is 
en important source of food of Ohio pheasants and the high stubble left by com- 
bines furnishes ideal cover. Wheat stubblefields arc utilized twelve times as 
much as oat stubblefields for pheasant roosting sites; (6) surveys made in 
thirteen fields of soybeans, combine harvested, indicated that there was an 
average waste of 3.79 bushels per acre in 1938; (7) siaartwocd seeds arc valuable 
pheasant food and an average of 48.3 pounds of snnrtwood seeds xrcrc found per 
acre in four cornfields; (8) ragx/oeds produced 85.90 pounds of seed per acre in 
fifteen x/hcat stubblefields sampled, and 5 pounds per acre in eight oat stubble- 
fields; (9) the ncthods used in calculating the amount of weed seed produced per 
acre arc described; (10) the practice of clipping snail grain stubblefields, as 
a ragweed control measure, is detrimental to pheasants; (11) approximately one- 
third of the hen phc\sants nesting in meadows arc killed or crippled during the' 
moxTing season; (12) about 20 per cent of the pheasant nests in the non-crop land 
of ".food County x?cro found along drainage ditches, which furnish valuable food 


I7ILDLIPE REVIEW: No. 23 October, 193< 

and cover and servo as travel lanes; (13) some of the shallower ditches are 
being replaced by tilus, converting waste land ideal for cover into cultivated 
land." Bibliography of 9 titles „ 

Eco logy: M osquito _c ontrol oporat 1 ons 

IiTilli aris, Loui s L. , IJaltor B, Jones, J. Lyell Clarke, Claren ce 
Cot tarn, .aid tfarrcn S. Bou.rn . ITocd mosquito control be inconpatiblc with 
wildlife?, pp. 114-13 6~ . : •"'■.•■. 

Will icons. Only one species of Anopheles (A. quadr iraaculatu s ) is impor- 
tant as a vector of malaria. Its habits are such that it is favored by 
impoundments of water flooding brushy areas. There food is abundant and enemi 
few. Dense swamps are unfavorable but partly logged-off swamps are good breed 
ing places. Pioneer land uses created malaria hazards. "In the era of major 
drainage ending about 20 years ago, the malarious area was reduced about one- 
half; in the impounded water age, in which we now live, the malarious area is 
increasing." Most of the Southern States have adopted regulations for malari 
mosquito control in impoundments. The top minnow is not so important in con- 
trolling anopheline reproduction as widely believed; "wave action on clean sho] 
linos is much more useful. Fluctuation of the water level is another and some 
times very successful means of control. Uhorc it cannot be properly employed, 
treatment with larvicidos is necessary. Complete biological control at a 

reasonable cost is something yet to bo devised. 


Jones. Drainage destroys habitat without which certain animals cannot 
live. An oven worse effect is lowering of the water table. Oil treatment 
kills top minnows which, in biologically balanced waters, contribute to an 
association that controls mosquitos. Fluctuating water levels and applying 
sodium arsenate destroy vegetation, essential to '.aid ducks and fishes. Prcsi 
mosquito control practices are entirely destructive, not at all constructive. 
Ten recommendations for improvement in the program are: "(1) That the -health 
authorities confine their principal activities to areas of concentrated popul 
tion; (2) that they provide biological control for sparsely populated areas; 
(3) that they use preventive medicines to reduce or destroy malaria in man; ( 
that they emphasize research in preventive medicines; (5) that the money now 
wasted on ineffective control be used for the screening of houses in infected 
areas to reduce the spread of the disease; (6) that drainage be abandoned or 
minimized and wherever possible impoundment substituted therefor and biologic 
control be provided in all such .areas; (7) that deliberate fluctuation of th 
pool levels in impoundments bo abandoned as totally destructive; (8) that sui 
able food plants be provided for duck end fish life; (9) that all health prO«-l 
grams be coordinated with biological and wildlife interests; (10) that around 
all habitations, all receptacles capable of holding water be destroyed, treat 
or covered." 

Cottam and Bourn. There can be no opposition to the principle of con- 
trol but wildlife conservationists seriously object to excessive control and 
methods unnecessarily destructive to wildlife or its habitat. Mosquito contrj 
can be coordinated with wildlife conservation if done only where needed, kept 
to a reasonable minimuia, carried out under competent supervision according to 


jILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 23 October, 1939 

plans giving biological factors duo weight, characterized by preferential use 

of the least destructive methods, and balanced by erection of new wildlife 
habitat to compensate for any necessarily destroyed. Examples of coordinator 
campaigns ere cited fron Illinois and Hhodo Island. Control of water levels is 
proforablc to; suggestions arc given for the treatment of coastal 
marshes end ponds. Ditching has been excessive and maintenance failing, as 
sccris unavoid iblc, mosquito hazards increased. Moreover the campaign 
rppoars to have reduced neither the number of cases of malaria nor the death 
rate in the Southern States. Greater emphasis should bo placed on therapeutic 
control of malaria, some types of which appear to be satisfactory. The message 
of this contribution is summarized in 8 short paragraphs. 

•o - 

Clarice. In response to public demand, mosquito control operations have 
changed from those done without thought of environmental values to others that 
will prosorvp scenic amenities and balanced ecology, the latter a necessity for 
control. The habits of mooquitos in 3 seasonal groups arc discussed with rela- 
tion to control measures, among which those not destructive to wildlife or its 
habitat are favored* Intermittent marshes provided with a deep central pond 
and radiating ditches will conserve mosquito predators that will spread through 
the area with rising water levels and consume the mosquito larvae. Biological 
methods of control are urged and examples cited. Pyrethruu larvicidc, harmless 
to wildlife, is more destructive to mosquito larvae than are the objectionable 
oils. Mosouitos transmit diseases of wildlife as well as those of humans in 
number that seems steadily to increase. "If we would protect the natural 
habitats of wildlife, let us bo ready with reasonable and effective mosquito 
control methods, for the public certainly will not stop to consider wildlifo 
when the ravages of somo terrifying disease is upon then." 

Eco logy; _ Nest i ng sue cess 

^S^^9^1\>. A'-J^ Nesting success: Its significance in waterfowl 
reproduction, pp. 391-604, 5 tables. 

Nesting success of numerous species as recorded in the literature, of 
Which 36 titles are cited, discussion of losses by groups of birds, and- of the 
causes, incorporating throughout the writer's field experiences. 

Author' s summary: "To appraise the significance of egg loss among 
waterfowl, comparisons have boon made with similar losses experienced by (l) 
upland ground-no st or s, (2) species that nest above the ground (largely bush- 
ad trco-ncsters) , and (3) hole-nesting species. An average nest success of 
43 per cent was notod among upland ground-nest crs as disclosed in 22 separate 
studies involving 5,300 nests. The average for bush- and trce-uestcrs was 52 
per cent, a feet revealed by the history of more than 670 nests in cloven 
studies. The holc-nostors were most successful, with a rating of 73 per cent 
as determined in twelve studies involving mere than a thousand nests. In 
twenty-two field studies of nesting waterfowl, including the histories of more 
than 7,600 nests of thirteen species, the average degree of nest success was 60 
per cent. Had the results from throe studies conducted under adverse nesting 
conditions beer, omitted, a success rating of 63 per cent would have been 
recorded. On the basis of abstract hatch, therefore, waterfowl seen to succeed 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 25 October, 193S 

better than either upland ground-nest ers or bush- and tree*- nest ers, but fall 
below the standard of the relatively securely housed hole-nest ers. On the 
assumption that 63 per cent success represents the average among waterfowl 
nesting under varied conditions, and with the knowledge that, under advantage® 
conditions, much higher survival has been obtained, it has been concluded that 
70 per cent success may be looked upon as satisfactory on managed refuges. The 
average has already been attained end ever, exceeded on refuges most advanced $] 
development and management, With that satisfaction also comes the conviction 
that, loss of the complementary 30 per cent is normal, probably, inevitable, and 
apparently inconsequential in the equation that ultimately determines the tote! 
supply of ducks. 

As for the suppressive factors, they are many and varied. There may be 
wide divergence in their character and importance on the different refuges and 
they may show marked diversity on the same refuge from year to year. With 
numerous elements exerting an influence on the hatch., rational management call; 
for control of those that investigation has shown to be locally or temporarily 
most destructive. This policy has particular merit as applied to the handling 
of predators. It is much to be preferred to the wholesale control of proserin 
species everywhere with the expectation, that a general benefit will bo forth- 

Ecology: Opening s 

Q-TCJi- PP.rcLL.fl. T« i "Hd Lou is * Hozmol . A study of gome cover and 
openings in the Buck Creek plantations, Huron national Forest, Michigan, 
pp. 554-5.59, 1 map., G tables. 

Due to failuro of planted trees, the plantation selected for study had 
about the seme proportion of openings as an adjacent natural woodland. Detail 
are given in a map and the tables. An unplantod area about 71 percent open wa 
included in the survey. It appears that the small game and fur animal popula- 
tions were not greatly different in the planted and unplanted areas. There wc 
more rabbits and squirrels in an arc/, whore slash, had been left in piles than 
whore complete disposal bad been practiced. The plantation in its present sta 
seems to provide a pattern of openings which could scarcely be improved upon i 
dolibcrat ely planned. 

Ec o l ogy: _ Oyc rp opulat i o :i s 

Sii&J^J^S* ?l* Relationship between elk and nolo deer in the 
Blue Mountains of Dragon, pp. 560-569, 2 figs., 2 tables. 

Greatly reduced by pioneer utilization, deer and elk under protection 
increased until there wore too many of them for their awn cood. Capacity of 
the winter range is the limiting factor and in that range the animals often 
become competitors for food. A table lists the winter foods -.aid indicates the 
utilization by mule doer and elk. A graph shows increase in these animals on 
the Whitman National Forest from 1921 to 1958. The mule deer arc unable to 
compete successfully with elk because of physical disadvantages and under con- 
petition are gradually replaced. A groat loss of deer occurred in the winter 


-..GCLDLIFE HEVIBTT: No* 23 October, 1939 

of 1931-32; since tlir.t tine tho species has made partial recovery but individ- 
uals arc of lower average weight, Tho killing of bull elk has not resulted in 
keeping the herd ■within bounds. Mule deer aro superior as game animals and 
about three tines as ninny of then as of elk can be naintainod o:i the some 
rnount of forage. ..'Lore tho objective is to mike more sport they should be 
favored. ".Jhichevcr nnin.l is favored, tho total population should be kept at 
•■.11 tines below the sustained carrying oapacity of the range. 

Bdj.icati_on:_ _ C onso rynt ion 

S.?. G A'_.}*L'. A»j. P_v }L; liT arburton, E. L auronco Palj-ipr ,_ Tori Jfcll^jGj^nad 
Frank E; Mullen . Education, a powerful tool for wiickLifo restoration, 
pp. bT-11 2. " 

Ross, The conservation attitude is a state of nind that can be en- 
couraged by education. Four principles of education ore outlined. A very 
important one is participation and progress in that respect in tho conservation 
field is illustrated by \cconplishncnts in numerous localities of "Future 
Earners "--vocational students in high schools, numbering about 200,000. Plans 
of the U. S. Office of Education for direct participation in the teaching of 
conservation are outlined. Present vast expenditures for conservation omphasizo 
the neglect of education in this field without which schooling is incomplete. 

'u'arburton. Tho U. S. Extension Service attempts to coordinate oil find- 
ings affecting rural people and to focus than on fund incut al local problems. 
The county land planning committees offer a groat opportunity to all interested 
in land utilization. The Extension Service confidently expects that land-use 
planning vri.ll give wildlife conservation n impetus that will accomplish much 
within tho next few years. The future of -wildlife rests so largely with land- 
holders that interesting and instructing then is of paramount importance. 
Various specialists of the Extension Service participate in tho work, and some 
have boon employed specifically for it in Texas, Iowa, and Michigan. Activi- 
ties in Texas are briefed and accomplishments in numerous localities, especially 
through 4-H Clubs, arc summarized. 

Palmer. Education lias boon a groat factor in tho advance of agriculture 
and it can play a similar role in conservation. Agriculture lias succeeded so 
well that limiting production is tho watchword; perhaps wildlife management can 
follow this example. Conservation departments do not yet realize the need and 
value of spending a reasonable proportion of their funds for education but that 
realization will and must cone. A preliminary review is given of conservation 
education in the United States, survey of which is under way. The importance 
of practical education is pointed out and tho speaker believes it is suitable 
for schools of all grades, and not only for those of secondary or higher ranh. 
Sever:.! approved publications arc named. VJhat agriculture has Co:\g by its 
educational techniques, wildlife can do if it doesn't expect too much in a 
hurry. "Agriculture has loamed how to produce a superabundance in part by 
mens of floods of suitable, local, cheap, printed material coupled with agri- 
cultural education centering in trained leaders free to servo strategic 
areas. It has recognized that the imagination and cooperation of youth is 
essential and that a functional education coupled with research and an adequate 


October, 193' 

fir^cial v, r ograa night well do noro thru all the laws in'tho world. I night 
!^1oiS to Predict that c land-oivner class enlightened in the value 01 
Sldli?o 7 reacted "in its rights «d fairly rewarded for its cooperation woul 
sol™ so nrrv of t'10 or»KLens of wildlife restoration bhat lows mgm be 
«shry P* tLo v^uld be on atatono of wildlife for oil sroups inter*! 
in it and willing to assume a just responsibility in it. 

Wallace. The best educative influence that can be brought to bear is 
thet of tiio'dailv press end the county weeklies. Authentic material i^..roa 
ina way that Sir help sell papers is needed. A scholarship for training out 
door writers proposed. 

Mullen. Education of youths not adults is nost pressing, ^ons crvatio 
textbooks unifying the subject are needed. The press is willing to to - umfll 
times what it is now doing and radio is ready to serve. Appeal to selfish 
notives is nost productive of results. 

I!? oi _il2- b - i J ; - s J.. __ G rouge,_. Ruffed, 

Darrow, Robert. Sc.soinl food preferences of adult and of young 
grouse in New York State, :p. 585-590, 1 fig., 4 taoles. 

Report based on analyses of the contents of the stomachs of 485 adult 
and 332 young grouse. Results are given for these age groups and for o regie. 

. .. ii j.-. ri,.i.„v-!n -r -1 + in ■poiipirdcr. inc xci± riuoo 
of the State, the Adirondack tha C \skill, *J?*^t? a ' CTQ rJ _ s0 sc ,. SO nr 
important plant foods genera) are tabulated ana aiscu soc. ..s ao 
vckctions in use of these feeds and others of lesser rank. Animal feces, of 
nost inportancc to the chicks, arc nore briefly annotated. 

Food Hatttsr. _ Wjftj^j-opgl. rociuiraaaatju. ^.P. G , r . 

Drvcnpprt, La Verne A. Results of deer feeding experiments at 
Cusino, SttcfcWn, ]??. 268-274, 4 figs. 

, Wm n -, ^TOriw o--- citv rnc3 controlled feeding exporincr- 

pro^rcss rcaorts on carrying c^i^i^ ^ 

r ° - 1 - „«-.m»„-«e -T>n tw< -rpodoriinant browse, the 

IB yordloa torr tory .lore s^lf oo.^ o rs 10 tt c ^. ^ ^ ^ ^ 

corryn-B oapcoity Sunjg jc xs M 1^.1 .1 oootrollocl 

^.TrSLfflS? U?S rH^orlf^S^ 

'.., •+■■-. smW^-Mm n f P. ki-rhs of browse — unite cecn..r, nonius, 

were used was_ mk a eonbxntion of 6_ ki * oi ^ ^.^ su „ 

hrrd naple, wnite birch, bl ,ch . .Sn, ,.~c d...sswuuu. y,„++~T. t^ - tl- 

plomented by such feeds in nest experiments maintained weighs better ti...- 

natural foods. 

Food Habi ts: _J3nakos 

Uhler E U., C. Cottem, and T. E. Clarke, Eood of snakes of the 
George Ifcshih^ton National Forest, Virginia, pp. 605-682, 5 tables. 


;JILDLIFE RBOTVJ: No. 23 October, 1939 

Brief description of the Forest and of game conditions there. About 900 
snakes were collected of which 418 contained sufficient food to warrant tabula- 
tion. These represented 15 species, the general, and food, habits of each of 
which are discussed; for 11 species the findings are tabulated. A very consid- 
erable addition to the undesirably low stock of definite information on the 
food of snakes. 

Food Habits: _Squirrel_, J ox 

Baupiga rtner, Luther L. Foods of the fox squirrel in Ohio, 
pp . 5 7 9-584 , 3~ t ables . 

Report upon more than a thousand hours of food habit observations and 
upon analyses of 78 stomach contents. Those of 63 stomachs averaged 25.2 grams 
in weight. "Vegetable foods are tabulated in the order of their importance, 
each of the following being given the highest rating: acorns, nuts of hickory 
and beech, and seeds and buds of maple and elm. The animal food (of little 
importance) also is tabulated. Foods are classed and discussed as staple, 
emergency, and auxiliary and listed according to their occurrence in the major 
fox squirrel habitats. Utilization of mineral salts and water and character- 
istics of feeding habits arc discussed. Bibliography of 7 titles. 

Food Habit s_; _ Tujkojr 

Mart _in,_ A._ C_._,_ Frcaklfn H._ May ,_ and T^lbotrt E.^ CI; rice . Early 
winter food preferences of the wild turkey on the George "Jashington 
National Forest, pp. 570-573, 3 tables. 

Report based on field observations -aid 114 stomach analyses. In bulk, 
grapes, acorns, corn, and fruits of dogwood are the leading items, 93 percent 
of the food being vegetable. Consumption of the different foods is discussed 
in the light of their natural availability. A comparison of the plant foods of 
the turkey and the raffed grouse from the same area is made in table and text. 
The turkey is favored by a larger proportion of openings than is required by 
the grouse. 

[Bibliographers note that a slip in marking copy for the printer resulted 
in transposition of the nemos of the authors; May is the senior author.] 

&ifo H ist ories; _ JBi gho rn 

A^ASil^/iaaP.^ 1 ^* Ecology and management of Nelson's bighorn on 
the Nevada mountain ranges, pp. 253-256. 

This subspecies has beer, reduced by pot and trophy hunting to pitifully 
small remnants. Natural enemies especially eagles require control if this 
sheep is to be increased in numbers, but poaching is the greatest obstacle and 
must be stopped. Information en the life history of the bighorn included in 
the article relates to its range preferences, daily and seasonal movements, 
food habits, mating, and lambing. Development of water supplies and other 
management procedures are suggested. 


"JILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 23 October, 193« 

L ifo Historios: Doer, Mule 

Rasmus sen ,_ D._ I., Mule door range end population studies in Utah, 
pp. 236-243, l'YigTf 5 tables. 

Studios were mado chiefly in tlic Logan Canyon aroa of the Cache Natjona 
Forest, which is mapped and briefly described. Estimates by the Forest Sorvic 
show rapid increase in the deer herd despite open seasons on bucks. Winter 
censuses on the study area revealed about 3,000 animals in 1938-39; the sex 
ratio was 1 buck to 3.17 does in 1937-33, and 1:3.59 in 1938-39. winter range 
is insufficient and considerable feeding has been done. It does not complete! 
check winter losses attributed to malnutrition nor does it prevent over-utiliz 
tion of browse. There is no evident conflict in use between deer and livestoc 
on cither area as the winter range is not grazed by domestic stock and the 
summer range at present provides abundant feed for both classes of animals. 
The summer population, according to sample counts, is about 17.2, and the wint 
numbers from 200-300, deer per square mile. Results as to removal of deer by 
hunting in 1936-38 are given in a table that records also age classes and 
average weights of the animals. Tagging studies revealed that there is very 
little migration of deer on or off the area and, therefore, that the 1,0 gan 
Canyon door population constitutes a fairly distinct herd. There is a summary 
and bibliography of 4 titles. 

Life H istor ies: Deer, White-tailed 

Chapman, Flo yd J B . The whitotail deer end its management in south- 
eastern" Onio",' pp. "257-267, 2 figs., 1 table. 

History of the deer population of the State, and summary of a recent si 
(1935-38). The form involved is the southern white-tail ( do co ileus v. 
virginia nus )', notes on the present numbers end distribution of which are givoi 
From author's abstract: The purpose of the investigation was to obtain basic 
data for a doer management program in Ohio, in order to forestall the develop 
ment of a "deer problem" such as that existing in neighboring States. Deer nc 
occur in 30 Ohio counties, with the greatest concentrations along the Pennsyl 
vania border and in the Scioto-Adams County area of southern Ohio. Pertinent 
facts in the life history, including sex ratios, adult- fawn ratios, time of 
entlor fall, mating period, fawning period, number of fawns per doe, and otho: 
statistics are presented. Causes of mortality (poaching, dogs, and accidents 
arc discussed. Malnutrition is apparent after severe winters, but as yet the: 
havc been no losses due to starvation. Seasonal food and cover preferences a: 
recorded in tables. Water and salt requirements "acre investigated, and it wa; 
found that drinking' water is hot necessary for deer in southern Ohio. Salt 
licks and salt blocks were utilized only by docs, and by them only in the sum? 
months. The white-tail deer has an important place in the wildlife land use 
progrem projected for southeastern Ohio, and the educational, esthetic, and 
economic possibilities of the species arc stressed. The paper is concluded w 
a list of management recommendations and a bibliography of 9 titles. 


VJILDLIFE REVlEViT: No, S3 October, 1939 

Life -iis^ories: Dove, Mourning 

Pearson, Allen_I.l. ,__ and Georqe_ C^ I.ioore. Nesting habits of the 
mourning dove in Alabama, pp. 463-473, 1 f4g»j 2 tables » 

Authors* summary: "Data are presented for 592 mourning dove nests in 
Alabama. Nests were built in numerous species of trees, but more in pines than 
in all other kinds combined. The nesting sites ranged in height from on the 
ground to 65.9 feet, with a mean of 21.72 feet and a modal interval of 11 to 15 
feet. A typical nesting period of 33 days covered nest-building, 7 days; incu- 
bation, 14; and tho nestling period, 12. The nesting season lasted from late 
in Februarjr until mid-October. A total of 47.8 per cent of the functional nests 
under observation wore destroyed by predators, winds, or other agencies, x x x 
Management to improve nesting conditions for the mourning dove in Alabama appears 
impracticable. There is at present no shortage of suitable nesting sites. An 
innate characteristic of mourning doves that causes them to use nests of flimsy 
construction evidently cannot bo changed. It may be that nost predators should 
be reduced in some localities, but furthor study is needed. The most important 
dove-management problem at present in relation to nesting is proper adjustment 
of the hunting season to the nesting period. Adequate nosting data arc now 
available for use in placing tho mourning dove hunting regulations of Alabama on 
a sound basis." 

L_if e^jlis torio s : _ _ Ducks 

Ilochbaura, Albert. Waterfowl studies at Delta, Manitoba, 1938, 
pp. 389-394, 4* tables". 

First season's results of an ecological study of waterfowl on a marsh 
adjoining Lake Manitoba. Reports are made on sex ratios by species (average 
for river ducks 41:59, for diving ducks 52:48), ago ratios (adults to juveniles: 
lesser scaup 25:74, blue -.winged teal 28:72), composition of shooting kill 
(mallard 30$, lessor scaup 26; canvasback 16), and behavior during the flight- 
less period. 

Li^-JiiAt. 01 ^- 1 -!^:. Grouse, Shaqra -tailed 

^P5^ r ^J t A G i > _>_X'_M* Studies of the distribution and habits of the 
sharptail grouse in Michigan, pp. 485-490. 

First authentic record in 1904. Numbers increased and the bird suffered 
a drop in population along with tho ruffod grouse and prairie chicken in 1932- 
33, All of those birds arc again on the upswing, the sharptail is locally 
abundant, and the kill in 1937 was around 10,000 birds. Behavior in winter, 
food habits, end mating activities aro described. In a local study, nests were 
found in clumps of herbs near brush or woodland cover, the average hatching 
<latc Juno 12, and the average clutch 12+. Broods average 7.3 chicks in August. 
Favored habitat is described and parasites listed. Efforts at artificial 
propagation have been blocked by difficulty in rearing the young. Notes are 
given on transplanting experiments. Bibliography of 4 titles. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 25 October, 193 

U-il c l J5Lst or ic s :_ Liu s krat 

End ers_^ Robert K. The corpus lutoum as an indicator of tho breeding 
of muskrots, pp. 631-634, 1 fig. 

Exact information on the brooding season as a guide to trapping policy 
is a groat need in tlio fur industry. This study of gonadal development was 
based on Material collected in eastern Maryland. Progressiva histology of the 
ovaries is described and the following conclusions reached: "From the results 
of these studies it is concluded thrt in sexually mature Maryland muskrats, 
ovulation — and hence probably breeding — begins about the first of February. 
The first ovulatory cycle ends in March and a second begins at onco. If the 
gestation period is approximately 29 to 30 days, as is frequently reported, tl: 
tine .between the onset of tho first ovulatory cycle and late March is long 
enough to enable the animals to produce a litter. If the second cycle is of 
equal length, three litters could be produced 'oj the end of May." 

M££L His tories: P^^irio. _ c hie ken 

•Bonhitt , Rudolf. Some agricultural characteristics of the Missouri 
prairie chicken range, pp. 491-500, 2 figs., 5 tables. 

The original distribution of tho prairie chicken in the State is dis- 
cussed, as well as its quondam numbers :' nd their subsequent fluctuations. 
Results of a census in relation to soil typos and land uses arc presented in 
the text, in a map, and in tables. Author's summary: "The kill by man, thou* 
illegal, continues to bo an obstacle to tho recovery of tho species. The oxi£ 
tonco of a cycle has not yet been demonstrated. Since 1900, according to tkOj 
few records available, the population has fluctuated between a maximum of 
12,500 (1907) and a minimum of 5,110 (1934); a marked increase occurred in 19: 
and 1933. According to the 1938 spring census, 6,630 birds occupied 1,032 
square miles, a density of 6.4 birds per square mile; 5.1 per cent of the 
potential prairie range was occupied at that time. The distribution was virtil 
ally restricted to medium and lew-grade prairie soil typos, differing from th< 
unoccupied soil types in the following respects: Lower land values and corn 
productivity; higher per cent of land in sorghums, annual legumes, tame hay 
(northern Missouri) , and wild hay (southwestern Missouri) . Essentially the 
same differences wore found on comparing occupied and unoccupied townships on 
the some soil typos. Agricultural trends since 1934 indicate tho continuatio 
and extension of these characteristics of the prairie chicken range." 

Life Histories: Shoveller 

Girard, George L. Notes on life history of the shoveller, 
.•pp. 364-3"7T,"¥Yi"gV. 

Research on life histories as a guide to refuge management as exempli-; 
ficd by a study of the shoveller on -two bird refuges in wc stern Montana. Not 
on numbers of this species -in migration and in the breeding season, proximity! 
of the nests to water (average 61-93 yards), nesting cover used (short grassc 
56$), distinguishing latched eggs from those otherwise broken, predators (re- 


hTLDLlhEE P.EVIE"./: No. 23 October, 1939 

loss of 
sponsible for/8.45 percent of the total number of eggs) , egg laying, incubation 
and hatching, survival of eggs and young, and food. 

Life JiLsto_riesj_ WoodOQjTk 

Aldous, Clarence M. Studies on woodcock management in Maine, 1938, 
pp. 437-44*1. 

Third progress report, dealing with singing grounds, nesting cover, 
abundance, banding studies, limiting factors, and food habits. Of 11 artifi- 
cially prepared singing grounds, 5 were regularly used. 

Managem ent : Clearing 

Burlington, H. ,T. Land-cle...ring for wildlif e in southern New 
Jersey, pp. 546-348 T 4 tables. 

Experience proved^that maintenance of food patches increased carrying 
capacity for bob-whites on marginal lands, the dominant vegetation of which is 
described. Clearing areas for the patches by conventional methods required 
146.9 man-hours and 41.9 tractor-hours per acre from woodland to seedbed. Using 
a brash-cutter greatly reduced those items, the work averaging in 3 instances, 
Widoh are tabulated, 17.4 iaui-hours u&S 9.G tractor-hours per acre. The btrush- 
cuttcr method is by far the most economical. 

I-^^JL^oJaaJ Parmer- sport sman rolat ionshtp 

Benjamin, J. te R. The Ohio plan of Gt hunting on 
private lands, pp. 655-544, 2 figs., 6 tables. 

Organization of the Bureau of Game Management , Propagation, and Protec- 
tion and of its campaign to improve farmer- sport sman relationships in the State. 
Notes on agreements between the parties concerned and on operations under the 
supervised hunting plan. Author's summary: 

"1. The State Supervised Hunting Association Areas arc proving beneficial 
to everyone concerned. The landowners are gratified with the orderly harvest of 
only the surplus of game each year, without damage tc property or danger to 
livestock. Prom the fifteen areas operated during the 1938 season there was not 
a single complaint of property damage, livestock injury or personal danger to 
farm residents. The sportsmen were pleased with the privilege of hunting whore 
they were welcomed and game was assured. They were enthusiastic over the feel- 
ing that there was no danger of their being ejected for trespassing as long as 
they stayed within the boundaries of the Association Area. The Conservation 
Division was well pleased with the knowledge of a service well rendered to its 

"2. The principle of 'first come, first served' was strictly adhered to. 
No permits wore issued in advance and no favoritism or exciusivoness was per- 
mitted. The emphasis was placed on service to the general public. 

"3. True cooperation was emphasised, with the landowners furnishing the 
land and the game crop; the hunters doing their part by complying with the rules 
of good sportsmanship and the regulations printed on the permit tags; and the 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: Mo. 23 'October, 19?: 

Conservation Division serving as intermediary to bring the two groups to a 
mutual understanding and to finer relationships. 

"4. No limits were set as to size of areas, but as a general rule thej 
should not bo too small to justify the full time services of a chocking static 
attendant and a patrolman, nor so large as to encourage hunters' poaching 
around the edges rather than going to the central chocking station. 

M 5. In cases whore similar groups arc organized in the future by 
private persons, they must adhere to the above principles in order to secure 
the approval and support of tho Conservation Division. A small fee night bo 
permissible, but only an amount sufficient to pay for tho cost of supplies anc 
tho hiring of the limited personnel necessary to operate tho area. 

"6. Tho Conservation Division plans to earry tho program through tho I 
years contracted for, in order to accumulate data on which general recommenda- 
tions can be based and to demonstrate the method to as many groups as possible 
By the end of that period wo can make more general suggestions for plans to b< 
presented to private groups who might want to adopt tho system in their local 

"The plan has proven to bo flexible, economical and extremely popular 
at least a partial solution of tho problem of finding better places for more 
sportsmen to hunt under favorable conditions for everyone concerned. It is n 
copyrighted, but is offorcd to any group who may wish to adopt it, as being a 
plan of farm-game harvest that has been tried and NOT found wanting," 

Ifamgomontr ^ Earner-sportsman relations hip 

Id??5PS.JL'Slk^S^f?Z~- ISS#" jS a ~ s ~>~ * g ~v )'&- jliSST J^s^s hT Clin o, and 
Walt or 3T. Kirk. Farmer- sportsman, a partnership for wildlife restoration, 
pp. 144-166, 176-192. 

Leopold. Discussion of changes that have taken place since the adopti 
in 1930 of an American Game Folicy, under the headings used in that document. 
Three of them relate specifically to the topic of debate. The 1930 policy 
advised recognition of tho landowner as tho custodian of public game, but the 
idea is still more of a hope than a reality. Rather States are now urging 
farmers not to post lands .and are offering free game birds and sags and grain 
for winter feeding to keep them from posting. Good valdlifo habitat, nocessa 
to steady wildlife production, can bo achieved only by conscious :.ffert, how- 
ever, and it is not likely that farmers are going to create food and cover fo 
wildlife unless the:,* have the final v;ora as to who hunts and how much. Wild- 
life cropping must grow from inner convictions and these are not to be imme- 
diately implanted. Of numerous local trials of farmer- sportsman game managed 
most have come to grief. Some persist as research units but a few survive by 
reason of their merits. Ohio and Texas examples are cited. 

Other topics discussed are indicated by tho headings: Extend public 
ownership and management of game lands; trainmen, find facts; recognize tho 
protectionist and the scientist; provide funds. 

Wood. Legal discussion of game as property of the State, the landowne 
having no peculiar rights in it, but in fact being in position to control its 


MIDLIFE hhhh/IE./: No. 23 October, 19159 

tricing through trespass prohibitions. The general rule is that no person has 
..:./ r i^it to enter tho Land of another without his consent. Difficulties have 
arisen fron sportsmen ignoring that rule end from their deeds too often verging 
or vend .lism. Fair dealing would have contributed to a happior relationship. 

Bukor. Reprint of this contribution under the title "No wonder the 
farmer's frantic" was abstracted in WILDLIFE KEVTEV/, No. 20, Liny 1939, p. 23. 

Taylor. So much of tho area available for game management being in. 
private ownership, the movement , to be a success, must devoto especial at t e:\tioi: 
to thoso lends. Taylor discusses r. program under 9 headings st .ted zs princi- 
ples. Wildlife should be considered in farm planning so far as warranted by 
economic considerations. Continuous research and extension are necessary. The 
optimum not tho maximum head of game should be the objective. Protection of 
environment fron destructive influences is required as well as positive improve- 
ments. Among the latter, providing good headquarters cover so as to increase 
coveys of quail, and diversification of both farm and natural crops are recom- 
mended. Harvest must be regulated so as to assure preservation of seed stock. 
In some vrcry, although not necessarily by cash pcymont, the sportsman must make 
it worthwhile for the farmer to produce gone. Technically trained game managcri 
should be more widely employed cy groups of landholders whore individual est etc.. 
arc not large onough to warrant the e;:penoo. Non-game species should not be 
nenlectod; in fact the whole ccologia .1 complox should be considered and natural 
methods preferred. "Emphasize the essentials. But what arc the essentials? 
They may and probably should differ according to conditions. Per everyone, 
everywhere, it appears that the provision of food and cover and protection, and 
further research are essentials. Importation of oxotics, killing of fur animals 
hawks or owls, extensive plantings, expensive propagation, do not impress 
modern geme iannagors no .rly so much in the big program as the protection of 
valuable species, the conservation of native wildlife, saving tho soil, and con- 
serving the natural vegetation." 

MacNamara.. In Nov/ Jersey tho incentives for tho farmer to produce and 
maintain gome are mainly: (1) Monetary profit; (2) his own hunting pleasure; 
(3) value of cert-. in species of gome in insect and wood control; and (4) protec- 
tion afforded by an organized relationship between farmers \nd sportsmen. Tho 
laws provide for sale under license of artificially or naturally propagated 
game but only a very small percentage (1.3) of the landholders tike advantage 
of tho opportunity. Farmer- sportsman clubs, another arrangement tried, suc- 
ceeded to about tho some extent. Distribution of pheasant eggs to stimulate 
artificial propagation proved unproductive and ins discontinued. To convince 
farmers that game crops can be produced by agricultural methods and provide 
supplementary income, education and particularly demonstration is required, 
hit': that in view, the State Fish and Game Comnission in 193G established a 
demons t rational area including a 20-acre refuge surrounded by 500 acres open to 
hunting. Post-season counts in 1937 and 1938 indicated that pheasants and rab- 
bits survived in sufficient numbers to make restocking unnecessary. It is 
believed that the plan can be extended by leasing unused bits of farm lands as 
refuges and permitting hunting on adjacent acreage. 


IJILDLIFE REVIEW: ITo. 23 October, 19 

Titus. In Michigan the private shooting preserve act [similar to one 
now in effect in Now Jersey] was repealed because of resentment of sportsmen 
over the more liberal shooting privileges permitted on these areas. Michigan 
has an effective trespass law but probably not more than 20 percent of the la 
owners refuse permission to hunt. except on the overcrowded opening day. 
Pheasants follow good soil, hence the cost of public shooting grounds is pro- 
hibitive. Competition/prevent hunting always where one pleases and the situ, 
tion is hardly worse on farmed than on wild lands. The take of farm, game is 
high in Michigan and the speaker believes that the situation is not so bad as 
indicated by the complaints of hunters. 

Bradt. The Williams ton plan of cooperative hunting control was startc; 
in Michigan about 10 years ago and has steadily gained new adherents. The plj 
has 3 basic features. "The first one is that a group of farmers post their 
land as a unit, using uniform signs instead of individual ITo Hunting signs. 
Hunting is by permission ticket only. The hunter has to drive in the farmer'! 
yard, ask for permission to hunt, and if he gets it he receives a ticket whic| 
gives Mm permission to hunt on whatever area the farmers have agreed upon, 
loaves his car 'in hock'i in the farmer's yard. That is very important. Uhil] 
he has that ticket the farmer has his car. './hen he is finished hunting and 
turns in his ticket the farmer then lets him take Ids car." Nearly a hundred) 
clubs dealing with about 1 ! xo e- quarters of a million acres are being operated 
under the V/illiamston plan. Eighty-five percent of the farmers favor the pic 
while 15 percent are more or less dissatisfied. Hunting pressure is reduced 
and local hunters hove an advantage in lessoned competition that they approci 
ate. Farmers • become interested in gome and think loss about trespass trouble 
Difficulties are chiefly due to failure of participants to live up to the 
rules. Hunters go in too large parties and take too many dogs; these things 
result in denial of permission to hunt. Various human and essentially uncon- 
trollable factors hamper the system; in general it works best at a distance 
from large cities. Fees arc objectionable to farmers as after paying them sc 
hunters think they "run the place"; nor do farmers want pay from the State 
Department of Conservation because that would give it "a fingor in the pic." 
Farmers \risl:. to run their own business and keep everybody else out. 

Clino. The destiny of wildlife is in the hands of the landowner. The 
two most important landowners arc the farmer and the government (Federal or 
State) . The government should set the example in wildlife conservation and 
management. The farmer, az a rule, though a conservationist is not a sportsr 
Ho is primarily concerned in making a living from the land and in a majority,' 
instances is having difficulty in doing it. He cannot afford to produce wile 
in preference to domestic, stock, as he does not have the same property right 
in it and cannot, therefore, derive an assured income from it. Plans for sol 
ing the difficulty do not scan to work very well as they do not coordinate tlj 
various interests legitimately concerned. Farmers can be interested in a 
genuine broad-guage progrcm of conservation and will welcome cooperation of 
sportsmen toward that end. 

Kirk. The farmer is a modost capitalist whose investment is in the 
acres from which he must wrest his livelihood. He works for about 20 cents c 
hour and must buy tilings produced by labor paid for at from 50 cents to a do] 


'/ILDLrFl RE7I3"./: No. 23 October, 1939 

an hour; he is in rather an impossible economic position. lie, however, pro- 
duces game and the sportsman who wishes to hunt it contributes little* The 
hunter's license fees and other expenditures "ive him no rights over the game 
nor no privilege of entering private property. These things arc not said un- 
kindly but only that tho thing may be soon as it is. The farmor is interested 
in broad conservation in which the things that soom of most concern to sports- 
men ere just a part and maybe a small part. A groat deal depends upon the 
attitude of those who approach the farmer, "out tho latter, granted fair treat- 
ment, will be glad to discuss the problems of wildlife propagation, better con- 
servation methods, and a united program. 

Management : _ J^^p^^rP^P^y s^n rolatiqnship 

Short, Alexander U. Improvement in farmer- hunter relations in Ohio, 
pp. 514-5'ieV" 

Review of conditions that led to general posting of farms in Ohio. 
Appoi:atmor.'t of game management agents and direction of their services toward 
alleviation of the situation. From autaor's abstract: The problem is one of 
education. In the Ohio program, the farmer comes first, tlm farm youth second, 
and the sportsman third. The .attitudes of farmers .arc being improved by (1) the 
formation of sport srmn-f armor organizations, with f armors constituting 50yo of 
the membership, (2) subsidizing wildlife improvements on individual farms 
through tho AAA program, (3) educating the county -agents so they in turn can 
carry the message of conservation to the former, and (4) the use of game manage- 
ment agents to assist farmers in producing crops of wildlife. Farm youths are 
being educated by: (1) heaving conservation principles into ..11 school courses 
from grade school through high school, (2) introducing project work in gome 
management by FFA and 4-II Club boys and jirls under supervision of gome manage- 
ment agents, and (3) sending outstanding boys and ■..iris in 4— H Club work to 
participate in a full week conservation course at .an outdoor camp. Sportsmen 1 s 
organizations are working for better understanding with the farmor by: (1) Sub- 
sidy of food end cover improvements en farms, (2) actual participation of the 
club members in making improvements, and (3) by payment of small fees to the 
farmer for the privilege of hunting. In the Ohio game management program, pro- 
duction is guaranteed through habitat improvement and protection, mid tho 
harvest is regulated to the satisfaction of all by several methods of ■ controlled 

Maiiaj|omontj: General 

Doy_,. Albert M._,_ Carl D_._ 3 laoemainai; ,_ _and_ P ._ J_. r BJQfftac. fi tor . 1st ho 

I ittman-Hobortson Act functioning properly for wildlife?, pp. 12-24. 

Day. In tho first 7 months of tho functioning of tho Act, all but one 
State filed intentions to participate, 7, however, requiring some legislation 
before they could comply with the provisions of tho Federal law. Twenty-eight 
States had submitted 50 projects of which 24 had been approved. The of 
those is discussed; they involve purchase of lands, development of areas for 
wildlife, and study of management problems. Tho sums involved and accounting 
requirements are briefly stated. 


'.HLDLIFE- REVIEU: No. 23 October, 1939 

Shoemaker. Remarks upon passing of the Act and suggestions for support- 
ing legislation. 

Hoffmaster. The functioning of the Act should result in States becoming 
better informed about work in other States; under central coordination, provin- 
cial attitudes should be modified, and the number of plausible but vrorthless 
undertakings should decrease, including those mistakenly urged by influential 
local groups. 

Mana ge ment: __ _ J^V7_esti ng_ ant el op e s , Orego n 

Einarsen, Arthur S. Oregon's open season on antelope in 1938, 
pp. 216-220, 1 table", 1 "map. 

Author's abstract: "Oregon held an open season on antelopes in 1938 frc 
October 28 to November 1, inclusive, on a controlled plan. For the past twentj 
five years the taking of antelopes had been prohibited. Results of the open 
season proved that these shoots must be controlled. Hunter success was 72.34 
per cent efficient; 242 hunters bagged 175 antelopes. Bucks and does were take 
in equal numbers. The regulations should limit each hunter to one antelope. 
Seasons should bo short, as the animals congregate in ever-increasing herds as 
the open season progresses. The number of persons in hunting parties should b< 
less than four. The season in Oregon should fall between October 1 and 15. 
Unit hunts permit orderly game cropping, with limited personnel. Riles for 
hunting antelopes should encourage skill in stalking, as random long-range 
shooting results in wast©. Guns with a bullet having 1400 foot-pounds energy 
or more at 100 yards should be used." 

Managem ent: Harvesting deer, ^Wisconsin 

§£-I^P. r pj.?PV D « Results of a study of the harvesting of whit et ail 
deer -in the Chequamegon National Forest, pp. 549-553, tables. 

On this forest of more than a million acres, the deer population is 
estimated at 50,000. Drives revealed the animals in numbers from 2 to 272 per, 
section. In severe weather the deer are restricted to 6.1 percent of the gros 
area of the forest, the average estimated concentration being from .56 to 2.4 
deer per acre of wintering yard. Overpopulation impends and special open sea- 
sons have been arranged to prevent it. The article is mainly a summary of da- 
obtained through checking stations for hunters in 1937 and 1938. This info] 
tion includes number of hunters, legal and illegal kill, daily bag, time re- 
quired to get a deer, success ratio, methods of shooting, caliber of weapons, 
and wastage (37$). ... 

Mana gement; _ _ Herd_ rcgulat i on 

Di^.°n.)_ Joseph S., and E. LowollJ3umnor_, Jr. The deer problem, deer 
trapping, and "deer removal at 2Sion Canyon, Utah, pp. 231-235, 2 tables. 

When Zion National Park was established in 1918, much of the natural 
forage had been destroyed by cattle. After 10 years of protection, the canyoi 


JttLELIFE REVIEW/: No. 23 October, 1939 

floor was again covered by vegetation and fully restocked with deer. The deer 
archer increased ad overbrowsing ensued. Mortality became abnormally high.y 
As hunting on surrounding orers did riot effectively reduce the herd, trapping 
was resorted to and the animals released where bhey were wanted. Methods are 


M nagement: Inventory, cottontail 

Ilendrickson, George 0_. Inventory asthods for Ilearns' cottontail, 
pp. 209-"215 , 4 tublesT 

Author's abstract: "An inventory of oottontails in July is desirable in 
Iowa because the shooting season opens August 1 unless the Conservation Commis- 
sion finds the population too lo ,r . The fecal pellet count to i square foot of 
feeding range with ore cottontail to an acre waa computed 3 0.66 pellet', jiccu- 
mulatod for throe months, May-July, from a base figure of 320 pellets, the avor- 
ige for one cottongail in 24 houx'S as found with caged animals, two adults and 
one juvenile, on succulent siuamwr diets. The focal pellet count to one square 
foot .re 1.5 rod intorvals with ore rabbit to an aero was 0,52 pellet late in 
July as counted on feeding rangos o + ' 32 observed cottont-.ils, 1935-38. The vari- 
ations between the average square foot pellet counts for the 22 rabbits and the 
expected 0.65 wore not significant statistically. Fonce 0.52 pellet was taken 
as an index of one cottontail to one "era of feeding territory Into in July. 

"In Davis County, southern Ion.. ho aYerago count was 2.55 pellets to a 
Square foot, which indicated 4,6 cotton I. J la to the icro of feeding range. 
Driving by automobile for five-mile trips at various times of d .y, the writer saw 
aost cottontails at 6:15-6:50 a.m. Along the sidos of the road, feeding covor 
such as tall grasses, small grains, and legumos witl shrubby or weedy cover was 
found or 0.39 of the none:- go within 20 rods of the ro d. The expected number of 
cottontails tc one rile of road was computed as 140, and an average of three to 
a mile was seen at 6:15-5:50 a.m. The ratio was 3 seen to 140 expected or 1:46. 
In Boone County, central Iowa, the average count of 0.65 pellets to a square 
foot indicated 1.2 cottontails to a feeding ecru. In that county along the sides 
of 3.2 miles of road, 0.47 of bhe acreage within 20 rods was considered to he 
supplied with protective and feeding cover Per cottontails. The expected number 
of cottontails to a mile was 45 end an average cf 0.75 ccttont .il was seen in 
auto drives at 6:15 a.m. The ratio is 0.75 seen, tc 4" expected, or 1:60 for an 
estimated population of 1.2 cottontails to an .ere. 

"That dew conditions should be considered w; s recognized for in walking 
one of the 5.2 miles in Boone County at G;30 n.r.. for seven mornings, an average 
of 4.7 rabbits were seen when there was heavy dew, approximately two was the 
overage seen when dew was medium to light on. 12 mornings, and an average of 0.6 
was seen when dew was not discernible. Beating buckbrush, with blucgrass under- 
cover, in the heat of afternoons, yielded four cottontails to an acre in Davis 
County, whereas boating thickets in, Boone County yielded none. In mid-Docomber 
tramping through feeding covor such as ungrazed weedy bluograss, buckbrush and 
blucgrass, and cornfields yielded an average of approximately three cottontails 
to an acre whereas in Boone County only 0.08 to an cere was the average." 

Bibliography of 4 titles. 


iJILDLIFE RETIE'J: No. 23 ■ ' October, 1939 

1.1 : :ic.^emcnt : Inventory^ _ door 

McCain, Randal. Tho development and use of game drives for 
determining whitetail door populations or. Allegheny National Porest, 
pp. 221-230, 2 figs., 1 table. 

Description, of this Pennsylvania forest. The door herd was estimated at 
40,000 in 1033, probably throe tinus the number that car. bo maintained on the 
depleted range. Losses from all causes i:: the samp year wore 27,000. Q,ualifi| 
cations of satisfactory game drive areas arG cited and too method of driving 
described. Crows cf CC0 workers 100 or more in number wore employed. Doing the 
work in this nay is .jnpensive and it is hoped that ... more economical moans will 
bo found. The tablo gives the results of drives laid from 1935-33., inclusive, 
in terms of acres per deer. Estimated tot .1 populations and losses from 1934- 
50 ilso .re given. Bibliography of 7 titles. 

Ik : - or aoaic irt_:_ _ PJLantJ/n^ ics 

3k .rp, i/c.rd II. Prep .;; .tion of Potanogotoi; a..d Sagittenria iron seeds, 
pp. 351-306, 4 fi .. 

Per practical largo- sca3.o handling of the seeds of dusk potato (Sagittaj 
lacifolia) , S-go pondwcod {Toz mo oton poctin atus ) , flat-stcmmod pondwood 
1. zo stor ifor m is ) , it ac necessary to develop methods different from those 
previously recoimaondod. These are described, including harvesting, preparing, 
storing, testing,, t ; or < hunting, aid planting. 

a _ 2pmoirt : PI" 'tan; for wildlifa and erosion control 

Edi.nustor, Pro:!: C. Hodge plantings for erosion control and 
wildlife managemont, pp. 534-541. 

Author 1 s summary: "Pirating and c^re of hedges is .. v.J.uo.ble tool for 
soil cons erv tier, and wildlife management. A managed hedge is quite different 
from an ordiuory wild hedgerow and its valuos and requirements should bo ox- 
plainod to the farmer with groat core. Hodges ore most valuable when planted o: 
tho contour and mo.y be located along contour fences, on other contour field 
boundaricSj at the ton ■r± the filter strips above diversion terr. .cos and or. 
other strategic contour linos. A number of woody plants may be 'used for hedge 
plantings that will produco a low, thick- growing strrid requiring little riaiote- 
nancc. Two or more srocios should bo used in each iiodgo, plantod in. a double 
row with staggered 2-foot hy 2-foot spacing. Fro:" 200 to GOO foot ap .rt is a 
desirable s;o;.ciag of hedges on a slope. Some maintenance will be required just 
as with any other farm crop. By proper plaiining, hedges mo.y be used to the 
greatest possible benefit of the land ad its products." 

M. -i ail ^ . 11 .^ EJSP-^y^, for wildlife o.nd cros_ion control^ 

Eraiikljaij Sydney. Mulching to establish vegetation for wildlife and 
erosion control, pp. 503-513. 


jTLDLUE REVIE'J: No. 23 October, 1939 

Author's abstract: "'./it bin the past five years, the Soil Conservation 
Service has developed anu put into Use, especially in the 3 outheastern States', 
the practice of mulching eroded areas as m aid to establishing erosion-resist- 
ing vegetation desirable for wildlife habitat improvement. This paper defines 
mulching and discusses (i) the purpose of its use, (3) kinds of nulch — plant 
litter, nulch crop?, (3) methods of application — simultaneously with seeding, 
prcmulching, (4) ccst of amplication, (0) benefits to wildlifo, and (6) farmer 
response to this nothod of establishing a dual-purpose vegetative covering for 
gullies and other sovoroly eroded areas." Bibliography of 5 titles. 

^nafiompnti^ _ Planting for whldlifc and erosion control 

Graham., Edward H. Lepuuos for soil and wildlife conservation, 
pp. 501-507, 4 tabios. 

Herbaceous legumes c. u be sown by direct seeding, do -veil on impoverished 
soils, -which thoy improve, and arc of considorablc value In producing food for 
wildlifo. Author's abstract: "Tho paper describes tho ix^q of leguminous plants 
by the Soil Conservation Service In its oroeion-control program and shows how 
the species used • ro contributing bo tho u, p revoke nb of vrildlifo habitats on 
agricultural land. The midlife utilization ^t important erosion- resisting crop 
legumos is treated. Tabios are pr ■_.■..: tod, bared upon a review of the literature 
and 3uroau of Biological Survey stomach records. T .hies 1 and 2 show the 15 
genera and 10 species of legumes most utilized b;. wildlifo for food, with tho 
numbers of birds and mammals Jc.ov:. to use o. ch. T Pies 3 nd 4 list the 10 
birds and 10 mammals which use leguminous plants most, wit! tho numbers of 
legume species utilized by each. An interpretation cf tho t -.Mo follows, in the 
light of the use bbat c u be i.iade of lepui.ies by tho wildlifo managor and soil 
conservationist. " Bibliography »f 15 titles. 

^^ a gompiit ; _ Pond dcvclojpmont 

Allan, Philip P. Development of ponds for .vildlifc in the southern 
high plains", "pp". 339-542. 

In this arid country the development of stock watering ponds offers, por- 
haps, the best; opportunity of aiding wildlifo. The cattle industry, wildlife 
management, aid erosion control .11 are boncfittod by maximum distribution of 
ponds. Por wildlifo, watering placos with the vegetation that can be developed 
in and about thorn provide intcrspersion of food, water, and shelter favorable 
to more complete occup nicy of tho range, Vegetation protects ponds by trapping 
silt, reducing wave action, ;nd protecting b in- from, burrowing rodents. 
Plants suitable for growth in the water cud :u. tho banks are suggested. The 
areas must be fencod, access for cattle drinking boing allowed for, or hotter 
the water being piped to a separate drinking place, hundreds of ponds are being 
developed. Tho response of wildlifo, especially aquatic species, is gratifying. 

Wbu iag omont : Po nd d ev el o pmo nt 

Davis, C. IT. Development of ponds as wildlifo areas in Missouri, 
pp. 519-524". " 


"JILDLIFE OTTEVJ: ^o. 23 - October, 1939 

A pond can bo made one of tho most useful parts of a farm, not only for 
.storage of water for livestock, out also for wildlife utilization and erosion 
control. This article contains some hints on the cons trout ion of ponds hut 
dwells mostly on factors improving then for wildlife, as fencing, providing wind 
breaks, making fish shelters, plant ing food and cover for both terrestrial and 
aquatic wildlife, .and introducing vegetation to control silting and wave action. 
Lists are given of plants suitable for use in Missouri as silt strainers and 
bank binders, and for water end shore planting, Tho desirability of winter 
feeding also is mentioned. 

1 1 1: ■aga mont : _ Auailj V all ey 

Dill, Herbe2 , t E. kiator feeding and shelters for the California 
valley quailVpr". 474-477. 

At tho Tulc Lake Wildlifo Rofugo, feeders were operated in connection 
with shelters impenetrable to predators. Havjks caught quail at the feeders but 
this could bo prevented by moving thorn to dense cover. Author* s summary: "(11 
California valley quail 1.111 readily use shelters and feeding stations. The 
lcan-tc typo built at the Tulc Lake Refuge has proved very satisfactory; (2) al 
the quail thus readily consumed a large quantity of the food offered they prob- 
ably entered the iicsti. . .son in o healthy condition, a better natural repro- 
duction being theroby insured; (..'•) an abrupt decrease in the quail population 
occurred in spite of protection from hunters, the providing of food and shelter 
aid the control of predatory arils; (4) the loss of quail through certain 
prodators during periods of hoavy snow at Tulo Luke was severe. Co atrol 
measures and the furnishing of artificial shelters lessened the injury." 

_l"a k2khk c oihi R° £ u k G G 

pyV-yk_> Cerdia J. Response of wildlife to management practices on 
the Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge, pp. 372-377. 

The Gouris River valley in North Dakota was originrJLly a paradise for 
waterfowl but desnliatioi. and dr .inago practically ruined it. Rehabilitation 
by tho Biological Survey begun in 1935 has embraced water impoundment, fencing! 
control of blowouts in sandhills, pl.-_.nt ing of cover and food, construction of 
nesting island:., a.d control 'of predators. Notes ore given on the succession 
of vegetation after flooding, the response of wildlife to the environmental 
alter .tions, and destruction of nests by predators. "Tho program at the Souris 
Refuge is directed toward a load use policy of maximum benefit consistent with 
tho prcatost possible production of desirable forms of wildlife. Success is 
clearly evidenced by tho great flocks of birds that use the refuge in ever- 
i aero sing numbers. The general appearance of the ares, is gradually changing 
and the rofuac is beginning to resemble the famed marshes described by our fore 
fathers . " 

ibaa-^^oeiit^ _ kef up,,; 

Smitj ,_ Robert k. VJildlifc maiiagoment practices for overflow areas 
of tho lower Mississippi River region, pp. 395-399. 


ulLDLIFE REVIEW: No. 23 October, 1933 

Toe much shcotin;, deforestation, unrestrict i ■ •■■ riiL of livestock, and 
increased height and duration of floods have greatly depleted wildlife in t 
bottoris. Management as practiced on the Unite River Migratory I/i.terfowl Refuge 
in Arkansas is described with the suggestion that it ne; : be applicable, more or 

s, to extensive similrr r.reas. Plans must be r ide for adequate environment 
c.t times of both low and high water. In tLe development of low-water feeding 

■ £3, _i rsh plants arc propagated on dry ioko beds protected from ordi •;■ 
rises of the r'ver by dans. Ohu ? j 3 t/ild illot a-c tho most import nt foods 
in theso places. To reader tho food available to waterfowl, the lakes must ho 
roflooded by October 15; this is providod for by .impounding water. At high 
water periods, watorfowl sproacS through the flooded woodlands to feed and 
plantings are being mado to increase the feed producing capacity oh those tracts. 
Minor management suggestions also arc mado. 3?ho wildlifo of tho aroa nd its 
reactions to changes in water level ere describee.. 

Ma nageme nt : Refuses 

Steeriie, John.^1. Marsh raarr-gomont or the Ore: t PI ins watorfowl 
re f ugc s , pp. 400 -4C 5 . 

Restoration of arc c in this former Lrx.- it breodin ; ground for wator- 
fowl includes impoundment of wator, and the collecting, storing, and sowing of 
propagulos of valuable plants. Progress ia bh.o ! idlin; of propagating material 
by the aid of relief labor is described. T cies utilizod >.nd the best 

methods of gathering, storing, \.\C pi Lntiri(. o .c'i arc discussed. 

M - : ^pmci ._t : _ he fu pc s 

To'wlc, itobort E. hi .re ;ing western reel nation project roe 
wildlife, pp. 583-3387 2 figs. 

Pleas for water regulation, planting, and management of Muddy Crook val- 
ley it the upper end of Lake Head, Boulder Canyon Jildlife Rofugu, heed'. 

Donjon, Piece. Survival studies of mallards liberated in Nov/ York 
State, pp. £11-415, 5 tables. 

Description of 5 croas on which roloascs of artificially propagated stock 
wore mado, end discussion of one season's rosultc. The breeding success of tho 
birds is presorted in table text, end also comparod with that attained by 
black end wood ducks (mallard poorest ::>f the three). Ducklings of varying ago 
vroro relcesed on 5 of the aroe.s and tho percentage of their survival rose with 
their ago et time of liberation. 

Manage ment : • _pjtoekiepa, P£rtridg_o_, chukar 

N p;cl_,_ hereon 0. A preliminary report of tho chukar partridge in 
Mi ssouri7 Pp .* 41 if-42l". 


V/ILDLIPE REVIEW: No. 23 ■ October, 1939 

Having on hand some hundreds of birds , it was decided to use them expert 
mentally to determine the adaptability of the species to Missouri conditions, 
the relation of the partridge to other species, and its qualifications as a 
game bird. The plan of the study and the areas concerned are described. Den- 
sity of release has been a bird bo about 10 acres. Lands were applied to per- 
mit tracing of individuals. Of 1,350 partridges released, 84 were found dead. 
Predators killed 58 (foxes, 18; hawks, 16; bouse cats, 10); disease, 11; acci- 
dents, 6; and hunters, 3. Among a thousand birds liberated, 9 percent (46 pairs 
nested and produced 430 young ( average number per pair 9.3). Notes arc given oi 
diseases, food, and certain habits. No conflict with native species was ob- 
served. Figures are presented showing "survival" rates for both adults and 
young but their true significance is obscured because part of them (disappear- 
ance of whole coveys) probably do not represent actual losses. Suitability of 
range is discussed end the conclusion drawn that the mixed prairie and woodlanH 
area is best. Restless movement of entire coveys scorns to be characteristic. 

laaiagenoni;: Stocking^ t rappin g pheasants 

Hi _cks_,_ Lawrenc o_ E_._, _and_ Daniol_L. Lecdy. Techniques of pheasant 
trapping and population control, pp. 449-461, 2 figs., 1 table, 

"Pheasant crops of the size demanded by present hunting pressures are 
produced only whore ever;- section of land contributes to that end." Methods of' 
dispersing pheasants from refuges arc discussed, of which trapping is the best 
adapted for restocking underpopulated areas. The average cost of trapping por 
bird for the pr_st 5 ye. .rs was 34.6 cents. The history of pheasant trapping in 
Ohio is related, and its advantages are discussed. Construction of traps is 
described and illustrated. Operation of the traps, handling the- catch, trans- 
port! eg ind releasing the birds, mortality associated With trapping, and selec- 
tive trapping also are treated. Bibliography of 13 titles. 

llaY^oTiRJ'aaL Svn.n, Trumnotor 

Hill^A. V. Trumpeter swans, their management and preservation, 
pp. 378-382,™ table. 

Trumpeter swans, restricted to 3 colonics, arc now protected in all, the 
last to be guarded being that on Ned Reel: lakes, Montana. Their presence was 
the leading reason for making tine area a migratory waterfowl refuge. Sodentari 
habits of the birds contribute to their protection and the chief need is manage! 
mont that will increase their numbers. The swans use muskrat lodges -n support' 
for their nests and artificial nesting sites modelled after these structures ar 
being multiplied; small nesting islands also are being provided. The birds are 1 
given full protection and privacy. Strict coyote control is exercised to save 
as many as possible of the swans and their young. Winter feeding is done on a 
large scale and additional feeding places will be developed. The article 
includes notes on the life history of the swans and the results of counts of 
trumpeters in the Red Rock Lakes and Yellowstone Park areas in 1936, '37, and 
'38. Respective totals: 108, 158, 148. 


WILDLIFE REvTE'J: No. 23 October, 1939 

Natural History: ?iL^JL c 8L*A il 9JL$££. 

Gower, W. Carl. The use of the bursa of Fabric ius as an indicator 
of age in game birds, pp. 426-430, 2 pis. 

The bursa of Fabric ius (described and illustrated.), apparent only upon 
dissection, is a dependable character for distinguishing birds of the year (7-9 
months) from adults. 

Prop agat ion: Irradiation resultjs 

Bump, Gardiner, and Leonard CJLarh. Responses cf game birds to 
i mediation, pp~. 442-448 ,~*3~1rigs. 

Review of literature cf which titlee are cited. The studies were 
planned to test the effects upon game birds of intensity, periodicity, and dura- 
tion of artificial lighting. The conditions of the experiments are described and 
the results presented in graphs and text. Authors' summary: "To sum up, a 
moderate amount of light over and above normal stinailatos reproductive activity 
among pheasants, quail and grouse during most periods of the year. Artificial 
conditions, exposure to an intensity of 5 f.c. continuously in the absence of 
daylight, or for a relatively short period (3 hours) in addition to normal day- 
light, so stimulated the gonads as to produce the largest number of fertile eggs 
from pheasants. Periodic illumination is mora effective bhan continuous light- 
ing. Exposure to alternate ono-hour intervals of light and dark cave best 
results. It is possible that principles here indicated may serve to further 
clarify our understanding of the limitations surrounding the brooding range of 
Certain species, as well as the beginning and ending of the period of ogg pro- 
duction among many species in the wild." 

Rj3j^_earch:_ Bob- white's resistance to cold 

Go rsto ll, Richard. Certain mochanics of winter quail losses revealed 
by laboratory experimentation, pp. 462-467, 1 tabic. 

Extremely severe winters that occur about every 20 years decimate bob- 
whito populations. Experiments were conducted to learn the reaction cf the 
birds to cold. Characteristics of the quail huddle, and results of the experi- 
ments ere described. The author's tentative conclusions arc: "(1) That the 
characteristic huddling habit of the bobwhite quail may at least in part repre- 
sent an instinctive reaction which tends to reduce the heat lots from the bodies 
of the various individuals which make up any given covey; (2) that, at least 
within certain limits, the ability ox a covey cf quail to withstand low environ- 
mental temperatures is directly proportional tc the 3izo of that covey; (o) that 
the body temperature of individual quail may drop more than 2e° F. below normal 
without the bird's suffering a breakdown of its thermal regulatory system which 
would result in death. 

"In closing, it seems fitting to call to the game manager 1 s and sports- 
men' s attention the practical importance cf the results obtained even from the 
fev; experiments so far completed. This lies in the indication that throughout 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 23 . October, 1939 

the northern portion of the quail range, the bobwhito coveys should not be shot 
down to a point whore their chances of winter survival ere seriously endangered 
simply by too great a reduction in the average size of the bevies." 

Bibliography of 7 titles. 

Research: Bob- whitens response t o p rodation 

Errington, Paul L . Suggestions for appraising effects of prodation 
on local areas managed for bobwhito, pp. 422-4-25. 

Abstract, chiefly the author's: Much variation in response of bob-white 
populations to changes in densities of chief predatory enemies has teen recorded! 
in recent literature, 5 titles of which are cited. In analyzing these problems,) 
experimentation on the land appears to show increasing promise of contributing * 
significantly to our knowledge. This is especially true as concerns many of the 
complexities of quail -predator relationships, but work on those, to be scien- 
tifically acceptable » must be done with due awarcnoss of important possible 
sources of error. Much inconclusive groping end misinterpretation of results 
may arise from confusion of primary and secondary typos of prodation, lack of 
correlation of prodation with population phenomena of prey species, and failure 
to distinguish between actual changes in prey population levels following change 
in kinds and numbers cf predators and mere reorientation of prey populations on 
a local scale. Study areas should be cf sizes that include the full ranges of 
most of the coveys present. 

Re s parch : _ Expo rime it st at i on 

All o n, Du rward L. A new wildlife experiment station near Allegan, 
Michigan," pp. T2c-G30~. 

Swan Creek Wildlife Experiment Station on a 35,000-acre leased tract thai 
was purchased and developed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture in conncctioij 
with its land utilization program. Notes on ecology of the arc:- and en the 
program of investigation; management studies of the cottontail and raccoon firsl 
end of tlie fox squirrel and pheasant later. Management procedure proved practi- 
cable here can then be extended to suitable areas elsewhere in the State. 

Resear ch: Tracking 

^i'S^J^P^.A^II' ^ liC tracking technique in the study of the larger 
predatory mammals, pp. 203-208, 

Usefulness of the technique is limited chiefly to regions end seasons 
having good snow cover. Granted that, the study amounts to almost the sane thB 
as observing the animals themselves and contributes to knowledge of populations, 
son ratios, breeding periods, denning habits, territories, and feeding habits. 
Suggestions arc given o„ identification of tracks by their size and shape, by I 
odor of urine at scent-posts, and of the animals themselves. Othor hints relate 
to determination of the number of animals making a trail and of those frcquenti) 
an area; to detection of the sexes and of sexual phenomena; and to food and feet 1 
ing habits. Bibliography of 5 titles. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 23 October, 1930 

Res |oarchj_ ^Troggiiig^ Pennsyl vcini a 

Wad e, Dou glas E. Economic survey and general inventory of native 
■ Pennsylvania fur-bearers, pp. 250-252, 1 table. 

Preliminary report on a study of trapping in Snyder County, an area con- 
prising 0.68 percent of the surf ace, and 6.19 of the population, of the State. 
Information gained by interviewing representatives of all families in the County 
reveals their activities in trapping, including trapper- family ratio, average 
age of trapper, proportion of licensees, number of traps, catch and its disposi- 
tion, and income. 


Following are summaries of unpublished theses offered in partial fulfill- 
ment of the requirements for MS degrees by graduate students in the Alabama 
Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit at the Alabama Polytechnic Institute. They 
wore submitted by Dr. Allen M. Pearson of the Biological Survey. 

The c onservation of wildlife in Alabama: A synt hesis of materials for high 

school biology , by Julian C. Ivey. August 1936. 

It should be borne in mind that the following is a summary of conditions, 
and does not represent conclusions. To the extent that the evidence permits, 
each section is an attempt to answer briefly the question raised in each problem. 


The most commonly accepted idea of the principle of conservation of wi Id- 
life is wise use of all of our wild bird, mammal, and fish life; its meaning is 
much broader than protection. Conservation of game is a narrow term, applying 
to the small percentage of wildlife classed as game species. Wildlife management 
and game management are applied sciences which seek to produce annual crops of 
wild animals for man's benefit in various ways. 


Although possessing a variety of surface features, Alabama lies chiefly 
within one life zone, the Lower Austral. Its fauna is not as varied as that of 
some neighboring States, but it exceeds in the abundance of several species. The 
values of wildlife arc chiefly for food, fur, recreation, and regulation of 
natural balance. Alabama shares in a nation-wide increase of hunting and fishing, 
whose decline for lack of game would affect many industries. The value of many 
non-game species is not sufficiently recognized, although it has been proved by 


Man's policy in the past has caused the extermination of several formerly 
abundant species, and now threatens the existence of others, including migratory 
waterfowl, big-game, fur-bearers, predatory birds, .and other non-gome species. 
The decrease in wildlife duo to direct killing and to destruction of habitat 
threatens an annual return estimated at a billion dollars. Factors contributing 
to destruction of habitat are: Deforestation; agricultural practices, including 


MIDLIFE REVIEW: No. 23 October, 1939 

grazing and forestry methods; fire, an acute problem in the South; soil erosion, 
both a cause of decrease and a fellowr symptom of cover removal; drainage, espec- 
ially affecting waterfowl;- and stream pollution, largely by industrial waste, 
for the control of which, comparatively little has been done. Menaces to 'wildlife 
include: Increasing number of sportsmen, duo to increased leisure and improved 
transportation; unsportsmanlike practices; improved weapons; general lack of 
respect for game laws; domestic animals, chiefly the cat; and diseases, especi- 
ally serious at game farms and hatcheries. Weaknesses in the conservation field 
include: Conflicting administrative policies; non- cooperation between States; 
lack of a national game policy; clashing viewpoints of groups interested in con- 
servation; and unscientific administration of wildlife resources. 


The abundance of a species of wildlife depends upon the interaction of 
two opposing forces. One, the reproductive capacity, would bring about an amazing 
increase of a given species if the other, resistance of the environment, were 
removed. Natural checks such as normal wastage, accidents, diseases, and preda- 
tors, together with unfavorable food and cover conditions, seem to set a limit 
to the number- of a species on a given area. By regulating the resistance of 
the environment , men can produce an annual crop of game or fish for his own use. 
The environmental factors arc so numerous and complicated that game and fish 
management require much additional research. One little-understood phenomenon 
is cycles, or periodical fluctuations in wildlife population. Under the condi- 
tion known as the balance of nature, variations in relative numbers remain 
fairly constant over long periods. This balance is brought about by the various 
species acting as checks upon each other. When man decreases some species, 
introduces others, depletes the environment, or makes conditions temporarily mor 
favorable than natural, the balance is upset. Wide variations in abundance of 
species then occur, and may become economically harmful. Allowing overcrowding, 
or decreasing abundance below that necessary to repopulatc the environment , arc 
both short-sighted. 


Conservation methods seem to have beer} divided into five phases during 
written history. In the Old World, conservation of wildlife, chiefly through 
hunting restrictions, has been recorded biblical times. Conservation in 
England and Europo has passed from this phase through the methods of predator- 
control, provision of refuges, artificial propagation, to environmental controls 
Basing our wildlife administration on the English system, except that ownership 
of wild animals is vested in State instead of King, wo have failed to conserve 
wildlife merely through hunting and fishing restrictions and have permitted 
predator control to be often unscientifically conducted. Governmental authority 
and international agreements have been found necessary for the conservation of 
migratory birds. Provision of refuges and artificial propagation have been 
.especially emphasized during the past century. Recent emphasis is on control of 
•-.11 environmental factors, requiring scientific research and technically quali- 
fied administration. 


Conservation efforts arc being made. by numerous groups, working in many 
different ways. Governmental agencies with wildlife conservation as a major 


.JLDLIFE KEVX2TJ: Mb. S3 October, 1«S|S 

objective include tho Bureau of Biological Survey, Bureau of Fisheries, Forest 
Sorvico, .:/! National I ark Service. Private organizations aro numerous, among 
which the Audubon Sooiotic? aid Isack ' or. Ioaguo arc probably boot known. 
Organizations may he actuated by ocoiiamic, osthotic, sciohtifia, or other 
motives, cfton conflicting with oach other; recently of forts ImVo been to 
unite nil interested in conservation in or.0 group, the -.1 ".Jildlifc Federa- 
tion, Hunting regulations of which farmer- sportsman rolntio: ships may bo con- 
sidered .. phase, arc being increasingly based on scientific study. Recent 
investigations have revealed :io.j values for animals formerly considered wholly 
hamnful, r.nd control operations arc boi'ig improved, Incroasod emphasis is being 
placed on rcfiigos as a moans of insuring achayanto brooding steel:, and upon reser- 
vations as n mcnr.s of preserving tiiroatonod species. Emergency appropriations 
and a policy of land-retirement nave facilitated progress towards a more nearly 
complete refuge system. Artificial propagation continues to be accessary, with 
regulation of the environment as a factor often determining success of restock- 
ing. Present efforts along the lino of environmental improvement include: 
Cooperative research and demonstration projects at land-grant collcgos; the soil 
conservation program; correlation of forestry and aildlifc management ; efforts 
to control water pollution, including surveys and legislation. Tno importance of 
biological relationships is being increasingly recognized with research neces- 
sary to elucidate then In all phases of conservation. Research in progress 
includes: Studios of food habits, including forest wildlife relationships; bird 
banding, to migration routes and individual life histories; and 
research into wildlife diseases. Subjects on which additional investigation is 
especially needed arc: "i/ildlifu cycles; ...qua tic environments, particularly 
their food relationships; methods of propagation; and, Mat or pollution. Studios 
of region.!.! problems of wildlife taanagpiaont , Booking to bring about improvod 
general practices, are under way i;i j^labcKma and eight other States. Opportuni- 
ties in gnao, fish, and other wildlife conservation fields include research, 
demonstration, and management, for which a look of thoroughly trained men is at 
present manifest. 


In ci'dor to aid i. .. solving conservation problems, it is necessary for us 
to heap informed concerning them and to give then publicity. In our own activi- 
ties affecting wildlife, vie. should observe the rules of trie sportsmanship. As 
c basis for intelligent conservation, inventory of wildlife resources is neces- 
sary. Such surveys may grow into a systematic stud; of birds and mammals. Ivlapy 
interesting publications en this activity are available, as well ; -s on attrac- 
tion and protection of song birds, he may bo of very material help in insuring 
an annual crop of wildlife by maintaining year- round food and cover. Farm 
practices may be adapted to wildlife; the effort may bo repaid in on annual 
crop of game marketed to sportsmen, "'/here conditions render it advisable, game 
birds may be propagated. Marsh and other water areas may bo created or improved 
for watorfowl, fishes, and other wildlife. The study of fishes in relation to 
their environment may suggest better moans of providing for them. whore control 
of spocios is necessary, it should be conducted on a scientific basis. Conser- 
vation may be given publicity by building up libraries, showing motion pictures, 
and exhibiting posters. 


VflXDLIEE REVIEW: No. 23 October, 1939 

Itecj^meMatjLons _for Esther Studies. The writer recommends similar 
studies in other fields than wildlife conservation. That soil conservation has 
little up-to-date material suitable for teaching purposes. The problem of 
stream pollution seems to offer opportunity for emphasis in chemistry and gen- 
eral science courses. 

A trial of the materials presented, to determine most effective teaching 
organization, placement, learning activities, methods of (approach, and vocabu- 
lary weaknesses would afford opportunity for scientific study. Objective 
studies might be made in connection with the present curriculum program, to 
dot ermine phases of conservation suitable for different courses, and methods of 
correlating them. 

A study of conservation elements offered in teacher-training institutions 
offers opportunity for improving conservation teaching. 

The importance of cer tain woody plants as producers of food for bird^s ij^east 
A labama, by Elmer A. Jones. August 1938. 

According to the number of birds fooding on them, pines, blackgum, and 
holly were found to be the most important food producers. Eighteen species of 
birds fed on seeds of pine, 11 on the fruits of blackgum, and 11 on those of 
holly. Pine mast was available from November to March and the fruits of black- 
gum and holly from November through April. 

French mulberry and smooth-sumac wore next in value. Nine species of 
birds fed on the fruits of those shrubs which wore available throughout most of 
the investigation. 

The fruits of oak, flowering dogwood, and Cherokee rose were available 
from November through March and were eaten by seven species of birds. Cherokee 
rose, however, is considered a pest in some sections of Alabama, 

Eour other plants providing food from November through March wore patron- 
ised as follows: Shag-bark hickory by six species of birds; dwarf-sumac by five 
and 'indigo bush and hawthorns each by four species. 

, Russian olive ripened in January and remained on the bushes until the 
middle of April. The fruits were taken by five species of birds. Those of suga: 
berry, privet, and Japanese strawberry were consumed by three species of birds 
and wore available from November through February. 

Tulip-poplar, smooth alder, chaste-trcc, and honeylocust were the least 
important food plants studied. Tulip-poplar and smooth alder seeds were observer 
oaten by only one species of bird each, while chaste-trcc and honeylocust were 
not recorded as taken by any bird. The fruits of these four trees wore availabl 
over a long period. 

Studios on the food habits of the white-tailed deer in_ Ala bama, by Dyer N. 
Ruggles. August 1938, 

1. A study of the foods of the white-tailed deer was conducted in Sumter 
County in western Alabama. 


WILDLIFE REi/TEW: No. 23 October, 3.93E 

2. The range on which the studies were carried on was well stocked but 
not ovorpopul vtcd by deer. 

3. Greenbrier was the single most valuable deer food for the year 1936-37. 

4. Dwarf sumac also was important, ranking second only to grocnbrior. 

5. The oak family (Fagacoae) contributed more of the volume of door food 
than any ether single family. 

6. Acorns were a preferred food and the door ate thorn as long as they 
v/crc available. 

7. Broadleavod trees as a whole ranked higher than any other group of 
deer foods. Five othor groups, listed in order of import., v;erc: vines, 
shrubs, conifers, herbs, raid grasses. 

The value of certain sgrouomic plants .a food for bob-whitos, by James U. YJcbb. 
May 1939" '" 

1. Experiments were conducted over a two-year period with 30 species of 
plants to determine tlic value of each as an agronomic food crop for bob-whites 
in Alabama. Three plantings wore mado of each species each yoar at the main 
experiment station, and also at the Black Belt, Sand Mountain, Tennessee Valley, 
"./iroarass, and Gulf Coast substations, and in the experimental fields near 
Browton. Observations were made at monthly intervals to determine desirable and 
undesirable qualities. 

2. The plants found to bo of most value for use in food patches for quail 
arc listed in the order of their importance for throe districts: 

(a) Appalachian Mountains and Limestone V Hoy Soil Provinces: 
Korean lespodcza, common lcopcdcza, browutop nillot, Gorman 
millet, Texas millet, Laredo soybean, ambor sorghum, sagrain 
sorghum, mung bean, Brabham cowpoa, bore, Japanese nillot, 
Florida beggarwoed, and shallu scrgloim. 

(b) Central Alabama: Common lespedoza, Korean lespedcza, Florida 
bogg-irwccd, 3esbania (en low lands), millet, Gorman 
millet, Toxaa millet, Laredo soybean, cning bean, amber sorghum, 
brabham cowpoa, bene, sagrain sorghum, and Javanese millet. 

(c) Coastal region: Common lespedoza, Florida boggarwood, 
scsbania, brovrntop millet, Gorman millet, Texas millet, mung 
been, Brabham cowpoa, Laredo soybean, bene, Japanese millet, 
proso millet, ember sorghum, and sagrain sorghum. 

3* hS^fp9-PI'9. SQJfj-coz and native vetch arc considered valuable plants to 
be grown for quail in Alabama but insufficient information was obtained to 
classify then according to importance. They are recommended for use in all sec- 
tions of the State. 

4. Nine plants wore found undesirable, namely: Kafir corn, hegari sor- 
Ghum, redtop sorghum, Sudan grass, pearl mllet, iron Cowpoa, partridge pea, 
pigeon pea, and Strophostylos helvola. 



"WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 23 October, 193 

The iiolniath parasites of Cj3t t ont ai ]. s_ i_u tho_ yj.cirA.tj_ of Auburn ,_ Alabam , by 
Eugenia Rutland" Moore; August 1939~." " 

1. A survey was conducted to determine the species and relet ivo preva- 
lence of internal parasites of cottontail rabbits in the vicinity of Auburn, 
Alabama, and to study their effect on rabbits and other hosts, especially on 
nan and on donostic animals. 

2. The survey was made during the spring and summer of 1939, 50 cotton- 
tail rabbits ( Sylvilagus florid anus pallunis) being colloctod and examined prin- 
cipally for helminth parasites. The viscera, mesenteries, brain, and skin wore 
examined, the parasites colloctod and identified, and the dogroo of each infes- 
tation noted. 

3. Parasites were found in all except 2 very your/: rabbits with an 
average of 4.5 species per hoot (including the arthropod, Lingua tula scrrata). 
Six species of nematodes, four of ccstodos,and one of tronatodo were found. The 
percentages of rabbits in which various parasites were found are as follows: 
Oboliscoidos cuni cul i., 38 percent; C it tot acnla variabilis, 76 percent; pyptic_or- 
c us pisiforciis, 54 percent; Do roatoxys vcligora, 60 percent; Longis triata sp. 
(probably noviborino ) , 40 percent; Trie ho g t r ongylus calcaratus, 40 percent; 
Raill iotina salr.ioni , 32 percent; Kasstilosio tricolor, 20 percent; Trich uria 
lP^-SAH> I-® porccnt; Pas salurus oribiguiis, 6 percent; and I'^lticcps sorialis, 4 
percent. The arthropod, L inguatulp so rrat a, was more provalont than nany of the 
helminths, being found in 40 percent of the rabbits. Those results corresponded 
more closely, both in species of parasites and in their prevalence, to those of 
other surveys riadc of rabbits in tho southeastern part of the United States than 
to those of more distant studies. 

4. Only a few of the parasites found in those investigations appear to 
be particularly pathogenic to rabbits. Mult i cops sorialis and Tr i chost ro ngy lus_ 
calca ratu s are probably the nost pathogenic species found, the fomcr because of 
the pressure exerted or, the tissues and the latter because of its toxic proper- 
ties. All species, however, except possibly Passalurus cribiguus, aro known to 
be capable of producing serious effects in heavy infcsTations. The dauago 
caused by hclninths, as observed by various invosti -tors, includes: Destructioi 
of tissue by their hooks cr suckers or by extra- intestinal digestion; loss of 
blood; opening of atria of infection for bacteria; hindrance of proper function- 
ing of organs by pressure or. than; toxic effects; and inducement of malignancy, 
especially in the liver and lungs, 

5. Cyst ico rcus pisifornis, Mult ic ops sor iali s, end the larva of 

Ling ua tula sorrat a, which wcroHPounc in a high percentage of rabbits examined, 
arc a constant threat to the health of domestic aninals. The adults of all 
throe of these parasites infest dogs and the larva of L. sorrata is common in 
cattle, goats, and sheep. The adult cestodoo apparently cause little injury to 
domestic aninals, but tho arthropod is quite pathogenic. Many nay also be in- 
fested with M. sorialis and very rarely vat-- L. sorrata. 



October, 1?3S 




Aldous, M. 
Allan, Philip F. 
Alloa, Durward L. 
Allen, Joseph C. 
Baker, John H. 
B lumgartnor , F. M. 
Bauragartnor, Luther L. 
Eon j ami n, J. R. 
Bonnott, Logan J. 
Bonnitt, Rudolf 
Benson, Dirck 
Boum, Warren S. 
Bradt, G. 17. 
Bump, Gardiner 
Burlington, H. J. 
Chapman, Floyd B. 
Clark, Leonard 
Clarice, J. Lyoll 
Clarke, T. E. 
Cliff, Edward P. 
Cline, Justus H. 
Coburn, Don R. 
Cot tan, Clarence 
Darrow, Robert 
Davenport, La Verne A. 
Davis, C. N. 
Day, Albert M. 
Dill, Herbert H. 
Dixon, Joseph S. 
Edninstcr, Frank C. 
Einarson, Arthur 3. 
Sudors, Robert K. 
Errington, Paul L. 
Franklin, Sydney 
Gabriels on, Ira IT. 
Gorstell, Richard 
Girard, George L. 
Gov/er, U. Carl 
Graham, Edward H. 
Gray, Donald V. 
Griffith, Richard E. 
Hondrickson, George 0. 
Henry, Cordia J. 
Hernial, Louis C. 
Hicks, Lawrence E. 
Hochbaum, Albert 


5, 6 
2, 27 

10, 11 


, 6, 10 





Hoffmstor, P. J. 
Hull, A. V. 
Ivcy, Julian C. 
Jones, Elucr A. 
Jones, Walter B. 
Kalnbach, S. R. 
Kirk, Halt or F. 
Loedy, Daniel L. 
Leopold, Aide 
Lloyd, Hoyos 
MacNomara, Lester G. 
Martin, A. C. 
May, Franklin K. 
McCain, Randal 
Ho ore, Eugenia Rutland 
Moore, George C. 
Ihilion, Fr:^nk E. 
KUgcl, Horner 0. 
Palmer, E. Laurence 
Pearson , Allen I.I. 
Quortrup, E. R. 
Randall, Pierce E. s son, D. I. 
Ross, J. A. 
Ruff, Frederick J. 
Rugglos, Dyer II. 
Scndors, Roy D. 
Sharp, Hard M. 
Smith, Robert H. 
Shoomakor, Carl D. 
Short, Alexander U. 
Stcblcr, A. j'.'I. 
Stccnis, Join H. 
Sumner, E. Lowell, Jr. 
Taylor, Walt or P. 
Titus, Harold 
Towlo, Robert E. 



< r. 

idc, Douglas E. 

Jail a c c , Tom 
Wurburton, C. W. 
Webb, James W. 
'./hit lock, 3. C. 
Williams, Louis L. 
Wood, George W. 






5, 26 









































Adams, William C. 
Aldous, Clarence M. 
Allan, Philip F. 
Allen, Durward L. 
Allen, Joseph C. 
Baker, Clarence M. 
Baker, John K. 
Baumgartner, F. Ivl. 
Baumgartner, Luther L. 
Benjamin, J. R. 
Bennett, George W. 
Bennett, Logan J. 
Beimitt, Rudolf 
Benson, Dirck 
Bourn, Warren S. 121, 
Bradt, G. W. 
Bump, Gardiner 442, 
Burlington, H. J. 
Cahn, A. R. 
Carbine, W. F. 
Chapman, Floyd B. 
Clark, Leonard 
Clarke, J. Lyell 
Clarke, T. E. 570, 
Cliff, Edward P. 
Cline , Justus H. 
Co burn, Don R. 
Cottam, Clarence 12.1, 

Darrow, Robert 
Davenport , La Verne A. 
Davis, C. N. 
Day, Albert M. 
Dill, Herbert H. 
Dixon, Joseph S. 
Eddy, Samuel 





Edminster, Frank C. 
Einarson, Arthurs. 
Endcrs, Robert K. 
Errington, Paul L. 
Finley, William L. 
Franklin, Sydney 
Gabriel son, Ira N. 
Gerst ell , Ri a hard 
Girard, George L. 
Gowor, N. Carl 
Graham, Edward h. 
Gray, Donald V. 
Griffith, Richard E. 
Hondrickson, Goo. 0. 
Henry, Cordia J. 
Hormol, Louis C. 
Hicks, Lawrence E. 
Hochhaum, Albert 
Hoff roaster, P. J. 
Hull, A. V. 
Jones, Walter B. 
Kalmbach, E. R. 
Kirk, Walter F. 
Klassen, C. W. 
Lecdy, Daniel L. 449, 
Lcitch, R. D. 
Leonard, Justin W. 
Leopold, Aldo 
Lloyd, Hoyes 
MacNamara, Lester G. 
Martin, A. C. 
May, Franklin IL 
McCain, Randal 
Moore, George C. 
Mullen, Frank E. 
Nagel, Werner 0. 


534 | 
631 ! 
422 ! 

7, » 

34 i 
508 ' 






Nccdhan, Paul R. 300 
Palmer, E. Laurence 
Pearson, Allen M. 
Juortrup, E. R. 
Randall, Pierce E. 
Rasmus sen, D. I. 
Re id, Kenneth 


W. A . 

Ruff, Frederick J. 
Sanders , Roy D. 
Sharp, Ward M. 
S he 1 1 or , Dav i d S . 
Smith, E. V. 
Smith, Robert II. 
Shoemaker, Carl D. 
Short, Alexander W. 
St color, A. i:i. 
S taenia, John H. 
Stcgcman, LcRoy C. 
Stoudt, Jerome K. 
Sumner, E. Lowell, Jr. 
Swingle, H. S. 
Taylor, Walter P. 
Thompson, David H. 
Titus, Harold 
Towlc, Robert E. 
Uhlor, F. M. 
Van Ooston, John 
V7adc, Douglas E. 
Wallace, Tern 
Warburton, C. W. 
Wostcrman, Fred A. 
Whit lock, S. C. 
Williams, Louis L. 
Wood, George W. 



[Detach and insert in your volume] 





Bi bl i ogr aphy: To 


Conservation . 

Control .... 

Cycles ..... 

Destruction . . 

Diseases and paras it 
Animal borne disoi 
Blood parasites 

IEchinococcus . . 
Eolgrass .... 
Enc ephalomyclit is 
Fibroma .... 
Lead poisoning . 
Nematodes, frog 

t Plague 
Plasmodium . . . 
Rodent borne disc 
Tularemia . . . 



Food habits: 

Algae eaten by watc 
Bear, Black . . 
Bud eating . . . 

(Door damage . . 
Eish- eating birds 




Hawk, Marsh . . 
Pheasant , Amur . 
Poisonous plants 
Prairie dog . . 
Rabbit , European 
Rodents vs. pine seeds 
Russian olive, utilizat 

'■■■ n #••*-•*•••• 


Squirrel, Douglas T s rod 









Abstracts — C ont ini 
Food habits — C 
1 Squirrel, Gray 
I Starling . . . 
Turtle, Snapping 
Vulture, Black 
Nat erf owl . . . 
Life histories . . 
Management : 

At tract i:ig bi rds 
Burning .... 
Clearing . . . 
Deer, IIulc . . 
Farm game . . . 
Forest wildlife 
Harvesting big game 
Harvest in;; squirrel 
Herd regulation . 
Herd regulation, K 
Inventory .... 
Inventory, door, 1.1 
Planting nuts . . 
Planting for wildl 
erosion control 


Reindeer .... 
Squirrel box . . 
Transplanting boavo 
Trapping deer 
Natural history 
Research . 
Addenda . . . 
Nildlife Research raid ran 


Biological bibl i ographie 
Notes and news .... 
Author index for this issue 








shington, D. C. 

No. 24 

November, 1939 

WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1939 

Bibli^rap_liy: Te xas wildlife 

Anon. A short list of wildlife publications with special regard 
to Texas, Texas Game, Fish, and Oyster Commission (Austin) Bui. 14, 31 pp. 
Revised June 1939. 

A classified and annotated bibliography, restricted to recent publica- 
tions, and giving addresses and prices at which they may be obtained. 

Classification: _ Ground squirre_ls_ 

52- v .is_, Wm» B . The Towns end ground squirrels of Idaho, Journ. 
Mammalogy (Ifci. B. Davis, A. & M. College, College Station, Texas. $1.00 
a copy), 20(2), May 1939, pp. 182-190, 1 map, 1 table. 

Distribution (mapped), relationships, characters, ecology, and records 
of occurrence of 4 subspecies of Citellus toimsendii. 

Classification: Groin e^ Spruce 

Uttal, Leonard^!. Subspecies of the spruce grouse,- Auk (Rudyerd 
BoultonV FYelYkuaeum," Chicago, 111. $1.00 a copy), 56(4), Oct. 1939, 
pp. 460-464. ■ 

Realignment involving 4 subspecies, one of which, Canachites canadensis_ 
to rridus (Gaspc Peninsula, Nov/ Brunswick, and Nova Scotia) is described as new. 
For each subspecies, synonymy, range, subspecific characters, and list of 
specimens are presented. 

Class if ication: Pocket gophers 

Goldman, E. A. Remarks on pockot gophers, with special reference to 
Thomomys talpoides, Journ. Mammalogy (Urn. B. Davis, A. co M. College, 
College Station, Texas. $1.00 a copy), 20(2), May 1939, pp. 231-244.- 

Gcneral discussion of the group; list, with type localities, of 42 sub- 
species; and description of 9 now subspecies. 

C_las_s_i f 1 c iat jionj S nak es , _ Nat ri x 

Clay_,_ Willi_am M. A synopsis of the North American water snakes of 
the genus Natrix, Copoia (M. Graham Netting, Carnegie Musoum, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. 75 cents a copy)', 1933(4), December, pp. 173-102. 

Key, synonymy, diagnoses, and statements of range for 10 species and 14 

CI ass [i fie at i on : Snakes, Sonora ' ' 

Stickel, William II. The snakes of the genus Sonora in the United 
States and Lower California, Copoia (M. Graham Netting, Carnogio Musoum 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 75 cents a copy), 1938(4), December, pp. 182-190. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1S39 

Key, synonymy, typo localities, diagnoses, statements of range, end 

remarks for 6 species and 5 subspecies. 


Leopold, Aldo. A biotic view of land, Joum. Forestry (Hills Bide, 
Washington," D. c7~ 50 cents a copy), 37(9), Sept. 1939, pp. 727-730, 1 f.i ■ .. 

Conservation hitherto dominated by economics should become more ccologic. 
The biota as a whole is useful and should bo so viewed, dropping prejudices as 
to details. The interactions of animals is illustrated by food chains and the 
interdependences of organisms and of the soil by the biotic pyramid. The effect 
of evolutionary processes has boon to lengthen food chains and heighten oho 
pyramid, while man by getting rid of larger predators has reduced both. Native 
animals and plants keep the energy circuit open; others may or may not. 
Exploitive use of the soil impairs the base of the biotic pyramid. Restore. -im or. 
may require return to the factors that originally built it. Violent inter- 
ference with the biota should be abandoned in favor of more natural management. 
"Wild- raised game docs not require hawk-loss coverts." Preservation of associ- 
ated wildlife seems necessary to successful forestry. Even in agriculture, 
modification has proceeded too far for the best interests of the fans. A good 
farm is one where the wild fauna and flora lias lost acreage 'without losing its 
existence. Conservation on private lands is essential and ecology may supply 
the arguments necessary to make it a reality. 

Conservat i o_n 

^ii"pliy_,_ Robert Cushman. Conservation IV. Garden Club of America 
Bui. (598 LiadiVon" Ave". ," New York, N. Y. ) , 7(4), July 1939, pp. 42-56. 

Chiefly on the amenities of Long Island, N. Y. , c:.s affected by occupa- 
tion of the area by man. Comparison of the flora end fauna as reported in 1670 
and as they are today. Comment on the extirpated forms. "It is evident, of 
course, that our culture could never have developed in an entirely primitive 
environment , but vie realize no"w that both the extent and the rate of unneces- 
sary exploitation have been appalling." 

Careless introduction of alien organisms is mentioned with special 
reference to the starling. Greatest objection is to the consumption of tons of 
food formerly available to winter birds. "Few persons perhaps realize this 
particular objection to the starling and to certain other aliens. I believe 
that it is the weightiest point of ell. Hat hematic ally one might say that it 
changes a thousand native birds of ton species into a thousand alien birds all 
of one species. This result is obviously a very undesirable upsetting of the 
balances from every point of view." [A different point of view might be noted. 
Some believe that no introduced species con become established unless it finds 
a vac airt ecological niche.] The article concludes with discussion of the 
wasting disease of eolgrass and its effects upon brant. The conservation out- 
look is discouraging in many ways but with sufficient effort past mistakes may 
in part be overcome. 


WILDLIFE REVTE"./: No. 24 November, 1939 I 

Cons cjrva t i on : Condor 

oholdoi'i, H. H. I/hat price condor?, Field cud St room (515 Madison 
Ave, No\7 York, ~N. Y. 15 cents a copy), 44(5), Sopt. 1939, pp. 22-23, 61, 
6 photon. | 

Author's peroration: "I -m i naturalist end a conservationist, and 
boliovo the passing of any species to extinction would affect mo with more 
regret than would assail tho average, disinterested individual. But to set 
aside a sanctuary in the belief that the condor will continue to exist is to 
act without knowledge of the facts. In the first place, tho bird could not 
exist in eve:: the most extensive sanctuary unless someone killed his moat for 
him. And in tho second place, by sotting up such a sanctuary, man would bo 
sacrificing the recreational value of a large area in exchange for tho cxtromolj 
doubtful preservation of a bird of no value, esthotically or otherwise." [This 
goes to show that there are conservationists of varying degree; evidently some 
do not consider the condor lacking in values, esthetic or other-wise, or present 
efforts to preserve the species would not be made. Deprecatory remarks, oarlift 
in the article, upon the habits of the condor 'ire uncalled for; carrion- feeders 
exist in all lands and no lino can bo drawn between incidental, occasional, and 
regular carrion- eaters. Mr.ny a "noblo" bird of prey does not disdain carrion 
in a "pinch". The extirpation Of larae predators did not entirely do away with | 
the condor' s sources of food. There is always natural mortality, the victims 
of which among present larae deer populations, for instance, will support a 
certain population of condors. Hunting always leaves some victims for scaven- 
gers and the cattle industry regularly writes off a significant percentage of 
inevitable losses. These provide grist for the condor's mill. In any event 
nothing is to bo gained by giving up all hope of saving this species. It is 
spectacular and success in preserving it would have a value in impressing tho 
public that might pay big dividends in some other case. J 

Co nservat i on : Fa rm 

Leop old, Aldo. The farmer as a conservationist, American Forests 
(919 Seventeenth >t., N.W. , V/ashington, D. C. 35 cents a copy), 45(6), 
June 1939, pp. 295-299, 316, 323, 4 illus. 

Depletion of fauna and flora is not inevitable; many more forms have 
been lost through indifference than of necessity. Awkward use rather than over- 
use often is responsible for disordering a resource . Conservation should keep j 
resources in working order; it needs the positive exercise of skill and insight 
— environmental engineering. It is largely a job for tho farmer and recuires 
intcrsporsion of land uses in which ecologic and esthetic as well as economic 
considerations shall be given weight. An interesting and useful essay. [Com- 
ment on the thought that cyclos "are spreading both in geographic sweep and in 
number of species affected" is that whatever the merits of that claim may be 
for cycles as periodic occurrences, it should not be forgotten that the basic 
phenomena are fluctuations, which the evidence indicatos are, and indefinitely 
havo been, universal.] 

— 4r~ 

'./ILDLLFE REVTEJ: No. 24 Novombor, 1939 

C ons c rvat ion: Mi s s puri 

Sjtoplicns >_Jh_ Syjlney. Conservation Commission of Missouri (Jefferson 
City) Organization, Policies, .Transact ions, July 1957 to July 1, 1939, 
75 pp., naps, graphs , tables. 1939. 

Quotation of State constitutional amendment of November 1956, history of 
its adoption, and ratification by the courts. Fundamental tenets of the Commis- 
sion end summary of its activities in administration, protection, land acquisi- 
tion, restocking, farmer- sportsman cooperation, research, and extension. 

Conservation: Santcc-Coopcr Project 

Kau fi^nn^ Erie. Conservation over the dam, American Forests (919 
Seventeenth St. , if. IT. , i/ashington, D. C. 35 cents a copy), 45(10), Oct. 
1959, pp. 487-491, 510, 524, 1 map, 3 photos; 45(11), Nov. 1939, pp. 546- 
550, 560-551, 4 photos. 

October. Analysis of arguments for and against the Santee-Coopor Project, 
S. C. Conservation 'aspects arc indicated and slated for later discussion. 

November. Probable effects of the undertaking upon the human population 
of the affected area, and upon forests and wildlife. Diversion of a great part 
of the flow of the Santce River will permit salt wator to come upstream raid 
change the ecology of a region now resorted to by large numbers of migratory 
waterfowl. Uhat the ultimate result will be can now be only surmised but in 
part, at least, the effects will be unfavorable. Upland wildlife, including 
the purest strain of wild turkeys in the Southeast, -loo will be adversely 
affected. The Authority in charge of the work proposes, however, to establish 
game sanctuaries on any surplus lands it may acquire. ' The generally shallow 
reservoirs to be impounded, proponents expect to be eventually fcvorablo for 
waterfowl. The project was disapproved in advance by the Federal conservation 
agencies concerned, but for good or ill it is, nevertheless, under way. Only 
time can reveal the not wisdom or unwisdom of the undertaking, 

C ont rol : C rav/f i s ho s_ 

Gowa nloch, ■ Jamos__ N. Controlling crayfish damage to lawns, Louisiana 
Conservation Review (Louisiana Dept. of Conservation, Civil Courts Slug., 
New Orleans), Summer 1959, p. 39. 

By doses of liquids put in burrows which are then tightly closed: (1) 
Tablespoonful of a 1 lb. to 3 gals, solution of chloride of lime, and (2) 2-3 
drops of carbon bisulphide, to each burrow. 

Con trol: Cr awfishes 

Lylo, ploy. Tiie crawfishes of Mississippi, with special reference 
to the biology and control of destructive species, Iowa State College Journ. 
Science (Ames, Iowa. $1.00 a copy), 13(1), Oct. 1933, pp. 75-77. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 'November, 193< 

Abstract of a doctoral thesis. Rarely if ever has WILDLIFE REVIEW 
presented an abstract of an abstract; however, this paper apparently has not 
been published in full and its control recommendations', especially, may be of 
use to some wildlife managers. History, economic importance, classification, 
and biology of Mississippi crawfishes, particularly C am barus hagenianus, are 
briefly treated. T. e control section is here quoted in full: 

"The best control is the application of poison to the burrows when the 
water level is only a few inches from the surface of the ground, or from Januait 
to May in most years. Pyrothrum, commercial creosote stock dips, coal tar croc 
sote, orthodichloro'.,'cnzcno, sodium cyanide, turpentine, ortho cresole, cresylic 
acid, misciblo pine oil, nicotine, carbon bisulphide, phonothiazino, end calciu 
cyanamid were toxic in laboratory tests in the order named. Ineffective 
materials included the orscnicals, rotcnono, picric acid, pyridine, rcsorcinol, 
thallium sulphate, and several others. Pyrothrum was ineffective at the tompoi 
aturcs in the burrows. The creosote stock dips are recommended on account of 
their low cost and case of application. Uith infestations of 10,000 burrows pq 
acre the cost of material is about 50 to 60 cents per acre. Whore the stock 
dips are not available at low cost, home-made emulsions of turpentine and creo- 
sote arc advised. Applications on small areas may be made with compressed air 
sprayers. On largo plantations a double-acting force pump, mounted on a wagon 
and supplying several loads of hose, is very satisfactory. Splendid results 
have been secured on largo-scale tests covering several hundred acres." 

Control; Fish- eating bi rds 

j/hitc, K._C. Bird control to increase the Margarcc River salmon, 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bui. 58 (Ottawa. 20 cents a copy), 
30 pp. , 15 figs. , 1939. 

More salmon were desired by anglers who variously blamed the shortage on 
commercial fishing at the river's mouth, poaching, climatic conditions, and 
natural enemies. (See Bui. 57 of the seme organization.) Fish predators were 
studied by stomach and pellet analyses and by other means. Eight kinds of 
birds, 3 of fishes, aid 2 of mammals arc commented on. The last arc considered 
insignificant but kingfishers and mergansers are estimated to consume 880,000 
young salmon in a season. Experimental bird control for one year on a tributar; 
of the Margarco River was followed by an increase of 121 percent in salmon 
smelts. The methods of control were shooting kingfishers and destroying their 
eggs, and shooting : organscrs and trappi:ig them in nets. The author does not 
urge general control, saying "Even though bird control increases the salmon of 
the Margaroo, it docs not folio;; that such control is desirable for all salmon 
streams, x x x The results indicate that these birds have a significant effect, 
but it is not claimed that there has boon any proof cither that in general they 
have a significant effect or thai/Best method of protecting young salmon is to 
eliminate birds from salmon streams." 

[Comment: These arc the saving words of a scientific investigator. 
Anglers and guides cannot be expected to approve them. It seems too bad that 
the entire game-keeper complex could not have been left behind with other unde- 
sirable elements of the old world. Sport is non-essential and it is not in the 
public interest to permit persecution of every living thing that scorns to inter- 
fere with it.] 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1939 

Con trol : Gr o use predator s 

E dminster, P r ank C . The effect of predator control on ruffed grouse 
populations in New York, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalano, 
National Park Sor^ico, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(4), Oct. 1939, 
pp. 343-352, 5 tables. 

Author's abstract: "Experiments in southern Now York covered * complete 1 
control, i.e. all predatory birds and mammals, and 'selective' control of foxes 
and weasels. Conducted over a period of five years with the grouse (Boiiasa 

nmb_cllus ) | populations wore determined on the controlled areas and on chock, 
i.e. no predator control, areas. Increased frill populations of grouse obtained 
on the controlled aroas in years of increasing abundance, but there was no in- 
crease in years of peak abundance. Practicability of measures doubtful." 

Control: Household animals 

Gibson, Arthur,, and C, R« T wirui. Household insects and their control, 
Dominion of" Canada" DoptT of" Agr. Publ. 642 (Farmers' Bui. 71. Minister of 
Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada. 25 cents a copy), 100 pp., 101 figs. Third 
printing, June 1939. 

Refers also to the brown, rat; house, doer, field, and red-backed mice; 
shrews; squirrels; bats; weasels; house sparrow; ?.nd barn nd cliff swallows. 
Some of these, not in need of control, arc, nevertheless, the subject of cor- 
respondence from ill-informed complainants. 

Con trol: _ Pop kot _go p her 

Fart on, H. L. Controlling pocket gophers, University of Minnesota 
(Minneapolis") Agr" Est. Div. Extension Folder 75, 6 pp., 5 figs., June 1939. 

Habits of the animals briefly described; control suggestions relate to 
finding main runways, and making and placing baits. 

Contr ol: Ra ng o animals 

S t owart ^ P.o_or : go j? R. 11. W alke r , an d Raymond Price. Rcsecding range 
lands of the intormountain region, U. S. Dopt. of Agriculture Farmers' Bui. 
1823 (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. 5 cents a copy), 25 pp., 
11 figs., 2 tables, July (August) 1939. 

Upon the restoration of 5,000,000 acres of abandoned cropland, largely 
former dry farms, and 7,000,000 acres of overgrazed lands, depends the future of 
the livestock industry in the Intermountain region. Rcsecding of the better 
soils is practicable but control of certain animals is necessary. "A heavy 
infestation of rodents will require the use of some measure of control to save 
new plantings. Where big game is especially abundant, high fences for protec- 
tion against deer Bay need to be provided." The authors are even more emphatic 
about protection from grazing. "Grazing control is essential to the success of 
the reseeding project. x x x Most critical areas should be well fenced x x x 

1/ILDLIFE EEVIE'tf: No. 24 'November, 193 

All the noteworthy successes x x x were r.chioved on land whore livestock grazij 
was under control. Lack of livestock control brought many failures, even whor. 
other conditions were favorable" 

Control: _Ratj_ Austr alia 

McDdugall , 17. A. Notes on rat baits, rat poisons, and rat popula- 
tion, Cane Grow as' Quarterly Bui. (Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stas., 
Brisbane, Queensland, Australia), 6(2), Oct. 1933, pp. 36-33. 

Results announced in this paper may be of interest in the United States] 
although the rat ( Hat t us culm or urn) chiefly dealt with, is a different species 
from- those occurri: : here. Raits in the order of their utility, beginning witi 
the best, are: Rolled oats, crackod corn, whole corn, wheat meal, whole uhcat| 
barley, and bread. Adding linseed or corn oil increases attractiveness but nc 
palctability. No appetizer will increase the intake of a poor bait. As to 
poisons, rod squill, arsenic, zinc phosphide, and barium carbonate were unset 
factory. All of those as \7oll as strychnine and yellow phosphorus tended to 
reduce bait intake. Phosphorus is the most deadly of the poisons tested and 
thallous sulphate the most reliable. 


A population of even-sized r..ts is moro easily controlled than ono of 
mixed ages. Thus rapidly reproducing "plague" populations are harder to deal 
with than "normal" ones. General continuous control may not bo economically 
sound but control might best bo applied whore there is obvious drmage. 

Much the seme account is given on page 43 of the 38th Ann. Hep. Queens- 
land Eur. of Sugar Sep. Stas. (Brisbane) , 1938. 


Spoil's, J. _ Murray. Fluctuations in numbers of birds in tne Toronto 
region, Auk (Rudyerd B.oulton, Field Museum, Chicago, 111. $1.00 a copy), 
56(4), Oct. 193S, pp. 411-419, 1 fig., tables. 

Author's summary: "Some of the species of birds that have wintered in 
the Toronto region ' avo fluctuated markedly in numbers from year to year. Thol 
peak years for any one of these species have tended to bo separated by definit 
intervals, but variations from this average interval have occurred which have 
probably been distributed about the average value according to the probability 
curve. The peaks of abundance of the American. Rough-logged Hawk, the Snowy Ov, 
and the Northern Shrike have usually occurred at intervals of from throe to 
five years, while peeks of the Pine Grosbeak have occurred at intervals of fil 
or six years, and perks of the Goshawk said Horned Owl have occurred at intorvj 
of from nine to eleven years. The peaks have occurred in the years immediate! 
following the maximum abundance of their food in the North. No evidence has 
been detected to suggest that lack of food drove the birds south." 

Bibliography of 15 titles. 


'./ILDLIFE REvTKJ: Nc . 24 November, 1939 

Dost ruction: Black birds 

Odum, Eugene P. , and Frank A. Pitolka. Storm mortality in a winter 
starling roost, Auk ( Rudyord Boulton, Field Museum, Chicago, 111. -1)1.00 a 
copy), 56(4), Oct. 1959, pp. 451-455, 1 fig., t .bios. 

Urbane, 111. Authors' summary: "(1) A 'blackbird' roost was subjected 
to a driving uind end rein stom from relatively unprotected southwest and i/ost 
sides; (2) the wind reached a maximum velocity of 40 nilos per hour and was 
followed by a sharp drop in temperature and continued high wind; (5) the de- 
structive combination of weather conditions occurred when a warm southeast wind 
suddenly shifted to the southwest and west; (4) a mortality of approximately 4$ 
resulted in the 'blackbird' roost, the size of which was estimated at 25,000 
birds; (5) a differential mortality among the species of the roost was apparent; 
the proportion of Gracklos and Cowbirds to Starlings in the total mortality was 
considerably greater than that in the total roosting flock." 

Pest rue t ion: m By floods 

-Bl ai r, 1J V j Era nk. Some obsei"ved effects of stream- valley flooding 
on mammalian populations in eastern Oklahoma, Journ. Mammalogy ('./m. E. 
Davis, A. Co M. College, College Station, Texas. $1.00 a copy), 20(3), 
Aug. 1939, pp. 304-306. 

Relates mainly to small mammals as mice, shrews, and moles. The obser- 
vations "indicate that severe flooding in years of abnormally heavy rainfall 
affects adversely the populations of small, terrestrial mammals inhabiting 
flood-plains in eastern Oklahoma. In the case of some wholly terrestrial 
species that are confined to flood-plain associations such flooding probably 
produces virtual extermination of these species in some parts of their ranges. 
The fact that the mole was found, without exception, in all of tiio flooded areas 
probably indicates that this species was quite successful in escaping the flood- 
waters and that it reoccupicd the flood-plain after the water had subsided." 

Destruction: Spa- lions 

Abbott, Clinton J3. Sea-lion slaughter, Bird-Lore (1006 Fifth Ave. , 
New York, N. Y. 30 "cents a copy), 41(5), Sept. -Oct. 1939, pp. 265-270, 
3 photos. 

Warfare of fishermen upon sea-lions, though from time to time inter- 
rupted, seems ever to spring up anew. A groat many males wore slaughtered for 
their genitalia, the basis of a medicine deemed restorative by the Chinese; 
present economic conditions have resulted in cessation of this inexcusable 
destruction. Nov; killing the animals for manufacture of dog food arises as a 
greater menace than any of the past. It is carried on in Mexico but conserva- 
tionists have had to fight off efforts to remove protection from the animals in 
California. Eternal vigilance is necessary for conservation of the animals. 


'.JTLDLIEE REVIEW No. 24 November, 193< 

Dostruct i on : V an i_s h i ijg _op c_c i_ os 

Scott, U. E. end extinct mammals of Wisconsin, Uisconsin Con- 
servation Bui. (Wisconsin Conservation Dcpt., Madison), 4(10), Oct. 1939, 
pp. 21-28, 3 pin. bos. 

Notes on 5 extinct, one reintroduced but dwindling, end 3 rare species; 
briefer mention of a fev; other uncommon iforms. 

Pi sea s es and Parasj besj _ Animal bornc_ disorses 

"Jolf , Jilliem. Animals bring us diseases, Scientific American 
(24 Jest 40th St."," New York, N. Y. 35 cents a copy), 150(5), May 1939, 
. pp. 282-284, 4 photos. 

Popular account of vertebrate borne diseases of which those carried by 
American wildlifo are: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, plague, and tularemia. 

Diseases aj^P^a_sJ.t_qs:_ __ B3£j^j?aj;x^t_as 

Huffj Clay_G. A survey of the blood parasites of birds caught for 
banding purposes, Journ. Amor. Vot or i nary Medic al Assoc. (221 N. La Salle 
St., Chicago, 111. 75 cents a copy), M.S. 47(6), June 1939, pp. 615-520, 
1 fig. , 3 tables. 

Parasites found in blood smears contributed by bird banders. Positive 
findings arc reported for 32 species and negative for 49. Occurrence of 4 gen 
era of parasites, and of the species of one of them ( in birds by 
systematic groups is tabulated. A second table shows the results obtained fro; 
individual birds examined two or more times, end a third, infections in immatur 
birds. Bibliography of 11 titles. 

PJ._se_as_c_s_ and P: arc. si t e s : E_ch inoc _occ us 

Riley, Jill i cm A. Maintenance of Echinococcus in the United States, 
Journ. Amor. Veterinary Medical Assoc. (221 N. La Salle St. , Chicago, 111. 
75 cents a copy), 95(449), Aug. 1939, pp. 170-172. 

Written with special reference to occurrence of this parasite in domes-; 
ticatod animals, the article includes also records for the moose, white-tailed 
deer, and timber-wolf among native mammals. Bibliography of 16 titles. 

Pis oas e s^ and^ Parasit 03 ; Eolgrass 

Cot torn, C_laronce. The eolgrass situation on the American Pacific 
coast, Rhodora (Ludlow Gri scorn, M. C. Z. , Cambridge, Mass. 20 cents a 
copy), 41(487), July 1939, pp. 257-260. 

Although Labyrinthula, postulated by some as the cause of the wasting 
disease, has been identified in eolgrass from Departure Bay, B. C, inspection, 
and reports representing a number of localities from Alaska to California do | 


liTLKjilFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1939 

indicate any reduction of the plant along the Pacific coast. In European waters 
and on the American Atlantic coast improvement continues. In the succeeding 
article, "Environmental factors and the wasting disease of oolgrass" (pp. 260- 
262, 2 tables), Neil E. Stevens discusses the "causes that havo boon predicated 
for the malady and says that further study is needed. He gives a bibliography 
of 6 titles. 

ipisoasos and Parasites: Encophalomyolit is_ 

Gwatk in , Ronald . On the susceptibility cf ground squirrels to the 
virus of equine encephalomyelitis and ticks as possible vectors, Canadian 
Journ. Comparative Medicine (Gardonvalo, Quebec, Canada), 3(5), May 1939, 
pp. 131-133, 2 tables. 

C itollus r i chard soni. Experimentally it was demonstrated that these 
animals are susceptible to the disease, and that tides infesting them can carry 
enough of the virus to kill a guinea pig. 

P^il-i 30 s _ £i£L £ia. r c - sites: E i b r oma 

i fo nqss, Ralph. E. A freak deer head, Journ. Wildlife Management 
(Victor H. Cahalane, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a 
copy), 3(4), Oct. 1939, p. 360, 2 pis. 

Author's abstract: "Large multiple fibroma on head end neck." 

Diseases a nd Parasi t osj Lq . .d p o i s_oni ng 

Anon. Nov; bird shot proposed to stop duck poisoning, Science News 
Letter (2101 Constitution. Ave. , N. W. , Washington, D. C. 15 cents a copy), 
Sept. 2, 1939, p. 152. 

Notice of a patent granted to R. L. Dowdcll and R. G-. Green of the 
University of Minnesota for a readily disintcgrablc shot, use of which would in 
time do away with the of load poisoning to waterfowl. The proposed shot 
would consist of an alloy of lead with magnesium, barium, zinc, calcium, or 
sodium. To avoid disintegration in birds placed in cold storage, a thin coating 
of some other metal like copper or cadmium could be applied. The now shot is 
not commercially available. 

P is oa ses and Parasites: Load poisoning 

Jones, John C. On the occurrence of load shot in stomachs of North 
Amor i ecu Gruiformcs, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalane, 
National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(4), Oct. 1939, 
pp. 353-357, 2 tables. 

Author's abstract: "A brief survey of literature on load poisoning is 
followed by a report on the occurrence of lead shot in 1,977 stomachs of North 
American members of the Order C-ruifoimos. Two tables arc given showing: 
occurrences, by months, of lead shot in the different species; and numbers of 


IJILDLIFE HEVT3H7: No. 24 November, 1939 

pellets found in individual birds. Cranes, liripkins, and king, clapper, and 
Virginia rails were relatively unaff cctcd and gnllinulcs only slightly so, while 
soras and coots supplied most op the occurrences. Nearly half of the records 
come from, sores, this species being apparently the only one to which lead shot 
represents a potential menace. Load shot occurrence is fir more prevalent in 
ducks, as shots were Pound in only 2.5 percent of all rail stomachs, while in 
ducks, records ranged from. 9.5 for all species to as high as 75.5 percent for a 
single species. " 

Diseases and Parasites: _ Nenatodos, frog_ 

'Jphr, Everett S. , and 0. R. Causey. Two new nematodes (Filaroidoa: 
Dipotnloiionatidaoj from Rana sphenoe ophala , /imor. Journ. Hygiene (Prince 
and Lemon Sts. , Lancaster, Pa. $1.00 a section), 50(2), Sept. 1939, 
pp. 65-68, 6 figs. 

Folcyclla brae hyopt era end F. d ol ic hop t era from Florida described as now; 
key to 4 N. A. species op the genus. 

DjLsoasos^ and Parasites: Plague 

Eskoy,_C_. R. Recent development s in our knowledge of plague trans-*- 
nission, F. S. Public Health Reports (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. 0. 
5 cento a copy), 53(2), Jan. 1938, pp. 49-57. 

Relative efficiency of various species of fleas as voctors; incidental 
mention of their hosts, including some wild rodents. 

pij30C.SOS and Paras it cs^: Plague 

3p} : ?2L>. 9s. K'j-.VA 7.'. R*. P*££s Plaauo in fcha western part of the 
United St .to.-,, 3. 8. Public a Reports (Supt. of Documents, Uashingion, 
D. C. 5 cents .a eopy), 54(32), Aug. 11, 1939, pp. 1467-1481, tables. 

Subtitle "Infection in rodents, cap ■orruont ..:! L-ransriLrsi on by flo'-s, and 
inoculation tests for infection. » Flaggo was first discovered - . ioa ■; ground 
squirrels near Gan Frncisco in 1900. It is now know.- in wild rudents of 9 
western States, including localities oast of the continental divide but not :\o 
yet in the G-rcat Plains. C-round squirrels, prairie dogs, marmots, chipmunks, 
tree squirrels, wood rats, kangaroo rats, native race, and rabbits arc known to 
have boon infected. Practically all of the fleas found on these animals arc 
capable of transmitting plague. The species of fleas arc named, their labora- 
tory record as vectors tabulated, and other facts given as to their incubation 
and transmission of plague infection. Inoculation of guinea-; - igs with the 
bodies of fleas collected from rodents is preferable to depending upon the dis- 
covery ef plague- infected animals as a moans for determining the existence of 
foci of infection. A footnote announces that the present paper is a resume of 
a comprehensive detailed report that is to be published as a Public Health Bul- 


uTLDLIFE KEVTEYJ: No. 24 Novcobor, 1*50 

Disc a sos and P^rrisitos^ Plasmodium 

Hotr-or c, P syche W. A spoeios of Plasmodium frori tlio sharp-tailed 
grouse infective to other birds, Journ. Uildlifo Management (Victor H. 
Cahalane, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(4), 
Oct. 1939, pp. 361-365, 1 pi., 2 tables. 

Author's abstract: "Five- canaries, three bob-whites, and two grouse were 
infected with a Plasmodium isolatod fror.i Podioo cot os phasia nollu s coupe stris . 
This plasnodiun produces 4 to 12 ncrozoitos, displaces the cell nucleus' of the 
natural host slightly when fully nature, and appears to have relatively little 
pathogenicity. A table of comparisons is given of this species with 4 others 
currently recognized as valid." 

I^ij3eji_se_s_pa_nd_ Parasites:^ Rodent jborne diseases 

Gibbons, R. 2, Survey of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and syl vatic 
plague in western Canada during 1938, Canadian Public Health Journ. (105 
Bond St., Toronto 2, Canada. 35 cents a copy), 50(4), April 1959, pp. 184- 
187, 2 tables. 

Examination of large numbers of specimens of both rodents and fleas col- 
lected in Alberta and British Columbia revealed no truce of the diseases men- 
tioned. Several ticks were found to be infected with Bacillus tulare nsq , the 
cause of tularemia in man. 

Kseases_ _and j?0-?i\sitosj_ _ Ticks 

Copley, R. A., and GlenM_. Kohls. Ixodes marnotac. A new species 
of tick from marmots (Acarina: Ixodidae") , U. 3. Public Health Reports, 
53(49), Dec. 1938, pp. 2174-2181, figs. (Separately published as Reprint 
2011, 8 pp., figs., 1939. Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. 5 cents 
a copy. ) 

Segregation of the western counterpart of I. cookcij description, illus- 
trations; type locality Idaho. Both forms attack man. 

Diseases and Parasites: Tularemia 

Fr ancis, Edward. Sources of infection and seasonal incidence of 
tularaemia in man, TJ. S. Public Health Reports, 52(4), Jan. 1937, pp. 103- 
113. Reprint 1799 (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. 5 cents a copy), 
10 pp., 6 photos, 2 naps, 2 tables. 

Tho history of tularemia is briefly stated, -and its distribution de- 
scribed and mapped. The number of cases reported up to 1935, inclusive, is 
tabulated by years; tho total was 6,174, deaths 299, mortality rate 4.8 percent. 
Wild rabbits and hares, tree squirrels, and about 10 other groups of wild mam- 
mals ond birds, and one snake have been implicated in cases of the disease in 
man. More than 90 percent of the human cases come in one way or another from 
wild rabbits. In the Northeast a good many of the cases trace to rabbits 


■/TLDLIFE HBVTEIJ: No. 24 November, 1939 

shipped from, the west. Lesions in rabbits and man arc described rind illustrated 
Symptoms in man, diagnosis, and prevention arc discussed* Survival of an attaM 
appears to confer permanent immunity. 

Ecology:_ Car_ryina:_ Cj-ipe-Cit^ • ■ 

Grimm, t Rudolf L. Northern Yellowstone winter range studies, Tourn. 
Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalanc, National Park Service, Washington, 
D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(4), Oct. 1939, pp. 295-306, 4 pis. , tables. 

Author's abstract: "Using protected and unprotected range chart plots 
in Yellowstone National Park, it was learned that 7.2. 2fo of the loss in plant 
density over a seven-year period was due to drouth and 27.8$ to' overgrazing. 
Sagebrush utilization plots in which one-half of the annual growth of each plant; 
was clipped during October and the other half the following April showed that 
28.5$ of the annual growth of sagebrush (Artemisia trident at a ) was utilized 
whore the gone population consisted chiefly of oiks and that this utilization 
on areas stocked heavily with antelopes and deer as well as elks : mounted to 
.81.5$, or nearly complete consumption' of tho annual growth. A range survey 
showed that 85$ of this species of sagebrush had died primarily because of 
excessive utilization. Protected and unprotected plots of aspen, each 20 feet 
square, wore charted over a period of 4 3 r oars in the case of two plots and for 
3 years in that of another, and it was found that there was a 9.3$ increase in 
the number of aspens in the protected, and of 42.. 7$ in the unprotected, plots. 
The extent of the range available to the game animals during the winter periods,, 
varying with the depth of snow, was mapped monthly over a 4-ycar period and the ' 
average number of forage acres .available to the animals calculated. It w .s _ 
determined that the northern Ycllowst one winter 'game range can support 7,334 
elks in addition to the antelopes, deer, bighorn sheep, and buff, loos that also 
use it. " 

Eco logy; _ _ G en su s mot hod Sj dove 

McClu rp, H. Elliott . Cooing activity cuid censusing of thro mourning 

dove, Journ. : ./ildlifc Management (Victor H. Cahalanc, National Park. Service, 
Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(4), Oct. 1939, pp. 323-328, tables. 

Author's abstract: "Cooing activity of mourning doves (.Zo_iy ; idura 
ma^crourcj at Lewis, Iowa, from March 25 to September 17, 1938, was recorded in 
2,254 observations. Observations were made for five minutes at tho end of each 
hour of the day. During this time the doves cooed an aver. go of 20.4 times, 
1.8 birds cooed, .and there were 11.2 coos to a bird. ' Cooing was greatest in the! 
early morning, least at midday, and increased again in the evening before sun- 
down. Temperatures except below freezing and above 25° C. had little effect on. 
c eoing, but it decreased with increased cloudiness and wind speed. Cooing 
activity each day was nearly uniform from April through August. Using this 
information it is possible to census the doves in an area and a method and 
tables for doing it arc given." 


UILDLIFE REVIEVJ: No. 24 November, 19:59 

Ecology: Cover 

Elton, Charles. On the r.oturo of covor, Journ. "Jildlifc Management 
(Victor if." Cl~hal~~:c7 National Park Service, \Jashington, D. C. 75 conts a 
copy), 3(4), Oct. 19139, pp. 332-538. 

Author's abstract: "The groat importance of cover in the protection and 
restoration of i/ildlifc resources justifies greater attention to its placo in 
the general protective system of the proy. Cover helps in protection not only 
from predators, but also from physical effects of weather, and from disturbance 
during mating activities. It may also in itself provide food. Analysis of the 
process of scorching by a predator for its proy shows throe main phases, in all 
of which cover is, or may bo, important: (1) Random searching, in uhich the 
predator and proy arc not in sensory contact, (2) pursuit, and (3) refuge. 
Owing to the variable part played by covor itself in those phases, it is more 
profitable to study tho protective system of tho prey as a whole. This includes 
(1) Tho physical qualities and behavior of the prey, (2) oi tho predator, and 
(3) the qualities of tho environment (vegetative and other cover, topography, 
surface conditions, state of atmosphere, night or day, and associated animals). 
Those concepts are applicable also to tho ocology of man, both .as regards sport 
end war. Tho best method of measuring tho effects of covor is by moans of 
population counts and observations of the rate of contact est .blishod between 
the predator and its prey." 

Ecj3ljD_Q. T j__ Drjiinagc operations 

Ano n. Needed — sane program of ecology, Louisiana Conservation 
Review (Louisiana Dopt. of Conservation, Civil Courts Bid;.:., Now Orleans), 

Summer 1939, pp. 7, 53, 1 photo. 

Undesirable effects of drainage of wildlife habitat illustrated by quota- 
tions relating to the Kankakco marsh, Indiana. Louisiana, while faced with the 
necessity of draining certain areas, should sock "a sane middle course which 
will give x x x the bonofits of reclamation raid mosquito control end at the 
seme time conserve the natural resources which are such a rich heritage for our 

Ecolog y: Lovr temperatures vs. cottontails 

Gcrstoll, Richar d . Tho value of groundhog holes as ./inter retreats 
for rabbits, Pennsylvania Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harris- 
burg, Pa. 10 cents a copy), 10(6), Sept. 1939, pp. 6-9, 5 figs., 3 tables. 

A combined field and laboratory study which indicates that marmot bur- 
rows provide cottontails with dry, windless, even-temper' .turod retreats which 
admirably protect the rabbits from weather. Cottontails have less resistance 
to cold than do pheasants and it is believed that groundhog hales arc highly 
beneficial to the bunnies. 


17ILDLIFE REVIEW": No. 24 -November, 1939 

Ec_ol_o gjj _ Fc pu let i oil; s_, _ .bird 

Hie key, Josopjh J. [Editor]. Bird-Lore's third brooding- bird census, 
Bird-Lore llOOTFTfth Ave., Now York, IT. Y. 30 cents r. copy), 41(5), 
Sept. -Oct. 1939, Supplement , pp. 15-31. 

Thirty-two reports mostly from the middle west, covering 4 types of 
environment: (1) Figs r.nd marshes; (2) fields; (3) woodlands; end (4) mar-macS 
surroundings. The reports describe the areas concerned, indicate the degree of 
coverage, and present and discuss the censuses. The work seems of high grade 
throughout; it was participated in by some well known in the fields of ecology 
md wildlifo management as well as in that of ornithology. 

Educati on: Cousorv . tion 

Palmer ? E. Laurence. . Conservation education in the schools, Nature 
Magazine (1214 Sixteenth St., N.'J. , Washington, D. C. 35 cents a copy), 
32(9), Nov. 1939, pp. 509-516, 2 photos. 

This second report on a stud;/ of conservation education carried on in 
cooperation between the American Nature Association and Cornell University 
begins by citing 6 publications that have already resulted from the investiga- 
tion. The article thou reviews legislative and other effort at conservation 
education in the States and refers to printed contributions to the subject. 
Suggestions are made is to the typos of instruction suitable for the various 
grades of the public schools and as to organization of conservation materials 
for school use. The latter topic is treated in four nays with reference to 
systematic and ccolpgic groups, toman's interests, and to scientific principles 
There is a bibliography including general reference materials, and publications 
useful in elementary, secondary, and collegiate schools. 

E d ucati on: _ arise rvn tion 

Weaver, Richard Lop. Recent trends in conservation education, 
School Science and Mathematics (Central Assoc, of Science & Mathematics 
Teachers, Inc., 450 Ahnaip St., Monasha, Uis. 55 cents a copy), 38(6), 
June 1938, pp. G47-653. 

The depression has hurt conservation education as this subject was one 
of the first to be affected by retrenchment in expenditures. A greet deal of 
work was necessary to bring it to the point once achieved and further effort 
will be rcapaircd to restore and extend it. Game birds and mammals receive 
many times more consideration than non-game species and wild flowers. Can that 
situation be changed and hew? propaganda thrives far more than true education. 
Michigan has a troll organized division of education .nd Florida, Wisconsin, and 
Oklahoma have passed laws requiring conservation education in public schools. 
One effort to got Federal legislation in this field has been defeated. Some- 
thing along the line of the Smith- hughes Act in support of vocational training, 
hoxvover, should be feasible. Adequate teacher training is a great need of the 
movement and lack of it may bring failure even where a promising beginning has 
boon made. Cornell University is making a survey of the present status of con- 
servation education with a view to aiding in its improvement. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1939 

Bduc at i on : C ons ervat i on 

_Jeaver, Richard Lee. Conservation education in some Federal and 
national agencies of the United States, Cornell University (Ithaca, N. Y. ) 
abstracts of theses, 1939, pp. 116*120, 

Part of the results of a study of conservation education; summary of 
activities of the Biological Survey, Extension Service, Forest Service, Soil 
Conservation Service, National Park Service, Office of Education, Civilian 
Conservation Corns, and national youth organizations. .Author's conclusion: 
"Conservation education has been rocognizod as an essential part of most of the 
Federal and National programs. It is probably the strongest in the National 
Park Service, Extension Service, Soil Conservation Service, Forest Service, and 
Camp Fire Girls, Inc. It scorns to need strengthening in the Office of Educa- 
tion, Civilian Conservation Corps, Boy Scouts of America, and Girl Scouts, Inc. 
Conservation education could be groatly facilitated in all the agencios by ad- 
ditional appropriations designed specifically for that purpose." 

Kot tuncn >n A. G. Row youth is learning to practice conservation, 
Michigan Conservation (Hie hi ;au Dopt. of Conservation, Lansing), 8(12), 

Aug. -Sept. 1939, pp. 5-4, 2 photos. 

4-IJ. Club activities, in forestry, soil conservation, pheasant propaga- 
tion and management, door-yard study, and individual projects relating to wild- 
life. Needs of the program arc discussed. Associated notices in the same 
journal describe a conservation encampment, report on pheasant raising by 
"hundreds" of youths, propagat ion of raccoons, establishment and improvement of a 
waterfowl sanctuary, making shelters for birds, and other 4-h" Club doings. 

Food sj. _ AJ-iSP, o at o: ] by wat e r f owl 

ISPBj^f^ISJSLj.- Marine algae in food of Rhode Island waterfowl, 

Auk (Rudyord" Bouiton", Field Museum, Chicago, 111. $1.00 a copy), 56(4), 
Oct. 1939, pa. 374-380, 2 tables. 

Marine algae arc t ken freely by the baldpato and black duck and to a 
lesser extent by the creator scaup. Algae are emergency foods and appear to be 
partially indigestible; specific identifications are given. Bibliography of 6 

Food_ E abi t cj_ _ Bear , Black 

Cottcm,_ plc^rcncc^ A._ L._ Holson^ _ xd TaJbptt E_._ C leasee . Notes on 
early winter food habits of" the" "blac "k boar" "i:i Geor^~ WaslTiLgtor. National 
Forest, Journ. Mammalogy (Wm. B. Davis, A. A M. College, College Station, 
Texas. $1.00 a copy), 20(3), Aug. 1939, pp. 310-314, 2 tables. 

In mountainous sections of Virginia, the black bear persisted under bull- 
ing better than the whito-tailod deer. Bears are reasonably numerous on the 
Forest named and there seems to be no reason why they cannot be perpetuated. 
Weights arc given for two specimens (9 225 raid b 325 lbs.) and volume of stomach 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1939 

contents for e like number (544 end 730 cc). Twenty-five analyses arc rcportoi 
With the exception of rabbit remains in 2 stomachs end a little other animal 
food mounting to loss than 1 percent of the stomach contents in which they 
occurred, all of the food was vegetable. Acorns, and fruits of blueberry, grep 
and tupelo are 1 ceding items. 

Food Habits: B ud eating 

Frye r, J . C. F . The destruction of buds of trees end shrubs by 
birds, British Birds (526 High Holborn, London, England. 1 shilling and 
9 pence a copy), 33(4) Sept. 1939, pp. 90-94, PI. 2. 

Report on a restricted and carefully conducted questionary. Difficulty 
in making satisfactory observations was experienced possibly duo to much of the 
bud eating being done at daybreak. Five species ex' birds " definitely 
implicated. From author's conclusion: "Apart from the Bullfinch and House- 
sparrow, the part played by the different species of bird in bud destruction is 
still undecided, end requires further investigation. The subject, however, is 
not easily dealt with, and the study is not without pitfalls, so that it is 
hardly appropriate to those who can only give it but casual attention." 

Food_ Wrbitsj Coyote 

Hawbcckor, Albert C. Coyotes prey on goats, Journ. Mammalogy 
('ilia. B." DaVisV A. K M." College , Collo go Station, Texas. $1.00 a copy), 
20(5), Aug. 1939, pp. 371-372. 

Definite records of 55, 76, end 317 goats being killed on ranches in 
Santa Cruz County, California, within a period of 2 years. A crippled and 
hence trap shy coyote never returned to a carcass but killed anew each time. 
Belled goats appear to be protected. 

Food Hob it s : C oyo tc 

Sj?j2rjry_,_C_herlos_ C. Food habits of peg-leg coyotes, Journ. Mammalogy! 
(Wm. B. Davis, "A" V"&M." College, College Station, Tcxes. $1.00 e copy), 
20(2), May 1939, n^. 190-194, 2 figs. 

Comparison of food habits es disclosed by analyses of 8,263 stomachs of 
normal, end 161 of trap crippled, coyotes. The lattor animals feed more exten- 
sively upon carrion and livestock end arc potcnti .lly end possibly actually e 
greater menace to domestic animals especially sheep and goats than are normal 
animals . 

Foo d Habits; Deer damage 

Anon. Michigan's deer damage problem, Michigan Conservation 
(Michigan Dcpt. of Conservation, Lansing), 9(2), Nov. 1939, pp. 6, 7, 

4 photos. 


,/ILDLIFE EE7IF.7: No. 24 . November, 1939 

Has been increasing and this year was intensified oy early frosts stop- 
pint: wild gro\rth and forcing the deer back onto aifalfa, corn, and garden pro- 
duce. Deer cropping increases the extent of winter killing of alfalfa. A 
conr.iittee representing sporting and agricultural interests studied the situation 
and recommended the issuing of permits to kill doer in limited numbers whore 
necessary to protect crops, and experimentation with fences, noise makers, 
repellents, and food patches as moans of preventing or reducing' damage. For tho 
future, zoning and planning wore rccoiamondod, which will operate to segregate 
chiefly recreational, -from chiefly agricultural, areas. 

goo d Hab its: Fish- eat ing_ birds 

Cot tcm f i i< Clarqnc e , and C. S. 'Jilliams. Food and habits of same birds 
nesting on island's in Groat Salt Lake, kilson Bui. (J. VcnTync, University 
Of Michigan, Ami Arbor. 60 cents a copy), 51(3), Sept. 1939, pp. 150-155. 

Life history notes, and report on field observations and stomach and 
pellet analyses :.f or tUo California gall, white pel Lean, great blue heron, and 
golden eagle. From authors' sit m ry: ""while fish-eating birds normally have 
rapid digestion., their .nesting on islmvis 30 to 100 miles removed from their 
source of food supply suggests that; they m; y have some mechanism for controlling 
tho digestive organs and possibly -lso tho rata. of Jigostion. Young birds of 
Guimison and Hat Islands that had just been fed by their parents wore suen to 
regurgitate quantities o-£ practically UR&i&QStod food. The gulls seemed to bo 
both scavengers and omnivorous feeders and disgorged undigested jras shoppers, 
garbage and fish, while pelicans seemed to bo subsisting entirely upon non-game 
fish. Pellets sad stomachs of herons showed that those birds .had fed on ground 
squirrels, field mice, fish, young birds, insects, and plant fiber, -while two 
largo Golden Eagle pellets showed only the remains of muskrat." Bibliography 
of 7 titles. ■ 

Food Habits: Foxes 

' 5 

CJrrkhack, T. T. Report on grey and red fen stomach examinations w 
./isconsin Conservation Bui. ( V/isconsin Conservation Dcpt. , liadison) , 4(9), 
Sept. 1939, pp. 55-54. 

Nymbpr of stomachs reported upon: Hod fox 20; gray 113. Chief food in 
each case rabbits., ' Other items and the percentages of their listed. 

Fo o_d_ H\bi t s : _ Foxo s 

&£IlS i 2r&j-? ?'C±$ L ~} s L. Viator food habits of foxes ia Minnesota, 

Jour::. Itj^ia^" Tvin." bV Davis, A. So M: College, College Station, Texas. 
$1.00 a copy), 20(2) , May 1959, pp. 202-206, 2 tables. 

Report on analyses of the stom. ch contents of 53 gray nd 34 rod foxes. 
Rabbits ar.d mice wore the predominant feeds. Poultry and -gin. birds wore taken 
in larger proportiea by the red thcr. by the gray fox: 14:11.3 percent. All 
food items are tabluatcd and discussed. Popular claims as to groat destruction 
of game birds arc not substantiated. 


WILDLIFE REVlEl'/s Noj 24 November, 1939 

Z?_°A Habits:. _ H- nvk ,_ Marsh .. J 

Randall, Piorco E, Fell and winter Toed habits of the marsh hawk, 
Pennsylvania Game Now3 (Pennsylvania Game Camniission, Ilarrisburg. 10 cants 
a copy), 10(7), Oct. 1939, pp. 12, 29, 4 tables. 

Information obtained by .an- lysis of pallets collected on an area in 
Lehigh County, Pa. , whore management studies of the ring-nocked pheasant arc in 
progress. The findings are tabulated for 4 seasons, early fall, late fall, 
winter, and periods of deep snow. In, nice vrcrc the loading, '.aid birds th 
sec cad-ranking, article of diet; average percentage of occurrence, 78.7 and 
13.6, respectively. No ;;xic birds wore taken. 

Food Habits : _£hpasaiit, Amur 

Louka . ahki n , A r S . The Amur ringed pheasant. An investigation into 
its natural food', The" Field (Bream's ELdgs. , London. E. C. 4, England. 
1 shilling a copy), 175(4510), June 5, 1939, p. 1288, 2 photos. 
This subspecies, Phasiaaus colcMcus pallasi , of northern Manchuria live 
mainly in dense cover of hazel bushes and scrub oak which, plants .also arc its 
principal sources of food. Fruits of Vaccinium, Crataegus, Malus, and Viburnum 
bulbs of Liliuri, and seeds of loguinos and grasses also arc important, alnsects 
and turtle eggs arc prominent in the animal food. The bird lives also in culti 
vatcd districts where farm grains arc much depended upon. 

Food Habits: Poisonous plants 

Thompson, Dave. Is there noisoa in your pasture?, The Prairie Farmer 
(1230 YFslnngtonl&W. , Chicago, 111.), 111(16), Aug. 12, 1939, pp. 8, 21, 
9 photos, 5 cartoons. 

Descriptive notes aid illustrations of 9 poisonous plants; also means of 
control and symptoms caused by eating them. Some arc plants wildlife managers ! 
may use as black locust, wild cherry, and pokowocd. 

Food Habits: Prairie dog " ■ 

Kelso , Loon H. Food habits of prairie dogs, U.S. Dcpt. of Agricul- 
ture Circ. 529 (Supt. of Documents, 'Washington, D. C. 5 cents a copy), 
15 pp., 4 tables, June (Sept.) 1939. 

Review of literature ( 11 titles of which .".re cited) on the systematic an 
economic status of prairie dogs. Reports on analyses of 247 stomachs of the 
black-tailed, 169 of the white-tailed, and 127 of Gunnison, prairie dogs. The : 
average food is almost entirely vegetable (97.47 percent) and consists largely 
of grasses, saltbushes, and other plants of value as forage for livestock. 
Other vegetation eaten includes weeds and certain plants poisonous to cattle. 
The animal matter taken consisted mostly of cutworms and grasshoppers. [The 
extent to which identifications were carried in these difficult analyses is 
gratifying, undetermined herbage -averaging loss than 2 percent for the 3 specie 


bILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1959 

Food Habits: Rabbit , Europoan 

Mndson, Holgcr, Dogs the rabbit chow t ho cud?, Nature (St. Martin's 
St., London", "J. C. 2, England. 1 shilling a copy), 143(3632), Juno 10, 
1939, pp. 981-982. 

Mo rot in 1882 noted that the rabbit produces two sorts of feces, the 
first during the night — soft, mucous; the second during the day— pellet -like. 
The night feces are taken directly from the anus and sivallowod by the animal, 
and Morot attributed the difference in consistency of the two sorts of feces to 
the food having passed once or through the aliment cry canal, references 
are given to the original and 4 related papers. The author of the contribution 
lore abstracted concludes from experiments that the phenomenon in duo to an 
intestinal rhythm, but he emphasizes that rabbits arc commonly known to be 
coprophagous. In discussion (pp. 932-983), E. L. Taylor confirms the regular 
occurrence of food pellets in rabbit stomachs and states that ho has experimen- 
tally verified habitual coprophagy. 

[The Europoan rabbit is the basic stock for prop-gated and experimental 
rabbits and the findings noted have an important bearing or. disease and dietary 
studies. The question arises whether native rabbits have similar habits that 
might be of groat significance in disease transmission and cycles of decimation. 
An interesting related note on pouching of pellets by banner-tailed kangaroo 
rats may bo consulted in the Journal of Mammalogy, 20(3) , August 1939, pp. 

I^o(5cd_J-k-bits:_ Rodents vs. seeds 

Tinsloy, S old en L. Direct seeding — a revival, Jo urn. Forestry 
(Mills HLdg", VJashing~ton, D. C. 50 cents a copy), 37(11), Nov. 1939, 
pp. 88G-890. 

Editor's abstract: "Since the largo scale failure of direct seeding in 
the early days of forestry in the United States, artificial reforestation has 
been considered almost entirely in terms of planting. In this article the 
author protests the abandonment of direct seeding while still in its infancy 
and presents the results of experiments conducted to determine the factors 
affecting success and failure in direct seeding." 


good deal of failure of seodiugs of pondcrosa pine is duo to rodents 
but protective methods have some value and should bo thoroughly tried out in 
view of the doubtful economy of raising and planting small trees. .Re "Terence is 
made to destructive activities of Columbian ground squirrels, field mice 
( Microtus monttJius ) , and chipmunks. Idaho. 

Foo_d_ Habi ts_: __ _Ru s_si nn oli vo , Ut i 1 i za t i on of 

Ji'Ji JlP^salj^ UiJLUuimJi. Birds that feed on Russian olive, Auk 
(Rudyord Boulton, Yield Museum, Chicago, 111. $1.00 a copy), 56(4), Oct. 
1939, pp. 483-484. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1939 

Compilation of records mostly field observations of 9 species, together 
with a fow loss definite references. [The plant concerned, ELaoagn us angusti- 
folia, is an introduced one of such wide tolerances that with the care usually 
extended in cultivation it will grow almost anywhere in the United States.] 

Food Bab its : _S_ond_o_rli_iT^ 

Royal, Loyd A. Feeding habits of the sandcrling at Copalis Beach, 
Washington, Murrelot (105 Anderson Hall, University of Washington, Seattle. 
50 cents a cony), 20(2), May-August, 1939, p. 25. 

Blamed for eating small razor clams the sandcrling was proved guilty by 
the unanimous testimony of 33 stomach contents. Ten had been eating cockles, 
9 terrestrial insects, and others gastropod egg cases, mussels, and fish. 

Pood Habits: Squirrcl,_ Douglas' s rod 

AdamSj Lowol l . Sierra chickaree cats young blue-fronted jays, 
Yoscmito Nature Notos ( Yo somite National Park, Calif.), 18(8), Aug. 1939, 
p. 93. 

Field observation o:i Sciurus douglasii albolimbatus. 

Food Habits: Squirrel^ Gray 

Tcrro_s,_ J. Kenneth. Gray squirrel utilization of elm, Journ. 
Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalanc, National Park Service, Washington, 

D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(4), Oct. 1939, pp. 358-359. 

Author's abstract: "Record of direct observations of gray squirrels 
feeding on the flower buds, flowers and samaras of Ulmus fulva and U. amer icas J 
in spring during the past eight years in Pennsylvania and New York. Ulmus 
flower buds arc taken in largo quantities; one squirrel ate an estimated 100. 
Common usage of elm ^y gray squirrels in spring, indicates that this tree is an 
important food producer for them in the localities concerned. " 

Pood_ jfcfritsi ____ S t arling 

LindsoVy Al ton A . Food of the starling in central New York State, 
Wilson Bui. ~{J. Van Tyno, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 60 cents a 
copy), 51(3), Sept. 1939, pp. 176-182, 1 fig., 2 tables. 

Report on analyses of 1,268 stomachs, including 149 from nestlings. 
Author's summary: "It may be stated in summarizing the data on Starling food 
for central Nov/ York State that insects ( identifiable at least to order) con- 
stitute about 35 percent of the material in adult stomachs, and 77 per cent in 
nestling stomachs. Vegetable matter makes up 41.4 per cent in adults and 4.9 
per cent in nestlings, while mineral items are 0.8 per cent and 2.2 per cent, 
respectively. The remainder of the food in each case is animal matter other 
than insects, especially millipedes, unidentified animal matter, and animal 
garbage. Intensive work in central New York indicates that the economic status 


"JILDLIFS REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1939 

of tlic Stnr'lir.g, as evidenced by ar.alysos of stomach contents, does not cliff or from that dotormi.uod by Kalnbccli and Gabriel son for si:c eastern 
States before tbis bird had attained its prosont niunbcrs and distribution. The 
food habits are en the uh ole decide dly beneficial, especially in the case of 
the nestlings." " " " - ~ " 

The author reports on the rate of feeding and growth of 2 broeds, one of 
a single you::g and the other of 5 nestlings. 

Food Eabits:_ Turtle, Snapping 

Self ? J. Teague. Note on the food habits of Chelydra serpentina, 
Copeia (ll. Graham Netting, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Fa. 75 cents a 
copy), 1938(4), Dec, p. 200. 

Two taken near Norman, Oklahoma, had been feeding exclusively upon eggs 
of frogs. 

F°°d *^.iJL s J. y.P-l-f'P-FP.*., ^$£~t 

Mcllhenny, E. A. Feed inn habits of black vulture, Auk (Rudyerd 
Boulton, Field Museum, Chicago, 111. )l.00 a copy), 56(4), Oct. 1959, 
pp. 472-474. 

Flock qfk 11 J. i ngy rn r! devouri ng skunks and op ossums; also feeding on cattle 
dung. Louisiana. 

Fo_od_IIab it sj 1 late rf owl 

Mun ro, J. A . Food of ducks and coots at Swan Lake, British Columbia, 
Canadian Journ. Research (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. 
25 cents a copy), 17, pp. 178-186, 4 tables, Aug. 1939. 

Tabulation of numbers of 19 species of waterfowl observed on the lake 
1932-38; description of lake; report on analyses of stomachs of 59 dabbling and 
32 diving ducks, and of 45 coots, tabulated both as to frequency of occurrence 
and volume of food items. Furnishing cover, building material, and food for 
birds, mammals, and other organisms, bulrush (Scirpus occ idontalis) is the most 
important plant in the economy of the lake. Chara is the most abundant submerged 
plant. Author's conclusions: "Observation of waterfowl at Swan lake, British 
Columbia, during a four-year period, and study of the stomach contents of 136 
specimens, indicate that competition for food between ducks and coots during the 
autumn months is negligible. The brandies of Chara form the chief food of coots; 
the oospores of the alga and to a lesser extent the branches arc eaten by sore 
species of duck. As this is the most abundant growth in the lake and is pro- 
duced in unlimited quantities, there is sufficient for the requirements of a 
much greater coot and duck population than is ever likely to occur. It is 
probable that less than one per cent of the Chara crop is consumed by waterfowl. 
Seeds of Scirpus arc most important in frequency cf occurrence and percentage 
volume of duck food. Scods of other aquatic plants and, to a lesser degree, 
molluscs and aquatic insects, also arc eaten. Those foods arc inconspicuous 
items in the diet of coots. " 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 34 November, 1939 

Lj.fo_ Hijstor i_csj_ _^ Boc^2£, 

Erickson, Arnold B. Beaver populations in Pino County, Minnesota, 
Journ. Mammalogy (Vfia. B. Davis, A. & M, College, College Station, Texas. 
Ol.OO a copy), 20(2), Hay 1939, pp. 195-201, 1 map. 

Studies in St. Croix State Park -md adjoining land appeared to warrant, 
in gonoral, an estimate of 7 beavers per lodge. Leavers were nearly extcrmi- 
natod in Minnesota by 1900 but logging, removing little-used trees and increas- 
ing the stands of the much-used aspen, greatly augmented the potential beaver 
carrying capacity. On 70 percent of the study area, aspen was dominant and the 
beaver one of the most numerous mammals. The aspen supply is sufficient for 
maintenance of about the present population of beavers. The number of animals 
and the quantity of food available are discussed for the principal streams and 
ponds of the park and vicinity. 

Life_ IIisJ;orjLpa: _ _B_caycr 

Shadlc, Albert R., and Thomas S. Austin. Fifteen months of beaver 
work at Allogamy WCtxtcVS, ~ IS. ~Y.~,~ Journ. Mammalogy [Ma., B. Davis, A. & II. 
College, College Station, Texas. $1.00 a copy), 20(G), Aug. 1939, pp. 299- 
303, 1 map, 1 table. 

Study of the work of introduced animals. Authors' summary: "The first 
year two adult beavers accomplished the following: (1) Cut 116 trees from 1 to 
33 inches in diameter; (2) built two dams, each over 200 feet long and a total of 
705 feet of dam; (S) constructed a house with a volume of approximately 472 
cubic foot. During the throe-month period from August 11 to November 11, 1938, 
two adult beavers and two kits accomplished the following: (4) Cut 150 addi- 
tional trees from 1 to 15 inches in diameter, a grand total of 266 trees; (5) 
besides their other damming operations they built an additional 150 feet of dam 
and raised the height of the longest dam si?: inches along its entire length; 
(6) increased the volumo of the house from 472 to 940 cubic feet; (7) collected 
and stored a winter's supply of branches. The pile measured 50 feet long, 8 fee 
wide, and 3 to 4 feet deep. Other points ef importance were: (8) Ironwood 
(C^o^pinus carol iniana) made up nearly 9 percent of the nuaber of trees cut, and I 
Pojpulus 71 percent; (9) the loss from improperly foiled trees that lodged in 
standing trees was only 2.3 percent of all trees cut; (10) the ordor of prefer- 
ence of trees was: Poplar, willow, shadbush, ironwood, and pin cherry." 

Ji^SSLl' L iSy?J i-S-SJ po tt ont ail 

Allen, D urward L, Michigan cottontails in winter, Journ. Wildlife 
Management (Victor H. Cahalane, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 
75 cents a copy), 3(4), Oct. 1939, pp. 307-332, 6 pis., tables. 

Author's abstract: "A two-year study of the cottontail Sylvilagus_ 
floridan us mc-.rnsii) Was made on a 500-acre farm in Kalamazoo County, Michigan, 
In a series of 153 females, taken in December and January, the mean weight was 
1,413.24 grems, and 163 males averaged 1,393.21 grams.. In the entire series 
the mean was 1,406.37 S 9,86. At the end of a severe winter a group of rabbits 


WILDLIFE REVIEW": No. 24 November, 1939 

averaged 4-8.8 grams Iocs than a group taiton the December before. Older rabbits 

wore distinctly heavier then young of the year. The heaviest animal handled 
weighed 1,899 grams. The most important woody food plants were dwarf and stag- 
horn (Rhus copallina end R. typhina) , which wore used intensively under 
conditions of deep snow. Upland and lowland brush containing ground holes and 
stands of artificially plant od conifers wore important cover types. There was 
a tendency for moro mole rabbits than females to he shot in the fall sec. son, 
leaving a preponderance of females in the residual population. A study of 
individual ranges indicated that most rabbits occupied from 5 to 10 acres. 
There was no apparent 'territoriality' in winter. S t a p hyl o c o c cus aJLbus, affect- 
ing the eyes, was the most important diocese factor. Only 7.1$ of a winter 
population wore found to survive to a second winter, and only 2 of 228 animals known to have survived to a third "winter." 

Life hi st o ri e s : C oy o t c 

Young_, Stanley P. The coyote marches on, American Forests (919 
Seventeenth" St"/," if." l/,' Vfcshington, D. C. 35 cents a copy), 45(11), 
Nov. 1939, pp. 538-540, 574-576, 6 photos, 1 map. 

Crafty, cunning, and adaptable, the coyote, despite warfare aga.inst it, 
is holding its own and even extending its range. Formerly the anin .1 ins not 
found in the high ranges on western mountains but it occupies them now. The 
coyote in some localities has a migratory movement but most of its wanderings 
appear to be in response to food conditions. Notes .are given on extension of 
range in the Pacific northwest, particularly in Alaska (map) and on sporadic 
occurrence (due to intentional or unintentional introduction) in the East. 
Life history, food habits, and economic status arc sketched, .C range in 
weight and susceptibility to rabies, mango, and tularemia also \ro briefly 

Life histories: Door, IJhit o-tai led 

.QJ BP H 1 ! 1 .?. F?-P7SL H* ^-° ^bite-tailed deer a:_d its management in 
southeaster: Ohio, Ohio hlldlife Research Sta. (Ohio State University, 
Columbus), Release 105, 10 pp., 2 figs., 1 table, mimeographed, Sept. 

Deer, almost if not nuite extirpated from Ohio by 1904, were reintroduced 
1922-30 and have increased so that thoy :.iow number more thai: 2,000, distributed 
in 31 counties. They are most closely related to the Souther:: white-tail 
( PA9 c oA\p u . s v. JJ^J^z4-£~^B) • T - 1G sc:: ^-'ti is 4.3 does to 1 buck. The paper 
presents notes on age groups, antler growths and abscission, and mating period. 
There being no open season, poaching is the greatest cause of losses, with 
accidents and diseases next in order. The a bund of deer is roughly propor- 
tional to the amount of forest cover. Foods are listed and discussed; "the 
most important winter foods wore chestnut-oak acorns, corn, apples, dogwood, 
hazelnut, mountain laurel, red maple, mountain sumac, blackberry, groenbrier, 
and orchard grass. Southern Ohio -..hi to- tails consume more grass in the spring 
than at other times. Broomsodgc, hazelnut, dogwood, red maple, mountain sumac, 


lilLDLIFE REVIEW No* 24 ' November, 19C 

orchard grass, lambs quart or, rye, wild lottuco, bluegrass and the remaining 
acorns, arc among the top-ranking spring foods." Uatcr and salt requirements 
aro commented upon and suggestions for na nag orient arc given. Bibliography of 
9 titles. 

Life Histories:^ G-ull , Herring 

Dcusiiig J _ Mirl. The herring gulls of Hat Island, Wisconsin, 'Jilson 
Bui. (J. "Van Tyre, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. GO cents a copy), 
51(3), Sept. 1939, pp.. 170-173, 1 pi.', 1 fig., 1 tabic. 

Author's suimary: "Among the Herring Gulls of Hat Island there was a 
definite territorial division of the breeding grounds. The young, at least 
until thoy wore half -grown, wore fed almost exclusively :i i those territories. 
Tho adult galls were discriminating and fed only their own young. Territorial 
boundaries were protected by tho adults by viperous fighting. Trespassing 
young, from neighboring territories wore frequently hilled in this defense of 
territory by an adult gull. Adult pulls made no attempt to rescue their own 
young which had strayed out of tho hone territory and wore then attaclcod by 
other adults. The food brought in "07 adults consisted usually of fish but som 
tines of quantities of snail beetles." 

Mf o _ jli stories;^ Mole ,_J3r ewer 1 s 

3a_di_o_,_ \ /. _ Robert. A contribution to the biology of Parascalops 

brpwori, Journ. Mammalogy (17m. B. Davis, A. A M. College, CoYlcpc" S'tat'ion, 

Texas". ' $1.00 a copy), 20(2) , May 1939, pp. 150-173, 2 pis., 3 figs., 
4 tables. 

Report on a 1955-3S study in the vicinity of Durham, N. K. , involving 
about 100 collected specimens. Notes aro given on variations in size, den- 
tition, and coloration, scatology, molt, habitats, population, density (1.2 
per aero), tunnels, nests, extent of range, periods of activity, locomotion, 
repair of tunnols, sanitation, social traits, parasites, predators, food 
(mainly earthworms .aid insects, tho -latter chiefly in immature stapes) , breed- 
ing habits, growth, life span (3-4 years) , senses, and economic importance. 
Bibliography of 19 titles. 

Li fe^ His t_o_ri esj Mole, Browcr'js 

Hcmiltoii_,_ 17. J"., Jr. Activity of Brewer's nolo (Paraseolops breweri 
Journ. limmalogy (".in. 3. Davis, A. A I.I. College, College Station, Texas. 
O.l.OO a copy), 20(3), Aug. 1959, pp. 507-309, 2 figs. 

Albany County, New York. The simple field methods used in the study an 
described. "The records suggest tha.t Parascr lops exhibits no rhythmic Lictivit; 
such as is evident in Microti! s ( Hamilton, 1957) and Poronyscus (Johnson, 1926) 
This nolo appears to be up and about at all hours, but it is apparently norc 
active by day than by night. Probably prodation is greatest at night, when the 
moles leave their burrows to capture the small nocturnal creatures which swarm 
on the forest floor as darkness falls." Bbiliography of 5 titles. 


'i/ILDLLFE REVIEW: No. 84 November, 1939 

Life Histories: Poc ket gopher 

Dice; Lee R. Thomomys the engineer — friend or foe, American 
Forests [919 Seventeenth St. , N.W. , Washington, D. C . 35 cents a copy), 
45(10), Oct. 1939, p. 512. 

Reply to the article by Gabrielson abstracted in WILDLIFE REVIEW, 15. 20, 
May 1939, p. 12. Dice quotes 4 Biolo-ical Survey naturalists to the effect that 
pocket gophers are not serious factors in causing soil erosion, and a former 
Forest Service man who places the blame for erosion of mountain meadows upon 
overgrazing. The role of predators in the situation is discussed and the need 
pointed out of making ecological investigations before control campaigns arc 

Life, Histories: _Prairio_ chicken, Attwator*s 

Lphmann, Valgcnc U. The heath hen of the South, Game, Fish and 
Oyster Commission (Austin, Texas. 5 cents a copy) Bui. IS, 11 pp., ilius., 
July 1939. 

Recognition of the subspecies, st vcomont of its former and present range, 
tabulation of numbers (8,711) as ascertained in 1937, notes on breeding 
seasons and behavior, number of eggs (12 on the average), period of incubation 
(23-24 days), size of broods (average 5.48), huvonilo mortality, post-brooding 
habits, food (about 35 percent vegetable), and limiting factors. The range of 
this species has shrunk more than 93 percent and the number of birds more than 
99 percent in the past 75 years. Destruction of environment has been the most 
telling adverse factor and the only way of saving the subspecies is by acquisi- 
tion and management of at least one, and preferably three, refuges each 10,000 
acres in size in the best remaining range. 

Life Histories: Robin 

SchantZ; William S. A detailed study of \ fc :.lly of robins, Wilson 
3ul. (J. Van Tyno, University of Michigan, Ana Arbor. 60 cents a copy), 
51(3), Sept. 1959, pp., 157-169, 5 tables. 

Author's summary: "(1) The abnormally warm wor.ther of march 1935 started 
the nesting season earlier than usual. The female selected the sites and built 
three nests without the aid of the male; (2) incubation began in all nests the 
evening following the depositing of the second eg: and lasted for 12-1/2 to 13 
days. The male did not cover the eggs or young at any time nor feed the incu- 
bating female; (3) the first egg of the first set was laid at 10:58 A.M. , the 
second between 2 and 2:15 P.M. the following day; (4) one bird gave the food 
reaction when 6 minutes old; at 2-1/2 hours it peeped incessantly; (5) during 
incubation the female left the nest from 10 to 19 times a day, averaging 16.3 
times. Forty periods on and off the nest averaged 44 minutes on and 11 minutes 
off (i.e. 80 per cent of daylight hours on the nest); (6) the male could sec 
well in dim light, but the female could not; (7) for the first two days with 
both broods the young received between 81 and 84 meals per day; the third day 
they wore given 89 and 90 me. ..Is, respectively. During the rest of the time the 

»/TLDLIFE REVIE.J: No. 24 November, 19391 

first brood of 3 young received 82 to 99 meals par day and tlio second brood witl 
4 young 92 to 113 meals; (3) the young loft when 14 to 16 days old. One could ] 
not fly as fc.r as 14 foot, while two flow 2C foot end another 33 foot; (9) one j 
Robin 4 weeks old monopolized the bird bath, threatening adults of 3 species; 
(10) a nesting female often left her eggs and attacked a neighboring male as he 
carried food to his young." Colunbus, Ohio. 

L i f c Hi o to ricsj Skunk 

PlSHPJU. ^i:.l'!£-?--j'P T .) ^ r * Winter studies of skunks in Pennsylvania, 
Journ. Mammalogy (Via. B. Davis, A. & H. College, College Station, Texas, 
$1.00 a copy), 20(2), May 1939, pp. 254-256. 

In Delaware County the autumn poak population density is 31 per square 
mile. Family relationships and hibernation is discussed; there is probably no 
true hibernation in this area. 

Lif e_ Hij5toj_i_csj __Spg : rrox/,^_English 

U_cavcr^ Richard L. The northern distribution and status of the 
English sparrow in Canada, Canadian Field Naturalist ( 582 Mariposa Ave, , 
Rockliffc Park, Ottawa, Canada. 25 cents a copy), 52(7), Oct. 1939, 
pp. 95-99, 1 map. 

The northern boundary of rango (mapped) scons fairly well settled, with 
only occasional new colonics attempting farther extension. Definite migration 
has boon observed at a few points most movements arc mere wanderings in 
response to food conditions. The nesting so .son runs from. mid-April to riid- 
August. It is generally conceded that numbers arc decreasing. Damage is less 
than in former years and mostly results from competition for nesting sites with 
swallows and bluebirds. 

Imi^_c_I-Iistories: Sparrow, IIgllsIoyj* s 

_Hyd_o_,_A. Sidney. The life history of Eonslow' s sparrow, 
Pas s orhcrbulus hcnslovd. (Audubon), University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology 
(AmrXrborl"MscTPubi. 41, 72 pp., 4 pis., 3 figs., 2 tables, July 1939. 

A standard life history embodying results from personal studies and the 
literature, covering history of the species, its rango, distribution, and migrB 
tion, details of nesting and other habits, food, enemies, ectoparasites, 
plumages, and weights. Twelve pages of bibliography. 

Life Histories: Squirrels 

Zim me rman, P. R. Squirrols need management, Wisconsin Conservation 
Bui. (".Jisconsin Conservation Dcpt. , Madison), 4(10), Oct. 1939, pp. 40-45. 

Notes on habitat and habits of gray and fox squirrols. Management sug- 
gestions are for regulation of lumbering so as to spare numerous food-producing 
trees, restriction of grazing, and provision of plenty of water. 

_ ap _ 

bTLDLLEE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1939 

Life Histories: Tern, Arctic 

Petti ngil l, OlinS., Jr. History of one hundred nests of arctic 
tern, Auk (Rudyerd Boulton, Field Museum, Chicago, 111. $1.00 a copy), 
56(4), Oct. 1939, pp. 420-428, 2 tables. 

Report of a study on Machias Seal Island, Maine, a site free from preda- 
tors. Production, nevertheless, was kept down (23 fledged young resulting from 
144 eggs) largely due to self-limiting factors inherent in the terns themselves. 
Losses are classified and tabulated and compared with those observed by liagar 
in a Massachusetts colony of least terns. Bibliography of 8 titles, 

LJLf e_ His torie s : i fcil rus 

Collins ,__ Or en old. Report on Pacific walrus ( Odjobonus ^iyorgjms } , 
U. S. Dept. of the Interior, Alaska G-ame Commission, Biological Survey 
(Washington, D. C. ) , 11 pp., mimeographed , Sept. 1939. 

An interesting paper dealing with numbers, range, migration, brooding, 
appearance, weight, habits, and enemies of the walrus; utilization, methods of 
hunting, and annual kill (2,000 or loss by nativos) also are treated. Sugges- 
tions are given as to management and conservation, with which that made in the 
opening paragraph, "that the 'walrus is a very attractive game species from the 
standpoint of the big game hunt or and sportsman, " .docs not scorn consistent. 

Management: Attracting birds 

^JtPJ^X?. ]l$z?£a&FP$ • Birds in a hedgerow?, Bird-Lore (1006 Fifth Ave,, 
New York"," NV Y." 30" cent's a copy), 41(5), Sept. -Oct. 1939, pp. 289-296, 
4 photos. 

Eruit-boaring shrubs and the birds they attract, in teat and table, 
based largely on records of the. Biological Survey. 

Moaiag\amo nt; _ _ A 1 1 rac t i ng b i rd s 

SwpMgart_,_I:Irs. I:. M. How I attract birds to my garden and grounds, 
Wisconsin Conservation Bui. ("Jisconsin Conservation Dept., Madison), 4(8), 
Aug. 1939, pp. 3-6. 

Notes on fleshy and other fruit- and seed- bearers, and hummingbird 

flowers and the use of water, artificial cover, and feeding stations in attract- 
ing birds. 

M^nagemc nt : Burning 

j^ { P^P^^liy.} J j.9j'.K?^.}L-,9"PPI^j...?^.Jl'.I{'.J l ?pA' Effects of fire 
and cattle grazing on longleaf pine lands, as studied at McNeill, Missis- 
sippi, TJ. 3. Dept. of Agriculture Tech. Bui. GC5 (Supt. of Documents, 
Washington, D. C. 10 coats a copy), 52 pp., 5 pis., 10 figs., 15 tables, 
June 1959. 


UILDLIFE REVIE'J: No. 24 . •November, 193' 

References to midlife ere slight but this publication will, neverthe- 
less, be of interest to many wildlife managers not oniy for the experimental 
findings reported but. also for its review of facts and opinions relative to 
burning revealed in the literature of which '56 titles are cited. 

From authors' summary: "Annual winter burning maintained more| 
composition, quality, and quantity of forage than did exclusion of fire. The 
smothering due to pine litter and accumulated doad grass rctardod the growth o 
native grasses and legumes and reduced the number of plants per acre. The 
improvement in forage conditions through burning was reflected in the greater 
seasonal gains in weight of cattle on the burned area, which averaged 37 pcrcc. 
more than the gains made on the unburned pastures. The cattle secured their 
advantage in gains during the early part of the grazing soason and held this 
advantage until removed from the area in the fall, The experimental pastures 
•wore grazed equally for about 7 months each year over a period of 11 years. 
Burning and grazing did not result in serious soil degradation. Burned-over 
soils exhibited slightly favorable chemical characteristics and unfavorable 
physical characteristics in comparison with unburned soils. The not effect on 
plant growth of favorable and unfavorable soil changes was not measured. iJhii 
annual burning improved the forage conditions for cattle, the results indicate 
that successful regeneration of longloaf pine, especially whore the brown spot 
disc .so is epidemic, may depend upon, some system of periodic controlled buriiin 
rather than the extremes of annual fires or fire exclusio :, both found unsatis 
factory in this study." 

Manag ement : ■Clearing^ 

Ehrhart,_E. 0. An effective "tree dozer," Journ. Forestry (Mills 
Bldg. , ".fcshington," D". C. 50 cents a copy), 37(11), Nov. 1939, pp. 902-904, 
5 figs. 

Describes and illustrates attachment t 3 bulldozer to put pressure 1 
on a tree at some height from the ground. Truck trails wore built by the aid 
of this equipment at a ccst of $88.72 per mile. 

Management; __ _ Be e r, Mu 1 e 

Ra smussen, D, JE. Utah's mule deer studies and management problems, 
American VJildlife (Investment Bldg., 'Jashirgton, D. C. 25 certs a copy), 
28(5), Sept. -Oct. 1939, pp. 232-240, 6 photos. 

In 1938 oomo 52,000 hunters purchased licenses to hunt doer in Utah, en 
they bagged from 25,000 to 30,000 bucks. Or. forest tracts especially studied,' 
65 percent of the deer hunters wore successful. Protection lias changed the 
status of the mule deer from that of a vanishing specios in 1915 to one of 
abundance, including local overpopulations, in 1939. The Utah "midlife Rcscarc 
Unit was organized to study the deer situation and devise ways of maintaining 
optimum populations. Its research and extension activities arc outlined. 
Studies of the sex ratio ga\rc results varying from 1:2.5 to 1:3, indicating 
nothing wrong in this respect. Tagging proved that each Coci- herd is closely 
restricted to its range, usually a certain watershed. Competition between 


'..TLDLIFE REVIS"./: Ho. 24 Novombor, 195 9 

livestock and. deer, an important matter ir. r. grazing region, is being carefully 
studied. It is worse on "winter ranges vdiorc, however, conditions may be im- 
proved by of lends for use Df tlic deer. Feeding is expensive '.r.d 
otherwise undesirable, './inter losses :.rc hardly to be cured by feeding or 
removal by trapping; herd regulation is a nccossity. 

Management _: Farm j|amc 

Anon. A cooperative wildlife management program, Missouri Conserva- 
tion Commission (Jefferson City, Mo.) Conservation Bui. 6, 20 pp., 1939. 

Addressed to potential coopcrators, this publication explains the Commis- 
sion's objectives and outlines the extent of cooperation that body is prep-red 
to offer. Tho bulletin discusses, also, refuges as part of a wildlife program, 
limitations of rofugos, simple mothods of improving onvironmonts for wildlife, 
and problems connected with harvesting tho crop, tells how to organize n cooper- 
ative wildlife program, how to plan a wildlife management program, and comments 
on possible improvement in farmor- sport smr.r relationships. Bibliography of 18 

CorJcli:,, J. G-.rd. , -,;.d R. A. IlcCcbrcji. Special wildlife refuge 
projects. How they nay be established, Pennsylvania Game Commission, 
(Harrisburg) , 12 pp., Aug. 1939. 

Jith accompanying explanatory letter, and application and agroemont f orris, 
this pamphlet was prep .red in furtherance of the fnm game program, the history 
of which is given. The value of constructive programs for sportsmen's organi- 
zations is emphasized; under now legislation (-noted) such groups rry now sup- 
plement State effort and promote, develop, nd maintain refuges on privately 
owned land wherever the owners are willing. Definitions of terns, suggestions 
as to procedure, and form of agreement are given. L .w enforcement is discussed. 
The projects in every way distinct from tho St .to Cooperative Fam-Gamc 
units and their success or failure depends upon the attitude and efforts of the 
sportsmen's groups concerned. Tho State Gome Commission, however, will give 
aid and advice whorovor it can. 

kanagomont; _ Jorest_ uildlifc 

^hlpr,^ Brnost__ 0. A now way to. use ?. commuiiit3" forest, Journ. 
Forestry (Mills 31dg".", iiashington, D. C. GO cents a copy), 37(11), Nov. 
1939, pp. 901-902. 

Multiple use including recreation, part of which is based on a pheasant 
propagating plant supported by a local sport sn ion's organization and county 

'officials. Onondaga County, IT. Y. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 193, 

Liana cement : Fo re st wil dl if e 

Mont g one ry ? _ "J" . _ E. Forest management on State forests in its 
relation to wildlife, Pennsylvania Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, 
Harrisburg, 10 cents, a copy) , 10(8), Nov. 1939, pp. 8-9, 27, 3 photos. 

Diversity of groups interested in forests and of their reactions to 
forestry policies. Foresters have long boon interested in gone but hove done 
little about it until definitely involved in multiple use programs by cmployne! 
of CGC and other relief labor. Among modifi cat ions for the welfare oi' wildlifj 
are blocking roads to discourage access to some areas, altering improvement 
cutting so as to spare food and cover, and building brush piles. 

Management: Harvest mg big game 

Anon. "Jyoming game utilization, Wyoming Wild Life (Wyoming Game and 
Pish Commission, Cyoyonnc) , 4(8), Aug. 1939, pp. 1-2, 18-19, 1 table. 

Take of big game discussed and tabulated in connection with estimates c: 
the numbers of elk and deer on national forests for the year 1938. While modi 
fications in hunting regulations had been made in advance to facilitate reduc- 
tion of some of the well known overpopulations of certain big game ranges in 
the State, in only one forest did the kill exceed the estimated annual incrcas 
The combined yield of deer and elk for the areas involved was 1.1G per square 
mile. The dressed weight of the take of these 2 species was more than 2 mi Hi 
pounds, equivalent to a yoa^s consumption of all kinds of moat for the city c 1 
Cheyenne. The report notes various details as to distribution of the take, ag 
and weight of the animals, and hunting success. Overpopulation was scarcely 
remedied end doubling of the kill is recommended. 

Management : Harvesting squirrels 

Chapman, Floyd B. Controlled squirrel hunting on public lands in 
Ohio, 19¥aV0hlurifildlifc Research Station (Ohio Stato University, 
Columbus) Release 101, 9 pp., 5 figs., 4 tables, April 1939. 

Continuation of a scries that has been noticed in previous issues of 
WILDLIFE REVIEW. This leaflet reports on the abundance of the gray squirrel 
in souther: - . Ohio, upon ecological factors affecting the species, on hunter sue 
cess (1.5 squirrels per man) , hunting pressure by days, crippling losses, sour 
of hunters (mostly local), and weights of the squirrels (average of 826 in 4 
seasons 16.5 ounces). Bibliography of 21 titles, 

Manogjaiiont: IIcrd_ regulation 

Hamorj3J;rom,_ E._N_._, Jr., and Jmaos Blcik_c_. Winter movements and 
winter foods of whitc-t ailed doer in central Wisconsin, Journ. Mammalogy 
("Liu. 3. Davis, A. a M. College, College Station, Texas. £U00- a copy), 
20(2), May 1959, pp. 206-215, 2 figs., 1 table. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1939 

Description .'of the Central Wisconsin Gene Project involving a hundred 
thousand acres, rather poor in both soils and vegetation. Deer number one to 
about 100-115 acres. Seasonal movements and food habits are discussed with 
special stress on those of the winter. Factors possibly responsible for concen- 
trations at that time of year arc considered. Winter foods are listed by groups 
according to their dogroo of utilization. There wore some local shortages in 
food and loss of condition by the deer, but in gonoral the food supply scons 
adequate to support the present herd. Regulation of the nuribor of animals on 
certain areas, howovor, had better be done before trouble develops, bibliog- 
raphy of 14 titles. 

fttma^cmontj _ _ Herd rcgr.L.t i on , Kaibab 

Johnson, Ilarlon G. G.amc management, Arizona Wildlife end Sportsman 
(125 N. Second Ave., Phoenix, Ariz. 15 cents a copy), l|G), Aug. 1939, 

~>T) 5 9 

To maintain the proper lumbers of aniiaals, conserve or provide sufficient 
food and cover, and afford enough protection to bring about the desired balance, 
the wildlife manager needs much detailed information, most of which must be 
obtained by local research specifically planned to solve the problems presented. 
This thesis is illustrated by discussion of the management of Kaibab deer, for 
details of which see './ILDLIFE REVIEW, No. 17, December 1938, p. 24. Favorite 
summer foods of the door arc aspon, snowberry, and rose; raid winter preferences, 
cliff rose, purshia, and Brig ham tea. 

IvLanajpomont : Invent ory_ 

Hicks, Lawrence E. The 1933 September pheasant survey, Ohio Wild- 
life Rosoarch Station (Ohio State University, Columbus) Release 116, 
16 pp., 1 fig., tables, Aug. 1939. 

Indicated average population in northwest Obio, 102 birds per square 
mile. About 20 percent more birds could, be seen in the morning than in the 
evening. Sex ratio of .adults 45:55. Highway mortality 5.7 per 1,000 miles. 
There arc remarks also on habitats froouented -aid difference between the sexes 
in this respect, on adult-juvenile ratio (about 3:7), proportion of hens roar- 
ing young (avcrvje 40 percent), age of juvenile birds (average 10.35 weeks), 
and size of broods (average 7). Notes are given also on rabbits, bob-whites, 
and Hungarian partridges. Technique of the survey and time required eru stated. 

Mmiagcmer.t : _ Inventory ,_ deer, Michigan 

Bartlct t_,_ I_._ n. Those controversial deer population figures, 
Michigan Conservation (Michigan Dcpt. of Conservation, Leasing), 9(2), 
Wov. 1939, pp. 7, 10. 

Estimates having proved unsatisfactory, the opportunity furnished by 
availability of CCC help was utilized to make actual counts on sample areas. 
Criteria used in selecting the plots, and methods of making the census drives 
are described. These have been in progress every year since 1935 and have 

UILDLIEE REVIEW: No. 24 Ifcvombcr, 1939 

revealed an average populction per square railo of 16.42 doer in the Upper, and 
42.40 m the Lower, peninsulas. The tot .1 for the St;. to is more than a millioi 

ILaiagcracritj _ PI ant i ng , nu t s 

Sodom, John. Nut trees a balance to wildlife, Pennsylvania Game News 
(Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harrisburg. 10 coats a copy), 10(7), Oct. 
1939, p. 3, 1 photo. 

General article on utilization of nuts oj wildlife aid on the desira- 
bility of planting nut-bearing trocs and shrubs. 

Management : Pirating for wildlife and erosion control 

llussloig_Gloaa_E. Coraiborry. Its value in erosion coatrol, 
Pennsylvania Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harrisburg. 10 coats 
a copy), 10(7), Oct. 1939, p.* 3, 2 photos. 

This plant which has several uses in erosion coatrol, ret has fruit 
through the wiator that is known to be oat or. by 9 species of birds. 

Mjana^cmcnt: _ Refugees 

Cornelia, if. Gard. The Pymntuning State Game Rofugo and Museum, 
Pennsylvania "Gsmo "Coidaissioii Bui. 19 ( Ilarrisburg, Pa. ,10 cents a copy), 
52 pp., 4 col. pi. .and numerous halftones, 2 maps. Revised Juno 1939. 

Revision of bulletin abstracted in WILDLIFE REVIEW, N: . 16, November 
193S, p. 50. 

Lhnaagcmoiit : Re indoor 

2?°J^_°JA?- - C .*. R-.>. ??.-:'-:\ H-. i^aa 3 .'. ?-}&. J-..-. ?.-. lU-^S-.- Roport 0:C tl10 
investigations of t he Alaska Reindeer Coiainittoc, etc. Ho.riar s before 
the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriati as, Eouoo of Representa- 
tives, 76th Congress. First Session. Ft. II. 1939, pp. 571-619 (includ- 
ing discussion). Condensation in Conservation (919 Seventeenth St. , N.TJ., 
Washington, D. C. 20 coats \ copy), 5(4), July-Aug. 1959, pp. 20-25. 

A talc of the unite nan blighting a native culture and belatedly attempt- 
ing to make amends. "At oae time caribou formed an important part of the 
Eskimo* s diet and supplied him with much of his clothing and other needs. With 
the advent of firearms, the caribou wore reduced to the point of extinction and 
were driven frora the area." "Caribou moat ceased to be available about the 
same time as rifles aacl harpoons of whalers depleted the seal, whale, and 
"walrus supply to a point where the natives wore in danger of starvation." To 
remedy the situation, reindeer wore introduced, 1392-1902, increased, and became 
indispensable to Eskimo economic life. Again white men intervened (1914) to 
make money out of reindeer. Herds wore greatly increased aad much pasturage 
ruined (reindeer moss requires 25 years to regenerate) but the depression ended 


'.JILDLIFE REvTEU: No. 24 November, 1939 

this adventure. Nov; the proposal is to buy up animals, and corrals and other 
equipment oimcd by non-natives, and manage the herds Tor the benefit of natives, 
with the hope of permanently improving their economic position. The Committee 
also recommends establishment of on experiment station to develop facts and 
--technique for proper management Of the reindeer. There arc about 500,000 of 
the animals, of which about 320,000 are now owned by natives. 

Management: Squirrel box 

[ Ho 1 1 z a pp 1 c , i Raymond . ] Squirrel box, Pennsylvania Game News, 
(Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harrisburg. 10 cents a copy), 10(8), 
November 1939, p. 30. 

Drawing of box and suggested measurements. No doubt for grey squirrel; 
entrance diameter 2-1/2 inches. The box could bo improved by binding the 
entrance hole with tin to protect it from gnawing. 

Management: Transplant ing beavers 

Dal ile n, Be rnhr.r d C . Beaver in Louisiana, Louisiana Conservation 
Ravioli (Louisiana Dcpt. of Conservation, Civil Courts Bldg. , Nov; Orleans ) , 
Summer 1939, pp. 15-17, 8 photos. 

Notes on habits, chiefly quoted, and on a program of live-trapping and 
transplanting the animals within the State. 

Mana gem ent : Trapping deer 

Ruff, Fre deri ck J . Trapping penned doer, Journ. Wildlife Management 
(Victor H. Cahalanc, National Park Service, Vfcshington, D. C. 75 cents a 
copy), 3(4), Oct. 1939, pp. 288-294, 3 figs. 

Author's abstract: "Eighteen Virginia white-tailed deer were trapped 
from a large enclosure by using a remotely controlled solid-walled chute, 
screened on top, that was about 14 feet long and was equipped -it both ends with 
cloth-covered, hand-operated drop gates reinforced with hog wire. Several of 
the deer to be caught were carefully herded into this chuto and subsequently 
removed by working them individually, first into a portable, tapered chuto, and 
thence into a crate. The method of capture by patient herding indicates possi- 
bilities of trapping wild doer, for the scmi-tanc animals so caught were 
apparently little more amenable to driving than are wild deer." Cost very low, 

$2.63 per head. 
N atur al History: Alaska 

SJ^tjL^ry^ jiarry. The problem of Alaskan development, U. S. Dcpt. of 
the Interior ( Washington, D. C), 94 pp. (mimeographed) , July 1939. 

Advantages and disadvantages of the Territory discussed. Wolves do not 
travel in large packs; there is a bounty on the animals of $20 p r head, and not 
one has been killed in the Matanuska Valley in five years (p. 16). Fur-farming 
is a promising but relatively undeveloped industry (pp. 43, 49-50). Fur 


iJILDLIFE PEVTEW: No. 24 November, 193' 

processing could in part be done in Alaska, whereas at present practically all 

of tlie fur output, valued at nearly (j>3, 000, 000 in 1938, leaves as raw pelts 

(p. 44). Gang as rr. basis for recreation is mentioned (pp. 45, 46). Tiic bibll 
ogre.phy includes 3 titles relating primarily to wildlife. 

Nat ural H i s t ory : Birds of Dallas Countv^ Texas 

5 till well , J erry E . Check list of birds of Dallas County, Texas, 
Dallas Ornithological Society (7460 San Benito Way, Dallas, Texas. Ol.OO 
a copy), 3rd Edition, vii+83 pp., Aug. 1939. 

A list of 456 birds of x'rtiich 339 have actually been observed within the) 
County, annotated, and well coordinated with current literature by the extensl 
system of footnotes. Bibliography of 39 titles and full index. There are tab 
lar keys to w white herons," "peep sandpipers," galls, terns, "little olivaccou 
end other flycatchers," thrushes, "obscure warblers in fall plumage," meadow- 
larks, end "some adult sparrows." 

Natura l History: 3irds_ of_ Grand Canyon 

Bj:.iljpy_,_Jaloroncc 1.1. Among the birds in the Grand Canyon country, 
National Park Service (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. 30 cents a 
copy), 211 pp., 124 figs., 1959. 

Popular account, with field key, .and chock list; illustrated end indexoj 

Natur_a_l_ H istor y: 13 i rd s of _ prey 

Craighead, Frank, JTr. , and John J. J^reighcad. Hawks in the hand. 
Adventures in photography and falconry, xiii+290 pp., 57 pis., Oct. 1959 
(Houghton Mifflin Co., 2 Park St. , Boston, Mass. $3.50 a copy). 

Record of the experiences of the twin sons of a Department of Agricultu 
scientist in study and photography of birds of prey end in falconry. The 
illustrations arc excellent end the accounts of birds interesting; the sugges- 
tions as to. methods of photography vri.ll be of use to beginners . in that art; 
those on falconry, it is to be hoped, will instill in rccraits to the sport th 
conservation attitude and love of nature that characterize tho authors. 

Natural History: Dec_r 

. Cclialano^ Victor H. Deer of the world, National Geographic 
Magazine (Ha board Memorial Hall, Washington, D. C. 50 coats a copy) , 
76(4), Oct. 1939, pp. 463-510, 2 wash drawings end 16 colored plates by 
Walter A. Weber, 18 photos. 

Popular general account of tho family and essays on 25 species giving 
main points of interest about them; sumptuously illustrated. 


iJLELIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1939 

Nature ! History: Frogs and toads 

Burt, Char! o s E. The frogs and toads of the southeastern United 
States, Trans". Kans. Acad. Sci. (Manhattan,. Kar.s. ),' 41, 1938, pp. 331-360. 

Key and records and sone systematic and descriptive notes. Bibliography 
of 3 pages. 

Nat ural Histor y: Game and fur_ej.iimal.s_ _o_f Alab ama 

Arant , Frank S . The status of game birds and mammals in Alabama, 
Alabama Dcpt. of Conservation (Montgomery), 38 pp., 18 maps, 2 tables, 
Sept. 1939. 

Based mainly on a qucstionary, this report deals with the present distri- 
bution end abundance of 18 species of game and fur animals. One table rates 9 
kinds of game according to the head taken and the number of hunters concerned; 
the bob-white and gray squirrel head the list with no close competitors. The 
accounts of species, each accompanied by a map showing occurrence and relative 
abundance, discuss former distribution, habits, economic value, game or fur 
status, and in some cases management. 

Na tural His tory: Hcr po tolog y of K ent ucky 

Uclto r, Uilfred A. ; _ and Kat horir.c Car r. Amphibians and reptiles 
of northeastern Kentucky, Copcia [M. Graham Netting, Carnegie Museum, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 75 cents a copy), 1939(3), Sept., pp. 128-150. 

Notes on 53 species. 

Natural History: Hcrpotology of Oregon 

Gra_f , \ JL lliam , Stan ley G_. Jo\iclt,_JT._, and Kenneth L. Gordon. 
Records of amphibians and reptiles from Oregon, Copcia (M. Graham Netting, 
Carnegie l.'Ius cum,- Pittsburgh, Fa. 75 cents a copy), 1959(2), July, 
pp. 101-104. 

Notes on 35 species. 

Nat ural H istory: Hor p otology o_f__Q,uc bee 

' T r- p j do^ , Harol d ; end Robert T. Clausen. Amphibians and reptiles 
of eastern Quebec, Copcia [m. Graham Netting, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. 75 cents a copy), 1938(5), Sept., 'D^. 117-125. 

Annotated list of 16 species of amphibians and 5 of reptilians. Bibli- 
ography of 20 titles. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1939 | 

I^ural Hist ory; Mammals, Now York 

Ei : ;]^P?j^.3j. I'.p.) ,p n( ^ §dna Drill. geography through the study 
of mammal distribution, Cornell Rural School Leaflet (Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y. ) , 33(1), Sept* 1939, pp. 4-49, cover design, 29 figs., 25 maps. 

Accounts of 32 species, rather detailed as to distribution, but including: 
also notes on appearance, habits, food, and economic value; with numerous illus- 
trations. It is of interest that 18 of the 25 distribution maps show trans- 
continental range for the species involved. The following figures for take in 
Nov; York State, recording increase or decrease (in most cases during a ten-year 
period) arc presented, 

Take of certain mammals in New York State 

Spooios 1927 1956 

Opossum 1,086 2,908 

Black bear ■ 122 (1929) 68 

Raccoon 40,908 26,921 

Mink 9,612 5,608 

Otter 1,155 (1928) 163 

Skunk 120,002 42,669 

Rod fox 35,658 10,593 

Gray fox 2,338 4,247 

Muskrat 553 , 270 165 , 825 

Cottontail 797,750 597,956 

Natu ral History: Rat tle snakes 

KLaubor, Lauronco M . A. statistical study of the rattlesnakes, 
San Diego Soc. Nat. Eist. (San Diego, Calif.) Occasional Papers 5, 
61 pp., 46 figs., 30 tables, Aug. 1939. (Lithoprint) 

Part VI of a scries of papers on rattlesnakes, this deals almost wholly 
with the fangs, treating in groat detail their structure, growth, replacement, 
operating mechanism, and their variations as related to taxonomy. 

Predators : m On ducklings 

Munro, J._ A. The relation of loons, Holboell 1 s grebes, and coots 
to duck populations, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalanc, 
National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 3(4), Oct. 1939, 
pp. 339-344, 2 tables. 

The birds named have been charged with predation on ducklings of wild 
species in British Columbia, but tabulation of many observations on the size of 
broods reveals no correlation between reproductive success and the presence or 
absence of any or all of the alleged predators. 


'JILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1939 

P ropagation: Bob-uhito 

Losc arboura, Austin C. American Forests {919 Seventeenth St. , N.U. , 
Washington, D. C. 35 conts a copy), 45(11), Nov. 1939, pp. 544-555, 566, 
. 4 photos. 

Popular account. 

• Pro pagation: Turkey 

Barton , 0. A . Turkeys. Origin, history, end distribution, North 
Dakota Agr. College (Fargo) Extension Service Circ. 167, 11 pp., 9 figs., 
1 table, Hay 1939. 

Definition and illustration of standard strains; however a good share of 
the circular is devoted to discussion of the history, distribution, and domesti- 
cation of the wild turkey. 

Propagation: _^rkqy 

Marsdoii , Stanley J. , and J. Holmes Mar tin . Turkey management, 
(The Interstate," Danville, 111. $3.50 a copy) , vi+708 pp., 137 figs., 1939. 

This book, devoted primarily to the domesticated turkey, contains a 
chapter (2, pp. 14-24) on the classification, origin, and history of turkeys, 
much of which relates to v;ild birds. The wild turkey and its subspecies are 
further described as to appearance and habits on pp. 46-51. Chapters on 
propagation, feeds and feeding, and on diseases, parasites, and sanitation also 
may be of interest to v/ildlife managers. Specialized bibliographies arc incor- 
porated at the end of most of the chapters. 

Roscar_c_h: C limbing meth od 

MoCluro, H.. Elliott . A method of tree climbing, Journ. Uildlifo 
Management (Victor if. Cahalanc, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 
75 cents a copy), 3(4), Oct. 1939, pp. 529-331, 1 fig. 

Author's abstract: "The standard method of climbing by tree experts i.< 
described. The observer uses a long rope end supports himself by means of a 
sling made of a double bowline and a sliding knot, the rolling hitch. By th:' i 
aid he can safely climb about the tree and have his hands free for photography, 
measuring eggs, banding young, etc." 

Research; Eiir ident ifi ca tion 

Do arbor n , Ned . Sections aid in identifying hair, Journ. Mammalogy 
(Wn. B. Davis" A.". & M. College, College Station, Texas. $1.00 a copy), 
20(3), Aug. 1939, pp. 345-348, 1 fig. 

Illustrations of cross sections and medullar;/ structures of guard hairs 
of 19 species of rodents and inscctivorcs occurring in the northeastern United 
States, and suggestions as to their use in making identifications. 


IJILDLIFE BEVIES: No. 24 November, 1939 

Research: _L i ye- 1 rapp i ng and marking ro bb i t s 

Southern, H. II . A population study of wild rabbits, Quarterly 
Journ. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (Gordon House, Gordon 
Square, London, W.C. 1, England. Sold only to members } , July 1939, pp. 4-7. 

Describes a method of repeatedly live-trapping European rabbits. The 
essentials of it are surrounding an infested area with a rabbit-proof fence and 
maintaining at several outlets tunnel traps fanctionable in either direction. 
The animals were marked with ear tags, the numbers on which can bo read by tho 
aid of a telescope of a powor convenient in making other observations on the 
animals. The opening and" closing paragraphs of tho article contain reflections: 
that can wo 11 be taken to heart on this side of tho Atlantic. 

"Of all the animals inhabiting the British Isles comparatively .little it 
known of the mammals. This is especially remarkable in respect of the rabbit, 
since its ubiquity and powers of destruction make it so commonly talked about, 
and yet concerning its habits there exists a largo body of ideas but very few. 
supporting data. " 

"In conclusion tho fact may be emphasized that we live among animals the 
whole of our lives, wc affect their lives to a varying extent, wo use them for 
our own purposes, even arrogate to ourselves the right to kill them, sometimes 
by not very humane methods, and at the some time we arc appallingly ignorant oi 
the very simplest facts about them, which should leave us very little cause foi 
pride. " 

Research: So x ing sh arp -t a i 1c d gro u so 

Manwoilor, _J. Combined weight class — roctrix pattern method for 
determining sex of sharp-tailed grouse, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor 
H. Cahalano, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 
3(4), Oct. 1939, pp. 283-237, 1 fig., 1 tabic. 

Author' s abstract: "To eliminate the approximately 15 percent error 
resulting in sexing sharp-tailed grouse by the rectrix pattern, a weight-class 
table, representing 1,304 birds, is presented to determine the probable ratio 
of males to females by weights alone. A combination of both methods eliminates 
most' possibilities of error. During periods of inclement weather, best exempli, 
ficd by low temperatures, a compensatory weight adjustment is advisable. Tho 
paper, applies to the Groat Plains sharp-tailed grouse of the Lake States rcgio:i 

Research: Trappin g lizar ds 

R odgers , Thomas L . A lizard live trap, Copcia (M. Graham Netting, 
Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa. 75 cents a copy), 1939(1), March, p. 51, 
1 fig. 

Of pitfall type; used with or without bait averaged one lizard a day. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 3.939 

Woi ght sj Bor.r^ B lac k 

Go r s t c 11 , Ri chard . The growth and size of Pennsylvania black boars, 
Pennsylvania Game"~[Pcnu3ylvania Gorac Commission, Harrisburg. 10 cents 
a copy), 10(8), Nov. 1939, pp. 4-7, 4 photos, 1 graph, 3 tables. 

Notes on breeding season and gestation period and records of •Weights of 
cubs and adults. Fifty daily weighings of cubs roared in captivity and of the 
food they consumed arc summarized and graphed. A table presents estimated 
range of weights for black bears from 10 to 70 months of age (extremes 30-80 
and 255-350 lbs.). Heaviest Pennsylvania boar known weighed 633 pounds. 

Woights: Deer, Whito-t a iled 

Hopkins, Ralph . Wisconsin's large deer of 1938, Wisconsin Conser- 
vation Bui. (Wisconsin Conservation Dept., Madison), 4(10), Oct. 1939, 
pp. 49-51, 1 photo, 3 tables. 

Dressed ivcights indicating live weights in a few cases of more than 400 
pounds. There is a table of average weights of deer of various age classos 
killed on national forests, and another of measurements of record heads. 


01 as sif icat ion;^ __ Rain, Kangaroo 

Hall, E. Raymond, and Frederick H. Dale. Occasional Papers, Llus. 
Zool. , Louisiana State University (University, La.), 4, 63 pp., 3 figs., 
1 table, Nov. 1939. 

General discussion of Dipodomys mjcrops ; citation of type, statement of 
range, diagnosis, comparisons, remarks, and list of specimens examined for 11 
subspecies, 3 of which are described as new. 

Diseases and P ara sit es: Chu ckwalla 

C ont i , ^ L v _F . m ,_ and J . H . i C ro wl ey . A new bacterial species isolated 
from the chuckwalla (Sauromalus varius) , Journ. Bacteriology (Williams & 
Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Ml.), 37(6), June 1939, pp. 647-653, 3 figs. 

Authors' summary: "A new bacterium has been studied which is associated 
with a chronic disease in Sauromalus vari us , characterized by tunor-like lesions 
of a rather slow evolution. The organism is a chromogonic, gram- negative, non- 
spore-forming, motile rod which has been temporarily classified as Bacterium 
saur omali. " 

Diseas es and Parasit e s : Er ys i pe 1 o t h r i :c 

Waller, E. F . Erysipelothrix infection in a quail, Journ. Amor. 
Veterinary Med. Assoc. (221 N. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 75 cents a copy), 
95(751), Oct. 1939, pp. 512-513. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1039: 

Rovicw of literature of which 7 titles are cited. Idcntif icc.tion of the 
disease from a gome farm quail in love.. Description of lesions and of labora- 
tory procedure in determining the organism as Erys ip olo t hr ix r hu s i opat hi ae . It 
is infectious to a variety of birds and also to domestic animals and man. 

D i s e : . s e s a nd F eras it c s : _ T hr l 1 1 itpx icosis 

Larson, Ch arles P_._,^ Nm._ N. Kollor, and J_._ D_._ Mangos. Ace idcntal 
canine thallotoxicosis and dangers of thallium used as a rodent icidal 
'agent, Journ. Amor. Veterinary Mod. Assoc. (221 No. La Salle St., Chicago, 
111. 75 cents a copy), 95(751), Oct. 1939, pp. 486-489, 2 figs. 

Depilatory and toxic effects, minimum lethal dose (15-25 mg. per kg. of 
body weight), symptoms of the poisoning in animals and man. Despite precaution 
use of thallium in rat control at the Vfcstcrn State Hospital, Fort Stcilacoom, 
Washington, resulted in the death of "the majority of the pets on the hospital 
grounds." Case reports given for 2 dogs. The authors conclude that "The 
use of thallium as a rodcnticidal ■•".gent, even in the hands of an export, is an 
extremely dangerous procedure, as it endangers both pets and children." Bibli- 
ography of 9 titles. 

Diseases and Pa x asi t e_sj_ _ UJLcor • /biv e cntori tis 

BasSj__Chj:.rlcs C. Observations on the specific cause and the nature 
of "quail disease" or ulcerative enteritis in quail, Maryland Conserva- 
tionist (512Munscy Bids. , Baltimore, Md. ) , Fall 1939, pp. 26-27. 

Lists 10 species of gallinaceous birds in which the disease has been 
observed. Both the macro- and micro-scopic appearances of lesions are describe 
Technique for demonstrating a gram- negative, anaerobic bacillus abundant in the 
lesions. The author has transmit ted the disease by 4 methods, one of which is 
use of pure cultures of the organism mentioned. Massive infections produced 
death in periods as short as 36 hours. On the other hand some infections may 
last for months, producing "carriers" that may give the disease to other birds.. 
The suggestion is made that the infection may be transmitted through eggs. 

L ife Hi s t orie s :__ Opo ssum 

CPIjkAj-i--'... ff>.,.Ar- Studies on rearing the opossum (Didclphys Virginians.) 
Ohio Journ. Sci„ (Bernards. Ivlcycr, Ohio State University, Columbus. 50 
cents a copy), 39(5), Sept. 1939, pp. 239-249, 11 photos. 

Description of pens and other equipment, and notes on appearance and 
behavior, especially of the very young. Bibliography of 9 titles. 

Lifo H ist or id s : _ T hru s h_,_ S o_ng 

Siivonon, Lauri. Zur 6'kologic und Vcrbrcitung dcr Singdrossol 
(T urdu s oricctorun philomelos Brehm), Aim. Zool. Soc. Zool.-3ot. Fcnnicac 
Vanamo, 7(1), ix+ 285 pp., 42 figs., 10 maps, 24 tables, (Summary in 
Finnish, pp. 286-289), 1939. 



WILDLIFE REVIEW": No. 24 November, 1939 

A comprehensive, thoroughly organized, and v/oll-documcntod roport or. a 
1954-39 study of tho ecology of the song thrush. Breeding end wintering ranges 
end migrations ere discussed and mapped. In recent years the species has ex- 
tended its nesting range northward and has remained in winter in areas pre- 
viously unoccupied at that season. These phenomena arc in accord ivith observed 
improvement in the north European climate. The breeding range lies mostly in 
pine- and spruce-clad regions but takes in some broad-leaved forests. It almost 
completely incloses the ranges of Picon excolsa, P. omorica, and P. _o_rio::talis 
and is well correlated also with the distribution of certain herbs. Abundance 
of tho birds and size of thoir breeding territories varies greatly with tho type 
of environment. Open spruce forests and mixed woods rich in spruces are most 
favorable, supporting up to 15-20 (and locally even 50) pairs per square kilo- 
meter (247.1 acres). Other environments, including areas modified by nan, arc 
described and rated. 

The song thrush invariably .has a definite breeding territory in which 
representatives of other species, even of thrushes but not of its own kind, are 
tolerated. The acst usually is in a dense spruce and the materials locally 
gathered often camouflage it effectively. Its height from the ground is mostly 
from 1-3 meters (highest 12 m. ) and it is most frequently placed against a 
trunk or among thick branches wrcrc it is protected from rain. It is also well 
shaded, tho average site being only about a third as well lighted as those 
chosen by the missel thrush. Materials and construction of the nest aro 
described and illustrated. Variation in the number of eggs is thorouglily dis- 
cussed, but little correlation with environmental factors is disclosed; the 
number of broods, however, increases from north to south. Incubation usually 
lasts 12-14 and brooding 13-14 days. Nest destruction varies with locality, 
being highest in the vicinity of man' s dwellings; destroyers of eggs or nest- 
lings ir.cludo members of the crow family, especially jays and magpies, and in 
addition martens, weasels, dormice, snakes, ants, cats, and boys. The bird's 
songs aro classified into five typos that are discussed as affected by terri- 
tory, breeding cycle, weather, intensity of light, and length of day. 

In a section on nutritional biology, the author reviews 'oho methods that 
have bee: 1 , used in studying and recording the food habits of birds and points 
out the desirability of making simultaneous investigations of available foods, 
lie summarizes numerous earlier studios of the dietary of the song thrush and 
details the findings of .his own researches, including both stomach analyses -and 
field observations. The species consumes more animal food in the southern parts 
of its range and more wild fruits toward the north. Earthworms, snails, slugs, 
beetles, caterpillars, and ants are principal items of the .nimal diet, and 
fruits of Vacciniun, Ribcs, Empctrum, Sorbus, and Junipcrus leading articles in 
the vegetable subsistence. Tho food environment and feeding habits receive 
special attention, an interesting feature of behavior being the breaking of 
snails upon rocks that arc habitually resorted to, tho fragments of shells 
about these "anvils" conveniently indicating the bird's nolluscan diet. The 
author inventoried available foods of sizes suitable for the song thrush in dif- 
ferent types of environment at various seasons for tho purpose of appraising 
utilization in relation to availability. But first he interposes results of a 
study of food preferences with caged thrushes from which he derives standards 
for an optimum diet. However the song thrash will substitute for the most 
relished foods others less preferred, especially when these aro abundant and 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1939 

readily obtainable. In other words, wliilo the species lias narked food prefer- 
ences, tiioy nay be fully expressed only in the presence of all optimal foods. 
Preferences can be followod in many environments only so far as permitted by 
available supplies of which abundant sorts are likoly to be nost freely utilized, 
From his study of diet in relation to the kinds of food present, lie concludes 
that both regional end seasonal variations in utilization of food ere in direct 
correlation with variations in the available .supply. This is an interesting 
confirmation of the importance of availability (cf. Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 
85(7), 1932, pp. 135-136) but the intercalation of a theoreticrl optimum based 
on study of caged birds soens to add no strength to the hypothesis (cf. Free. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1912, pp. 356-364). 

The author's tern "optimal v-.luo of foods" appears to be only another woyj 
of expressing the familiar facts that birds are' limited in their diets by their 
ecological ranges, by their sizes and capacities, and by their constitutional 
adaptations for collecting and utilizing certain typos of food. Restricted by 
these dominating conditions, oach kind of bird, as a rule, feeds in a more or 
loss specific way in n lira tod or.vironn.cnt , where in all likelihood the most 
plentiful edibles will be most freely consumed. This is the natural and prac- 
tical thing, hence the rule. The bird may have preferences, but in the long run! 
it is compelled by a ecr pressure of circumstances to feed on available foods 
more or less in proportion to their abundance. The density of the so:g thrush 
population often seems to bo in proportion to that of certain foods, as beetles, 
mollusks, and bilberries, but this principle does not operate to make the spe- 
cies as common in n tare open deciduous uoods, for instance, as it is in denser 
spruce forests, alt .cugh the food supply may be equally groat. The song thrush 
somotirics gets almost all of its food in a quite restricted part of its nesting 
territory, hence the author does not agree with Howard that quantity of food is 
decisive in fixing size of territory. 

Concluding sections of the paper comprise a chapter oa general behavior, 
a summary, and a 16-page bibliography. 


Issues of interest to wildlife managers additional to those previously 
mentioned are listed below. Copies of those mimeographed leaflets can bo ob- 
tained from the Biological Survey, U. S. Department of the Interior, hashing/ton. 
D. C 

35- 14:1. Protecting blueberries from damage by herring gulls, oy 
Robert C. IfcClauahsu, 4 pp., August 1939. 

Habits of the gulls in hashing ton and Hancock Counties, Maine; damage to 
blueberries is restricted to a small minority of the gull population; control 
by frightening devices and modification of cultural practices. 

3S -142 . Big-gome inventor/ of the United States, 11 pp., 17 tables, 
August 1939. 

Sccead inventory based largoly en estimates yet "far from satisfactory." 
In time trends nay bo reliably indicated. Notes on deer overpopulations, and 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 Noveubor, 1939 

increase in their species in gonoral c.s well as that of mtelopes end black 
bears. Mountain a heop - ff frill decreasing. Tabulation of tlio ortira tor, of 15 
groups by States and according to land ownership and control. Also totals by 
States; grand total nearly G millions* 

B5-145 . Suggestions for the control of vagrant domestic pigeons, 
4 pp., August 1959. 

Status of pigeons as bearing on the legality of aggressive actions against 
then; suggestions for control by excluding, frightening, trapping, shooting, 
poisoning, and gassing. 

B3-144. Raising deer in captivity, 6 pp., August 1959. 

Enclosures and food requirements; notes on characteristics of ivhito- 
tailed, mule, and black-tailed deor; list of valuable food plants; bibliography 
of 27 titles. 

BS-145 . Birdbanding, by Frederick C. Lincoln, 5 pp., October 1959. 

Supersedes Leaflet 33-53 (1936). Notes on the history of bird banding; 
organization in this country; qualifications of cooperators; suggestions as to 
avoiding injury to birds, description of bands and traps; and sunnary as to 
value of the work, 


§I^^J-i^-Pia^^ 2 J-i 1 h 3 - s - a-A^ conserv ation de partm ent or gans 

[Supplement; previous installments in "./ILDLIFE REVIEW No. 5, pp. 52-34, 
No. 4, p. -27, No. 7, pp. 50-51, and No. 12, p. 42.] 

Of go nc |rol__s c ope 

Bucks Unlimited. Quarterly, no price quoted. 500 Fifth Ave. , No 1 -/ York, N. Y. 

Fish & Game News Bulletin. Monthly, 75 cento a year. Nov/ Brunswick Fish and 
Game Protective Assoc. , Fredericton, IT. B. , Canada. 

The Sportsman. Monthly, no price quoted. 1154 H St., Fresno, Calif. 

Arizona Wildlife and Sportsman. Monthly, $1.50 annually. Arizona Gone Protec- 
tive Assoc., 125 North Second Ave., Phoenix', Ariz. 

Delaware Gone and Fish Nov;s. Monthly, no price quoted. Board of Game and Fish 
Commis si oners, Dover, Del. 

Kansas Fish and Game. Monthly (mimoogr-phod). Forestry Fish & Gone Commission, 
Pratt, Kans. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 24 Novcnbcr, 1939 

Mas sac liu setts Conservation Bulletin. Quarterly, no price quoted. Department 

of Conservation, Boston, Mass. 

Bulletin of Massachusetts Fish 5c (Jane Association. Liisoun of Comparative 
Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

Michigan Gone Trails. Bi-weekly, 5 cents a copy. 214 Hunber Blclg. , Highland 
Park, Mich. 

Minnesota Sportsman. Monthly, no price Quoted. 1301 5th St. N. E. , Minneapolis 


Mississippi Game and Fish. Monthly, no price quoted. Mississippi Gene and 
Fish Commission, Jackson, Miss. 

The Missouri Conservationist. Quarterly, no price quoted. Missouri Conserva- 
tion Commission, Jefferson City, Mo. 

Missouri Wildlife. Monthly, 10 cents a copy. 5832 Charlotte St., Kansas City, 

' Mo. 

National Wildlife Federation Bulletin. Monthly, no price quoted, national 
Wildlife Federation, Investment Bldg. , Washington, D. C. 

The Northwest Conservationist. Quarterly, 15 cents a copy. '6224 25th Ave. 
N.E. , Seattle, Wash. 

Outdoor Iowa. Monthly (iiir.icographed) . State Conservation Commission, Dos 
Moines, Iowa. 

Rocky Mountain Sport siian. Monthly, 15 cents a copy. Denver National Bldg. , 
Denver, Colo. 

Snohonish County Sportsman, Sultan, Wash. 

Southwestern Sports Magazine. Monthly, 15 cents a copy. 214 North 6th St., 
Waco, Texas. 

American periodi cals rel ating t o birds and mammals 

[Supplement; previous installment in WILDLIFE REVIEW No. 4, pp. 27-29.] 


Bird News. Monthly, $1.00 a year. L. R. Talbot, Old Concord Rood, South 
Lincoln, Mass. 

The Chat. S emi -nont lily (nine o graphed) , single copy 25 cents. JohnH. Grey, 
Jr., 1719 Park Drive, Raleigh, N. C. 

The Journal of Minnesota Ornithology. Annually, 10 cents a copy. The T. S. 
Roberts Ornithology Club, St. Cloud, Minn. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: Wo. 24 November, 1939 

Bi rd Ba nd ing 

Ebba Nus. Mimeographed. William Pepper, Jr., 110 G-lenview Ave. , Wyncote, Pa. 

Bio lo g ical journals 

[Supplement; previous installment in WILDLIFE REVIEW No. 8, pp, 33-35.] 

Of general_ sc ope 

The American Journal of Pathology. Bi-monthly, '$8.00 a year. 818 Harrison 
Ave. , Boston, Mass. 

American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Quarterly, $6.00 a year. Wistar 
Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Woodland Ave. and Thirty-sixth St. , 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Bi-monthly, $7.50 a year. Wistar Insti- 
tute of Anatomy and Biology, Woodland Ave. and Thirty-sixth St, , Philadelphia, 

The Journal of Nutrition. Monthly, §5,00 a year. YJi star. Institute of Anatomy 
and Biology, Woodland Ave. and Thirty-sixth St. , Philadelphia, pa. 

Physiological Zoology. Quarterly, $7.50 a year, single copy $2.25. The 
University of Chicago Press, 5750 Ellis Ave., Chicago, 111. 

0-? locsj-- sc ope 

New England Naturalist. Quarterly, 25 cents a copy. 234- Berkeley St., Boston, 


Ins titutional and societal publications, excluding those of Academies of Science 

[Supplement; previous installment in WILDLIFE REVIEW No. 8, pp. 36-37.] 

University of Arizona Biological Science Bulletin. Semi -quarterly, no price 
quoted. Tucson, Ariz. 

University of California Publications in Zoology. Issued irregularly, parts 
variously priced. University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif. 

Bulletin Natural History Survey. Issued irregularly, no price quoted. Urbana, 

Indiana University Publications Science Series. Issued irregularly, no price 
quoted. Bloomington, Ind. 

Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts Research Pallet in. Issued 
irregularly, no price quoted. Ames, lovja. 

University of Iowa Studies. Semi-monthly, no price quoted. Iowa City, Iowa. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: Ho. 24 November, 1939 

Kansas University Science Bulletin. Sain. -monthly fron January to June and 
monthly fron July to December, no price quoted, university of Kansas, 
Lawrence, Kans, 

University of Michigan School of Forestry end Conservation Bulletin. Issued 
irregularly, single copies variously priced. Ann Arbor, Mich, 

Publications of the University of Oklahoma Biological Survey. Quarterly, parts 
variously priced. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Okla, 

Roosevelt Wild Life Annals. Quarterly, $5.00 a year, single copy $1.25. Hew 
York State College of Forestry, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Roosevelt Wild Life Bulletin. Quarterly, $4.00 a year, single copy $1,00. New 
York State College of Forestry, Syracuse, N. Y. 


federal Aid, t o th e Stutes_ in k T iJ^llife_ Restoration. — From July 1 to October 21, 
63 projects in 30 States were approved by the Biological Survey, 23 of them 
involving research, 25 being for development, and 15 for acquisition of game 
management areas. 

Aleu tian Islands Wildlife Rofuff o . — TKsod on field investigations in recent 
years on this 1,000-mile stretch of totaling 3,00^,000 acres in area, 
comprehensive regulations have been issued! by the Secretary of the Department 
of the Interior to control the blue fox industry and destruction by the foxes 
of colonial birds of the islands, to protect the fauna in general, and to pro- 
vide economic independence for the native Aleuts. Enforcement of the regula- 
tions will be entrusted to the crew of the Broxm Boar, d. patrol boat adequate 
for continuous service in the difficult seas of the region. 

The National Park Service is preparing a multilithed bulletin on the 
basis of the 1939 wildlife census in national parks and monuments. The bulle- 
tin vail give brief accounts of conditions in all major parks and monuments, 
statistics on birds and mammals, and a discussion of the bear- visitor problem. 
Copies may be obtained by writing to the Wildlife Division, National Park Ser- 
vice, Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 

It should perhaps be explained that the comment at the top of page 28, 
No, 22 of WILDLIFE REVIEW, was in criticism only of a popularized account of 
the 10-yoar quail study in Columbia Co. (Prairie du Sac), Wisconsin, Errington, 
himself, has long recognized a connection between his findings and the older 
thesis of proportional predation (Ecology, 15:110-127, 1934; Condor, 37:230-232, 
1935); the chief differences he points out relate to thresholds of comparative 
security of wintering bob-whites from, and vulnerability of overpopulations to, 
predation in north-central States. 


"lELELIFE REVIEW: No. 24 November, 1939 

"Abstracts of papers presented at Wildlife Conservation Short Course. 
May 4, 5, 6, 1939" (University of Minnesota, Dept. of Agriculture, 54 pp* , 
mimeographed ). Obtainable, so long as the supply lasts, from Prof . Gustav 
Swans cm, University Farm, St. Paul, Minn. 

The nature of the sections relating to wildlife (other than fishes) is 
here briefly indicated. 

Anon . "The wildlife program of the U. S. Soil Conservation Service," 

pp. i-4. 

Use of vegetation suitable for erosion control in ways that will benefit 
wildlife particularly on the so-called waste areas on farms. 

Fenstermacher, R. "Diseases affecting moose," pp. 5-6. 

Caused by ticks', eye worms, lungworms, flukes, tapeworms, roundworms, and 
the bacterium Brucella. 

G reen, R. G- . "Diseases of wild animals and birds," ^^. 7-8. 

Possibilities of combating lead poisoning by the use of shot made from 
a readily disintegrable alloy. Even if knowledge of wildlife maladies, as the 
shock disease of the snowshoo hare, docs not promise control, yet it may lead 
to improved management of the animals. Understanding wildlife diseases trans- 
missible to man, as tularemia, is necessary in safeguarding human health. 
Pseudotuberculosis in various animals and distemper in foxes also arc mentioned. 

Gillh ara, C. E. "Waterfowl problems in Minnesota," pp. 9-10. 

The need still is for waterfowl to populate northern breeding grounds. 
Refuge areas are being planted but in time they would develop suitable vegeta- 
tion by natural processes. While we must go ahead as best we can in practical 
ways, research in every direction is needed. 

Frcdino, G ordon . "Farmer- sportsman relationships," pp. 11-14. 

Minnesota has a rich and varied stock of game and much public land open 
to hunting. The number of hunters is growing, however, and cannot be fully 
accommodated by public shooting grounds. Farmers not originally opposed to 
hunting on their lands become so due to trespass nuisances. "No hunting" signs 
arc most numerous near centers of population. Outline of methods of harmonizing 
farmer- sportsman relationships that have been effective in Michigan, Ohio, and 
other States. 

A340U3j gfrclo r J jj. "Minnesota big game animals," pp. 15-18. 

Minnesota's original 10 big game species have now been reduced to 5, two 
of which also have been nearly or quite extirpated and then reintroduced. Brief 
history of each of the species with comment en the existing population, if any. 
Whit o-t ailed deer numbered about 335,000 in 1937 and were worth at least $10 
each. The herd could withstand a harvest of £5,000 to 30,000 animals per year, 
yielding nearly a 10 percent return on the "capital" value. 

Anderson, Parker 0. "Planting trees and shrubs on farms for wild life," 
pp. 19-22. 


"./ILDLLFE HE7IF.7: Ho. 24 November, 1939 

General suggestions relative to planting; lists of cover, browse, mast, 
fruit, and seed producers; end notes on kinds of wildlife utilizing numerous 
trees and shrubs. 

Elkins_, pins ton A, "The deer problem in the national forests," pp. 23-25. 

The deer population should be hold at about the carrying capacity of the 
range, regulated hunting being the most obvious means. Some areas are too inac- 
cessible for hunting to be an important factor and there predators can be bene- 
ficial. Permitting overpopulation, starvation, and destruction of range is 
wasteful mismanagement. Live-trapping, too expensive for general use, is appli- 
cable in special cases. With the population at a reasonable level, habitat 
improvement, especially of winter range, may be attempted. New winter yards can 
be created although at considerable expense. 

Ro berts, Th om as S . "The value of song birds," pp. 54^-35. 

About a billion birds make their homes in, or visit, Minnesota each year. 
They have great importance for good or harm; illustrations of both tendencies 
are cited. 

Brec kcn ridgq, W . _J. "Reptiles and amphibians of Minnesota," pp. 36-40. 
Comment on superstitions relative to these animals. Characteristics and 
habits of the groups and summary of Minnesota representations of them. 

S wans o n , i Gu stay . "Upland game birds," pp. 41-44. 

Comment on about a dozen species, o introduced, of which the pheasant is 
now the most important game bird of the State. Factors 'which are responsible 
for the supremacy of the pheasant include: High rate of reproduction, marked 
resistance to unfavorable elements of the environment, polygamy, ability to 
escape hunters, and adaptability to artificial propagation. 

Manwoi lor; J . "Minnesota fur-bearers .and problems of using them proper- 
ly," pp'." 49-54. " 

Definitions of "fur-bearers," and of "wildlife management." This is an 
industry that should be carried on like farming but which can utilize marginal 
lards. Sound management requires inventory, census, and control of populations. 
The history of fur-bearers has been one of constant decline in numbers. Minne- 
sota fur animals comprise 22 species, of which the beaver, marten, fisher, .and 
otter hr,\'o had legal protection in recent years. Estimated numbers and values 
by species for the period 1930-27 are presented in a table. Harvest is not 
properly regulated but suggestions are given, particularly with reference to 

"Now legislation enacted this year provides that in the future Wisconsin 
will pay for damage done by bears as well as door. Tho legislation follows many 
claims during the last few years as to bear damage to beehives, sheep, calves, 
and pigs. The problem of bear damage is also a serious question in tho neigh- 
boring State of Michigan. A recent statement by the Michigan Conservation 
Department says: 'The legislature in its recent session, eyeing bills for bear 
damage totalling more than $0,000, approved payment but voted to remove the 
animals from the protected list. The legislature qualified its action, however, 
in authorizing the commission to restore protection to boars in any county.'" 
(Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin, 4(10), Oct. 1939, p. 15.) 



November, 1239 


Abbott, Clinton G. 
Adams, Lowell 
Aldous, Shaler E. 
Allen, Durward L. 
Anderson, Parker 0. 
Arant , Frank S . 
Austin, Thomas S. 
Bailey, Florence M. 
Bartlett, I. H. 
Bass, Charles C. 
Bl tir, XL Fran 1 : 
Blake, James 
Breckenridge, W, J, 
Buhler, Ernest 0. 
Burt, Charles Z. 
Barton, 0. A., Victor H. 
Carr, Katharine 
Causey, 0. R. 
Clrddock, T. T. 
Chapman, Floyd B. 
Clarke, Talbot t E. 
Clausen, Robert T. 
Clay, William M. 
Coghill, G. E. 
Collins, Grenold 
C onkl in, IB . Card . 
Conti, L. F. 
Cooloy, R. A. 
Cottari, Clarence 
Craighead, Frank, Jr. 
Craighead, John J. 
Crowley, J. II. 
Dahlon, Bembard C. 
Bale, Frederick H. 
Davis, Wm. 3. 
Dearborn, Nod 
Dousing, Murl 
Dice, Log R. 
33x111, Edna 
Eadio, W, Robert 
Edminstor, Frank C. 
Eiirhart, E. 0. 
Elkins, Uinston A, 
Elton, Charles 
Erickson, Arnold B. 
Eskey, C. R. 


10, 17, 






, 32 





Fens tarmac her R. 
Francis, Edward 
Fredinc, Gordon 
Fryer, J. C. F. 
Ger st oil , Ric hard 
Gibbons, R. J. 
Gibson, Arthur 
Gill ham, C. E. 
Goldman, E. A. 
Gordon, Kenneth L. 
Gowanloch, Jama 3 N. 
Graf, William 
Green, R. G. 
Greene, S . W. 
Grimm, Rudolf L. 
Gwatkin, Ronald 
Haas, V. K. 
Kail, E. Raymond 
Hamcrstrom, F. I T . , Jr. 
Hamilton, W. J. , Jr. 
Hatfield, Donald M. 
Eawbockor, Albert C. 
Hickoy, Joseph J. 
Hicks, Lawrence E. 
Ho 1 1 2 a pplo , R : yiaond 
Eonoss, Ralph F. 
Hopkins , Ralph 
Huff, Clay G. 
Hyde, A. Sidney 
Jcwott, Stanley G. , Jr, 
Johnson, Karl en G. 
Jones, H. Walter, Jr. 
Jones, John C. 
Kauifmann, Earlo 
Keller, Wm. N. 
Kelso, Leon IT. 
Kottunon, A. G. 
Kleubcr, Laurence M. 
Kohls, Glen M. 
Larson, Charles P. 
Lohmann, Valgonc W, 
Leopold, Aldo 
Lescarboura, Austin C. 
Lincoln, Frederick C. 
Lindscy, Alton A. 
Loukashkin, A. S. 
Lylo, Clay 







3, 4 




Lynch, John J. 
Mads on, Ilolgcr 
Mangos, J. D. 
Monwcilcr, J". 
Marsdcn, Stanley J, 
Martin, J. Holracs, R. A., Robert C. 
McCluro, H. Elliott 
McDougr.ll, "J. A.. 
Mcllhonny, E.A. 
McKcnny, Margaret 
Montgomery, U. E. 
Munro , J . A . 
Mu rp hy , Ro b o r t Cu s hma n 
Musslor, Glenn E. 
Nelson, A. L. 
Odun, Eugene P. 
Palmor, E. Laurcnco 
Pert en, H. L. 
Pottingill, OlinS., Jr. 
Pitelka, Frank A. 
Pr ic c , Raymond 
Rachford, C. E. 
Randall, Pierce E. 
Rasmus 3 en, D. I. 
Reed , H. R. 
Reeds , Frank K. 
Riley, I, r illicm A. 
Roberts, Thonas S. 
Rodders, Thomas L. 
Royal, Loyd A. 


Frederick J. 

Schcntz, William E. 

Scott, "7. E. 
Scdc.m, Jolm 


"■ November, 





Self, J. Tcaguc 



Snadlc, Albert R. 



Sheldon, II. H. 


40, 50 

Siivonon, Lauri 



S lattery, Harry 



Southern, H. IT. 



Spcirs, J. Murray 



S perry, Charles C, 


14, 39 

Stephens, E. Sydney 



Stewart, George 



Stickel, William H, 



Stillwoll, Jerry S. 



Swanson , Gus t av 


23, 38 

Swigart, Mrs. H. M. 



Taylor, E. L. 



Torres, J. Kenneth. 



Thompson, Dave 



Tinslcy, S olden L. 


IS, 38 

T rap i do , Harol d 



Twinn, C. R. 



Uttal, Leonard J. 



Van Dorsal, William 

P. . 



Uchlcnbcrg, I!. G. 



Ualkor, R. H. 



VJallor, E. F. 



•leaver, Richard Lee 

16, 17 

, 28 


Uohr, Everett E. 



Welter, "Jilf red A. 



./ctmorc, Psycho W, 



Unite, H. C. 



Williams, C. S. 



Wilson, I. D. 



Uolf, William 



Young, Stanley P, 



Ziiomcrman, F. R. 











This issue of T .73XDL33E REVIEW is devoted to 
November 1939. 



Special notices 

Subject index 2 | Statistics 

Author index . > 

-W, April- 



No complete sets of .HLDLIEE REVIEW are available, and no complete runs 
(i.e. index and the issues indexed), except the last— Noe. 13-24, inclusive. 

Copies of back issues will be thankfully received. They may enable us 
to fill the sets of libraries or other inquirers. Please address to Y.ILDLIEE 
REVIEW, Biological Survey, Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 

Requests for the publications abstracted, other than Wildlife Research 
and Management (BS) Leaflets, should be sent, not to the Biological Survey, but 
to the address given in the bibliographic citation to the particular paper 

Readers are urged to send separates of, or references to, articles which 
thoy think should be abstracted in WILDLIFE REVIEW. 

Exchange With related periodicals is invited. 

Washington, D. G. 

No. 25 

December, 1939 


December, 1939 

Nog. 19-24, April-November 1939 

The classification used in the index is primarily from the wildlife 
management point of view, major headings being much the same as have been regu- 
larly used in WILDLIFE REVIEW. Subordinate grouping depends usually on the key 
word, which may be preceded by a preposition, article, or other trivial term. 
Federal agencies are arranged alphabetically under U. S. Government. 

[Numbers, as 24-47, refer to the issue and page] 


Biological journals, 24-47 
Bird periodicals, 24-46 
Conservation department organs, 

On diseases of Wildlife, by R. G-. 

Green and associates, 22-11 
Nature books and materials, 19-6 
Sources of material abstracted in 

Sporting magazines, 24-45 
Texas wildlife, 24-2 
'Wildlife management in relation to 

soil conservation, 19-2 
Bureau of Animal Population (Oxford 
University), annual report, 1937-38, 

Crawfishes, Mississippi, 24-6 
Ground squirrels (Citollus town- 

sendi) , 24-2 
Grouse, Spruce, 24-2 
Legumes of Wisconsin, 21-16 
Pocket gophers, 24-2 
Rat, Kangaroo (Dipodomys microps), 

Snakes, 24-2 
Ticks, 24-13 

In Alaska, 19-2 

CCC in, 19-7 

On an ccologic basis, 19-8, 24-3, 

Faimor T s role in, 19-4, 24—4 

Federal aid to States in wildlife 
restoration, 19-2, 19-4, 19-8, 
23-3, 23-19, 23-20, 24-48 

Federal laws, 19-2 

Game policy, 20-28 

General, 19-4, 21-6, 2.1-21, 23-29 

Coi:servat i on— C ont inued 


In Illinois, 19-8 
In Missouri, 24-5 

History and significance of American 
wildlife, 21-25 

Santeo-Coopor project, 24-5 
C o ::s e rvat i on o f : 

Boars, Alaska brown, 22-2 

Bighorn, 19-6, 22-3, 23-3 

Bird enemies of grasshoppers, 22-3 

Bob-white, 21-23, 23-27 

Condor, California, 24-4 

Cottontail, 20-35 

Dick, Eider, 23-2 

Eagles, 22-3 

Farm wildlif o, 19-9, 24-4 

Fur animals, 19-4, 19-8, 22-48, 23-2 

Game, 19-4 

Grouse, Sage, 19-8 

Hawks, 19-4, 21-18, 21-21, 22-4 

Heron, Groat white, 23-3 

Mammals, marine, 21-8 

Musk ox, 23-2 

Owls, 19-4 

Pigeon, White- crowned, 23-3 

Swan , Trumpeter, 23-26 

Walrus, 24-29 

Waterfowl, 19-7, 19-8, 23-3, 24-49 

Wildlife, 19-9, 19-10 
Control, 19-5 

Overdone, 22-4 

Predator control policy in national 
parks, 22-4 

Thallium, use of, in, 24-42 
Control oj electric fence: 

Antelope, bear, buffalo, cat, coyote, 
deer, elk, fishes, livestock, 
rabbits, raccoon, 20-21 


jTLDLIFE REVfEk: No. £5 

December, 19TS9 

Control net hods: 
Burning, 20-20 
Electric fence, 20-21 
Pole traps, 22-27 

Fish ponds, 20-7, 22-4 
Seed spots, 19-10 
Control of: 

Bird damage to pine seeds, 19-10 
Bird and rodent damage to seedlings, 

C rawf i she s , 24 - 5 , 24-6 
Dogs, 19-11 

Fish predators, 22-4, 24-6 
Ground squirrel, Thirteen-stripcd, 

Ground squirrels in relation to 

quail, 20-15 
Grouse predators, 24-6 
Gull, Herring, to protect blue- 
berries, 24-44 
Hawks (blue darters), 22-26 
Household animals, 24—7 
Merganser, American, 20-7 
Mosquitos, 23-6, 23-7 
Pigeons, Domestic, 24-45 
Plague carriers, 22-12 
Pocket gopher, 24-7 
Predators, 22-30, 22-43 

Of big game, 21-13 
Ragweed, 22-1-8 
Range animals, 2-1—7 
Raptors, 19-11 

Australian, 24-8 
Cotton, by burning, 20-20 
Rodents or. the range, 19-11 
Squirrel damage to tree tags, 19-12 
Terrain", 22-26 
VJblf, 21-7 
Cycles, 24-4, 24-8 

Arctic animals, 19-12 

Birds of Toronto region, 24-8 

Bob-white, 22-27 

Cottontail, 19-19 

Grouse, 19-12, 23-13 

Grouse, Ruffed, 20-35, 22-27, 23-3 

Hare, Snovshoe, 19-13, 19-21, 22-5, 

Microtus, Ontario, 22-5 


Crippling losses, 20-29, 22-31, 

Highway mortality, 19-13, 20-34, 

22-5, 24-33 
Nesting losses, 23-7, 23-24, 24-29 
midlife exploitation, 24— 3 
•/Inter losses, deer, 20-21 
Destruction by: 
Flood, 24-9 
Mowing, 22-28, 23-5 
Starvation, 20-21, 21-7, 22-8 
Storm, 23-3, 21-9 
Destruction of: 
Big game, 24-49 
Bighorn, 19-6, 22-3, 23-11 
Birds, vanished or vanishing, 22-5 
Blackbirds, by storm, 24-9 
Caribou, i'Joodland, 21-11 
Deer, 20-21, 23-12, 24-25 
Dove, Mourning, 23-15 
Eagles , 22-3 
Fur animals, 24—50 
Grouse, Sage, 19-8 

i/atorfowl, by storm, 23-3 

Uildlifc, 23-29 

By flood, 24-9 

Vanishing, 24-10 
Mustclils, 19-9 
Pheasant, Rin, -necked, by mowing, 

Quail, Valley, 20-15, 21-25 
Son lions, 24-9 

l/ildlifc, 19-3, 19-4, 19-9, 23-29 
Winter killing: 

Bob-white, 19-14, 22-6, 22-27 

Pheasant, Ring-nocked, 19-14, 

Diseases and parasites (general 
articles) : 

Animal borne, 24-10, 24-15 
Management incentives, 24-19 
Populations determining number of 

parasites, 22-13 
Prevention, non-to::ic shot, 19-16, 
24-11, 24-49 


borne , 24-11: 

Sparrow, English, vector of poultry 

parasites, 19-20 
Tick vectors of animal diseases, 19-23 



December, 1939 

Diseases and parasites ( special 
articles) : 

Acanthocephalids in ducks, 19-17 
Amphimerus elongatus n. sp. , 19-24 
Anthrax in mink, 22-6 
Arthritis in wild mammals, 22-7 
Blackhead, 22-27 
Blood parasites, 24-10 
Bots in deer, 22-8 
Botulism, 19-15, 19-16, 19-19, 
19-20, 22-7, 23-3 

Control of, 23-3 

Resistance of vultures to, 22-7 
Capillaria columbae, 22-8 
Cestcdes of starling, 19-23 
Chastek paralysis, 19-16 
Coccidiosis in birds, 19-17 
Cochlosoma, 19-16 
Cysticercus in cottontail, 22-8 
Distemper, 19-19, 24-49 

Identification, 22-8 

Treatment, 22-9 
Dracunculus, 19-16 
Echinococcus, 22-9, 24-10 
Eimeria, 19-17 

Encephalomyelitis, 19-17, 22-9, 

Identification, 22-8 
Enteritis in raccoon, 19-17 
Erysipelothrix, 24-41 
Fibroma in deer, 24-11 
Flukes in: 

Ducks, 19-17 

Grebe, 19-17 

Turtles, 19-17 
Fowl paralysis in pheasants, 19-18 
Gapes, treatment, 22-10 
Giardia, 22-10 

Isospora boughtoni n. sp. , 19-18 
Lead poisoning, 19-16, 22-10, 

24-11, 24-49 
Leuchloridionorpha macrocotyle 

n.sp., 19-24 
Leucocytozoon, synonymy, 19-18 
Liver fluke of doer, 19-18 
Malaria, Bird, 19-18, 22-7, 22-10 
Maritrema nettae, 19-24 
Mesocercaria intermedia n. sp., 

Diseases and parasites (special 
art icles ) — Cont inued 

Nematodes of: 

Ducks, 19-17 

Frog, 21-12 

Starling, 19-23 
Papillomatosis in deer, 19-20 
Porosis in game birds, 19-20 
Persimmon wilt, 19-21 
Plague, 24-10', 24-12 

Bird carriers, 22-11 

Flea carriers, 22-12, 24-12 

Rodent carriers, 22-12, 24.-12 

Syl vatic, 22-11, 22-12 
Plasmodium, 19-18, 24-13 
Pneumonia in doer, 22-8 
Polymorpkuo narilis n. sp. 22-11 
Protocalliphora, 22-25 
Pseudotuberculosis, 24-49 
Rabies, 19-21 

Sarcocystis in ducks, 19-21 
Shock disco so, 19-21, 24-49 
Sickle -cell anemia, 19-22 
Spotted fever, '24-10 
Stcphanoprora m'orgi n. sp. , 19-23 
Tapeworms in cottontail, 19-23 
T hal litoxieos i s , 24 -42 
Tick, Rabbit: 

On birds, 22-12 

On hare, Snowshoo, 22-12 
Ticks, 19-23, 22-5, 24-13 
Tromatodes of: 

Anatidao, 19-23 

Frogs, 19-23 

Renif criiiac , classification, 
19-24 ' 

Shore birds, 22-13 

Snakes, 19-24 

Turtles, 19-23 
Tuberculosis, avian, 19-15 
Tularemia, 22-13, 24-10, 24-13,24-49 

In relation to stocking rabbits, 
Ulcerative enteritis, 19-19, 
Diseases and parasites of: 
Alaskan vertcbrctes, 19-15 
Birds, .19-16, 19-18, 22-12 
Bittern, 22-10 
Blackbird, Redwing, 19-18 




December, 1939 

Diseases and parasites of — Continued 
Bob-- /I lite, 19-19 
Chipmunk, Eastern, 22-22 
Chuckwalla, 24-41 
Cottontail, 19-23, 22-8, 22-13, 

23-34, 24-13, 24-25 
Coyote, 24-25 

Black-tailed, 19-22 

Mule, 19-22 

White-tailed, 19-18, 19-20, 
19-22, 20-21, 20-34, 22-8, 
23-4, 24-10 
Dicks, 19-16, 19-17, 19-21, 19-23 
Eelgrass, 24-3, 24-10, 24-11 
Elk, 21-7 
Fox, Arctic, 19-3 
Foxes, 19-21 

In captivity, 19-16, 22-7 
Ero-s, 19-19, 19-23, 21-12 
Godv/it, Marbled, 22-13 
Grebe, 19-17 
Ground squirrel, Thirteen- striped, 


Huffed, 22-13, 22-23 

Sharp-tailed, £4-13 
Gull, Herring, 22-10 
Hare, Snowshoe, 19-15, 19-15, 

19-19, 19-21, 21-7, 22-11, 22-12 
Heron, Little blue, 22-10 
Kite, Mississippi, 20-13 
Mallard, 22-11 
Meadowlark, Western, 22-10 
Mice, 19-15, 20-14, 22-5, 22-13 
Mink, 19-15, 22-6 
Mole, Brewer* s, 24-26 
Moose, 21-7, 22-9, 24-10 
Muskrat, 22-10, 22-13 
Opossum, 19-18 
Partridge, Chukar, 25-26 
Persimmon, 19-21 

Pheasant, Ring-necked, 21-12, 22-9 
Raccoon, 19-17 
Rat, Wood, 20-15 
Rodents, 24-13 
Scaup, 22-11 
Shore birds, 22-15 
Skunk, 19-21 
Snakes, 19-16, 19-19, 19-24 

Diseases and parasites of — Continued 

Hens low' s, 24-28 
Swamp, 22-10 
Squirrel, Gray, 21-26 
Starling, 19-22, 19-23 
Swallow, Tree, 22-25 




Vole (England), 1< 
Waterfowl, 19-18, 19-19 
Wildlife, 19-24 
Willet, 22-13 

Wolf , 





Wood chuck, 20-16 
Ecology (general articles) 
Biologic balance, 19-4, 
io_9'.; o-_i^ •? r i_ r -' ) a 

C he c k area s , 19-2 7 
In conservation, 24-5 
Edge effect, 20-25 
Farming in relation to erosion con- 
trol and wildlife, 19-25 
Hodges in relation to biologic 
balance, 15-25 
Ecology (special articles): 

Aquatic plants, 20-35, 22-20 
Biotic districts of Oklahoma, 19-25 
Carrying capacity: 

Doer yards, 23-10 

Winter range, 24-14 
Census methods, 19-32 

Birds, 19-27 

Bob-white, 20-34 

Cot t ont ail , 23-21 

Deer, White-tailed, 


Dove , Mourning , 
Elk, .19-26 
Fox, Red, 22-14 


Fur animals, 19-26 

Grouse, Ruffed, 19-26 

Mi c rotas, 22-13 

Pheasant, Ring-necked, 23-4 

Rat, 22-14 

Skunk, Striped, 22-14 
Clearings, 19-27 
Co 1 1 ont ail , 24—25 
Cover values, 24—15 

Pheasant, Ring-necked, 19-28, 



December, 1939 

Ecology (specie! articles) — Continuod , 
Cruising radius: 

Cottontail, 24-25 

Mule, 24-30 
I/hit c-t ailed, 2C-11 
Grouse, Ruffed, 22-23 
Mi c o , Jumping , 20-14 
Hole, Brewer's, 24-26 
Muskrat, 20-13 
Rat, Uood, 20-15 
Wood chuck, 20-16 
Deer, in Idaho, 19-28 
Drainage operations, 19-28, 20-34, 

22-20, 23-5, 23-6, 23-7, 24-15 
Drought, effects on: 

Mammals, Oklahoma, 19-29 
nice, Meadow, 19-20 




Elk-door competition, 19-29 

Farm birds, 22-14 

Farm wildlife, 23-17 

Eur animals, 19-29 

Groundhog dens used by cottontails, 


Raffed, 22-23 

Sharp-tailed, 22-23 
Land use in relation to: 

Pheasant , Ring-*) oc he d , 25 -5 

Prairie chicken, 23-14 
Limiting factors, 22-2, 23-8 

On prairie chicken, Attwatcr's, 
Mammals of Oklahoma, 19-29 
Marsh in relation, to waterfowl, 23-5 
Mosquito control operations, 19-29, 

19-30, 19-31, 22-15, 25-6, 23-7 
Nesting success, 23-7, 23-25 


u° > 


Overpopulations, 20-28 

Big game, 20-18, 24-32 

Mule, 23-8 
Oregon, 20-30 

Unit c-t ailed-, 20-20, 20-21 
Elk, 19-29, 23-8 
Partridge, Chukary 25-26 
Peat lands, 22-15 

Ecology (special articles) — Continued 
F he a s a nt , R i no - - no c k ed : 
Ohio, 23-5 
Pennsylvania, 23-5 
Plant indicators, 19-31 

Bears, Alaska brown, 22-2 
Birds, 24—16 

Illinois, 22-14 
Uoodland, Nov;. York, 21-15 
Bob- white, 20-54 
Brant, California, 19-32 
Cottontail, Iowa, 25-21 

Idaho, 19-28 . 
Mule, 25-12 o-t a ilod, 20-20, 23-20, 
?&. - ,a 24 - r U'. 24-4 9 

Elk, 24-14 

Fur animals, fluctuations, 

Illinois, 22-16 

Ruffod, 22-23, 22-35 
She rp— t v.i lea , &2— So 
Hare, Snowshoo, 22-35 
Mole, Brewer's, 24-26 
Owl, Groat' horned, 22-15 
Pheasant , Ring- necked: 
Michigan, 20-30 
Ohio, 24-33 
Prairie chicken: 

Attv/atcr's, 24-27 
Greater, 22-23, 23-14 
Quail, Valley, 22-24 
Skunk, 24-23 
Swan, Trumpeter, 25-26 
Vole (England) , 19-32 
Prairie chicken, 22-23 
Sonoran biotic province, 22-16 
Survival o£ marsh bird nestlings, 


Owl, Great horned, 22-15 
Rat, Uood, 20-15 
Uoodpockor, California, 20-17 
Turkey, Uild, 22-25 
Uildlifo, southeastern Ohio, 22-37 



Deceiver, 193$ 

Economics of: 

Alabama wildlife, 23-29 

Beaver, 20-17 

Big game, Wyoming, 24-32 

Deer, White-tailed, Minnesota, 

Fur animals : 

Alaska, 24-36 

Michigan, 20-35 

Minnesota, 24-50 

Pennsylvania, 23-29 

Texas, 19-32 
Insects, mites, and ticks, losses 

caused by, 19-35 
Mustelids, 19-9 
Rabbit, Jack, 19-53 
Range wildlife, 21-13 
Reindeer, 24-34 
Songbirds, 24-50 
Wildlife, 19-3, 19-4, 19-8 

Of Minnesota, 21-14 

Conservation, 19-33, 20-34, 23-9, 

Through Conservation Clubs, 

In 4-I-! Clubs, 19-54, 22-17, 
23-9, 23-19, 24-17 

Materials for, 19-6, 22-3, 23-29 

By a museum, 19-54 

By national agencies, 24-17 

Need of, 19-8 

Public schools, 22-17 

Review of the field, 24-16 

In Tennessee, 19-35, 19-54 
Courses for public schools, 22-17 
Extension, 22-17 

By Cooperative Wildlife Research 
Units, 19-34, 22-2 

In Michigan, 20-55 

•In Ohio, 22-29 
Food habits (general articles): 
Analysis technique, 22-36 
Annual plants, value of, 22-38, 23-5 
Barberry distribution, 22-13 
Birds that feed on grasshoppers, 

Rid eating, 24-18 
Damage : 

By black bears, 24-50 

To blueberries, 24-44 

Food habits (general articles)-- 
Danage--C ont inued 

By deer, 20-5, 20-21, 20-54, 

22-19, 24-18, 24-19 
To spruce 'oy squirrels, 20-9 
To woodland by wildlife 
(England), 20-26 
Food chain-, 19-29 
Foods in wildlife management, 22-20 
Grit requirements, 20-4 
Nutritional requirements , white- 
tailed deer, 20-21, 20-54, 25-10 
Nutritive value of: 
Pi non nuts, 20-7 
Range plants, 22-48 
Squirrel foods, 21-14 
Pal at ability ratings of feed patch 

plants, 20-25 
Salt requirements, deer, 25-12, 

Utilization of: 

Algae by waterfowl, 24-17 
Annu a 1 p 2. ant s , 22 -5 8 , 23 - 5 
Slid buds, etc. , 24-22 
Feed patch plants, 20-25 
Fruits of woody plants, 20-9, 

Legumes, 20-6, 22-21, 23-23 
Persimmon, 19-21 
Russian olive, 24-21 
Water requirements of e-t ailed 

Food habits of: 

Baldpato, 24-17 

Bats, 20-2 

Boar, Black, 24-17, 24-50 

Beaver, 20-52, 24-24 

Bighorn, 23-11 

Birds, uncomr.ion, 20-2 

Bittern, Least, 20-10 

Bobcat, 22-13 

Bob-white, 20-2, 20-3, 22-20, 22-58, 

22-59, 22-40, 22-41, 22-42, 22-45, 

22-44, 25-33 
Masked, 20-2 
Bullfinch, 24-13 
Caribou, 21-11 
Cat, 19-14, 20-34, 22-25 
Catbird, 22-18 




Food habits of — Continued 

Eastern, 22-22 
Western, 24-21 
Coot, 20-10, 24-25 
Cormorant, 21-14 
Cottontail, 22-20, 24-25 
Coyote, 20-55, 21-19, 22-18, 24-18, 

Crow, 22-18 

Damage to crops, Oklahoma, 

Llile, 20-30, 24-33 
'Jhito- tailed, 22-20, 22-42, 
25-12, 23-52, 24-25, 24-53 
Minnesota, 22-17, 22-29, 

Nut rib i onal roqu irement s , 
20-21, 20-54, 23-10 
Deer damage, 24-18 

To conifer plantings, 20-3, 

On forms, 20-21, 20-34 
To jack pine, 20-3 
In Michigan, 24-19 
Dove, Mourning, 21-14, 21-26, 
22-38, 22-39, 22-43, 22-44 

Black, 24-17 

Food habits of — Continued 

: ./ood, 


Ducks, "Wild, 20-32, 20-33, 22-19 

Eagle, Golden, 24-19 

Eagles, 22-3 

Fish-eating birds, 24-6, 24-19 


Arctic, 19-3 

Gray, 20-4 

Red, 20-4, 20-35, 22-20 
Foxes, 21-14, 24-19 
Gallinulo, Florida, 20-10 
Goose, Emperor, 20-2 
Ground squirrel , Columbian, 24-21 
Ground squirrels in relation to 

valley quail, 21-25 

Blue, 20-12 

Ruffed, 20-5, 21-14, 22-17, 
22-20, 22-25, 23-10 

Sage, 19-8 

California, 24-19 

Herring, damage to blueberries, 
Here, Snowshoc, 20-5, 22-20 

Marsh, 21-19, 24-20 

3 wa ins on' s , 21-19 
Hawks, 19-54, 20-5, 21-14, 21-18, 

Heron, Great blue, 24-19 
Kingfisher, 20-6 
Kite, Mississippi, 20-15 
Lizards, in insect control, 20-6 

American, 20-6, 22-20 

Red- breast cd , 20- 7 
Mi c c , J u iip i ng , 2 - 14 
Microtus, damage by, 22-5 
Microius montanus, 24-21 
Mini:, 20-35 
Mole, Brewer' s, 24-26 
Moose, 22-17 
Muskrat, 20-13, 20-32 

-,1 .-^A Q.O_ r \K 

Inland, au-i 
Boa. 20-14 


Barn, 19-20, 80-9, 20-17, 22-20 
Great horned, 20-0, 22-16, 

Short- eared , 20-8 
Owls, 19-34, 20-5 

Chukar, 23-26 

European, 20-8, 22-21 

Hungarian, 22-46, 22-47 
Pelican, Unite, 24-19 
Pheasant : 

Amur, 24-20 

Ring-necked, 20-2, 20-14, 21-14 

oo on a , o_-) , 7, - n_ r ~o o'~_p; 

Pigeon, Passenger, 20-2 

Pocket gopher, 24-27 

Frairic chicken, Attwatcr*s, 24-27 

Prairie clogs, 24-20 


Umbel's, 22-39 

Valley, 22-45 



December, 1930 

Pood habits of — Continued 
Rabbit, European, 24-21 
Raccoon, 20-9, 22-20 
R at : 

Kangaroo , 24-21 

Hood, 20-15 
Raven, White-nocked, 22-18 
Robin, 22-18 

Rodents vs. pino seeds, 24-21 
Sandorling, 24-22 
Scaup, Greater, 24-17 
Skunk, 21-14 
S nai 1 ( Polygyra ) , 20-9 
Snakes, 25-10 

Bottori's, 20-2 

English, 24-18 


: (OO 


Largo- di Hod, 


Douglas 1 s red, 24—22 
Fox, 22-21, 25 -11 

In England, 20-16 
Red, Eastern, 20-9 

Damaging Table Mountain 
pine, 22-21 
Starling, 24-22 
Thrush, Son:;, 84-43 
Turkey, Wild, 22-25, 22-42, 22-43, 

Turtle, Snapping, 24-23 
"Vulture, Slack, 24-23 
Warblers, 21-18 
Waterfowl, 20-33, 22-19, 22-20, 

Waxwing, Cedar, 22-18 
Vfolf, 20-35 

Woodcock, 22-20, 22-22, 23-15 
Woodpecker, California, 20-17 
woodpeckers, 22-26 

C-ainc birds, 19-8, 19-10 
Starling, 24—3 

Squirrel, Cray, Great Britain, 
Life histories (general articles): 
Breath- holding in mammals, 20-13 
Sex ratio: 

Birds, 20-16 
Bob-white, 22-31 

Life histories (general articles ) — Con- 

Sox ratio—Continued 


Mule, 23-12, 24-30 

Uhito-t ailed, 20-20, 20-21, 

CO — J_.o, <j'i~fciO 

Ducks, 23-13 

Ground squirrel, Thirteen striped, 

Microtus, 22-5 

Pheasant , Ring-nocked : 
Adult, 24-33 
Young, 20-15 

S qu irr el , G ray , 21 - 2 6 
Life histories of: 

Bear, Black, 20-10, 24-41 
Beaver, 20-3, 20-9, 24-24 
Bighorn, 20-11, 23-11 
Chipmunk, Eastern, 22-22 
Cot t entail , 24-24 
Coyote, 24-25 
Crawfishes, 24-6 

Mule, 23-12 

Unite- tailed, 20-11, 22-37, 23-12 
Dove , I lourning , 25 -13 
Ducks, 23-13 

Size of broods in British 
Columbia, 21-33 
Eagles, 22-3 
Eider, American, 20-1]. 
Fox, Arctic, 19-3 
Gone birds, Idaho, 20-11 
Goat, Mountain, 20-11 
Goose, Greater snow, 20-12 
Gr ound s qu i r r el : 

Thirteen- striped, 20-12 

Townsond' s, 22-22 

Blue, 20-12 

Raffed, 22-23, 22-37 

Sage, 19-8 

3 ha rp-t ailed , 2 2 - 23 
Bare, Snowshoe, 19-13 


Kite, Mississippi, 20-12 
Marten, 20-13 
Mice, Jumping, 20-14 
Mole, Brewer's, 24-26 
Muskrat, 20-15 

Breeding season, 23-14 



December, 1933 

Life histories of — Continued 
Opossum, 24-42 

Otter, Sea, 20-14 

Part r i d go , C hukar , 23 - 2 6 

Pheasant, Ring-nockod, 19-14, 

90_"1/! 0'^ — ^>'\ ") ," n. fz 0/_Kfl 

£jU _ i-'i, <Si„ — t/O , <&'£— JO , fcv'^ — OU 

Nesting study, 20-14 
Flovcr, Piping, 22-23 
Pocket gopher, 20-12 
Prairie chicken: 

Attivator' s, 24-27 

Greater, 22-23, 23-14 
Quail, Valley, 20-15, 22-24 
Rat, Wood, 20-15 
Robin, 24-27 
Shoveller, 23-14 
Skunk, 22-24, 24-28 

English, 22-24, 24-28 

Honslow' s, 21-28 
Squirrel, Cray, 21-25, 22-37 

In England, 20-16 
Squirrels, Wisconsin, 24-28 
Swallow, Tree, 22-25 
Swan, Trumpeter, 23-26 
Tern, Arctic, 24-29 

Bickncll's, 22-25 

Song, 24-4-2 

Wood, 20-16 
Turkey, Wild, 22-25, 24-39 
Walrus, 24-29 
Wood chuck, 20-16 
Woodcock, 25-15 
Woodpecker, California, 20-17 
Woodpeckers , 22-26 
Mar.agcr.aont : 

Apple trees, 22-25 


Birds, 19-34, 21-25, 
Owl, Barn, 20-17 
Boar, HLack, 20-28 
Beaver, 21-17 
Big gome, 21-18 
Bighorn, 23-11 
Bob-white, 20-18, 22-25, 

In Maryland, 22-28 
Preventing winter losses 
21-23, 23-27 
Burning, 20-18, 20-19, 21-5, 
22-25, 24-29, 24-30 


-; ;> n n 

Management — Co nt i nu e d 

Clearing, 23-15, 24-30 
Cottontail, 20-23, 22-27, 22-20, 

Cover, 19-34, 20-20, 20-25, 20-23, 

^O-^'x, d^~<-j I , ad—do, cLc—0\J 

Eor e, 20-13, 20-19 

In England, 20-25 

In relation to insect pests, 

Per wild turkey, 20-20 

Mule, 24-30, 24-33 
White-tailed, 20-20, 20-21, 20-2* 

Dove, Mourning, 23-13 

Electric in, 20-21, 20-34 

Elk, 20-22 

Yellowstone, 24-14 
Encouragement of natural reproduc- 

tion, 19-9 


Environmental improvement, 21-9, 22-2 

22-30, 25-31, 24-31, 24-50 
Fan:, wildlife, 19-4, 19-5, 20-22, 

iVir&or- sportsman relationship , 19-9, 
<3UrZiD, <-'J-^--:, <cO-2S, rf0-ou, ^0-30, 

22-17, 22-29, 


35-15, 23-16, 

23-17, 23-18, 23-19, 25-31, 24-5, 

£3 he - Oj_ ^ d. i x." mi x. J 

Poo shooting, 23-18 
Peed patches, 19-35., 20-22, 20-24, 
20-25, 20-34, 22-27, 22-28, 2 3-15, 

Alabama, 21-2, 23-33 
Minnesota, 21-13, 21-14 
North Carolina, 20-34 
South Dakota, 21-9 
Virginia, 21-3 
W i s c on s .1 2 1 , 2 - 2 5 
Field borders, 20-25, 21-9 
Firebreaks, 21-6 
Flushing tar, 19-55, 22-28 
Forest management in relation to 
wildlife management, 20-17, 20-19, 
20-21, 20-22, 20-25, 20-27, 20-53, 
20-34, 21-5, 21-6, 22-26, 22-50, 

Forest wildlife, 20-26, 20-27, 20-33. 
t;2— 28, d^,— a J, 2'lc— 31 , 2'x— o^j 
In England, 20-26 



Deccr.ibcr, 1939 

Management- -Cont inued 

Blue, 21-8 
Red, 20-28 
Fur animals, 20-28,, 24-50 
Game birds, upland, Minnesota, 

General, 20-28, 22-30 
Illinois, 19-9 
Ohio, 20-23 

Blue, 20-12 
Ruffed, 20-23, 20-35 
Harvest in/:, 19-35, 24-31 
Antelope, Oregon, 23-20 
Big game, Wyoming, 24-32 
Bob-white, 20-34, 22-31 

Overshoot in u lowers viinter 
resistance of survivors, 
Controlled shooting, 22-30, 
23-16, 23-17, 23-18, 23-20, 

Ohio, 20-28, 20-29, 20-50, 

Of squirrel, gray, 21-26 
Cottontail, Ohio, 20-29, 22-31 

California, 22-52 
Utah, 23-12, 24-50 
Wisconsin, 23-20 
Ducks, 25-. 13 
Elk, 20-22 
Faro: game: 

Ohio, 20-29 
Pennsylvania , 20-24 
Eur animals, 22-57 
Partridge, Hungarian, Ohio, 

Pheasant, Ring-necked: 
Michigan, 20-29 
Ohio, 20-29, 20-50, 22-31 
Pennsylvania, 22-23 
South Dakota, 21-50 

Public shooting grounds, 21-5, 

New Jersey, 23-17 
Ohio, 22-23 

In relation to land use, 22-31 

Squirrel, Gray, Ohio, 20-23, 

Mo. nagement — C ont i nued 
Harvest in g-.-Cont i nuo d 
Walrus, 24-23 
Waterfowl, 22-57 

Illinois, 22-32 
VJhales, 21-8 

Wildlife, Minnesota, 21-14 
Hedgerows, 23-22 
Herd regulation, 23-20, 24-52 

Oregon, 20-30, 23-9 
Utah, 24-51, 24-55 
Deer, White-tailed, 20-21, 25-22, 

24-35, 24-50 
Elk, 20-22, 20-51, 25-9 
Highway mortality, control of, 19-14 
Inventory, 22-2 

Big game, 21-25, 24-44 

Brant, California, 19-52 

C o 1 1 o nt a i 1 , I owa , 25 - 21 

Deer, White-tailed, 24-33 

Farm game, 19-35 

Fox, Red, I ova, 22-14 

Eur animals, Pennsylvania, 20-31 

Lakes of Wisconsin, 20-32 

Mustelids, western national 

forests, 19-9 
Pheasant, Ring- necked, Ohio, 

Prairie chicken, Missouri, 23-14 
Sea lions, California, 19-26 
Skunk, Striped, Iowa, 22-14 
Swan, Trumpeter, 23-26 
Waterfowl, 22-37 
Wildlife, southeastern Ohio, 
Land planning for wildlife, 20-32, 

22-2, 22-17 
Leasing shooting rights, 20-32 
Liars- and aquatic plants, 20-53 
ITatural reproduction, encouraging, 
pn _t n ~>~ _i i p -. ..^r. 

ITon-to::ic .ho' , 19-16 

P.A- H 


Partridge, Hungarian, 24-33 
Pheasant, Ring-necked, 19-34 

Ohio, 21-8 
Planning, 13-4 
Planting for raitcrfowl, 20-33, 21-4, 

^1—3, 21—23, eo2— 20 
Planting for wildlife, 21-2, 21-3, 

21-4, 24-49 



December, 1939 

Management — C out inucd 

Planting for wildlife — Continued 
A qu at i c s , 23-22 
Coralberry, 24-34 
Covorts, 21-2 

Flowers for hummingbirds, 24-29 
Fruits for birds, 24-29 


51 -E 

Marsh and aquatic plants, 20-33, 
21-4, 21-5, 21-25, 23-20, 

Huts, 24-34 
Partridge peas, 21-3 
Shelterbolts, 21-3 
Specifications for trees and 

shrubs, 21-2 
. / i nd b r o ak s , 21 - 3 
Planting for wildlife 
California, 2.1-3 

Mi nnc so t a , 21 ~ 2 , 

Missouri, 21-4 

No w Jersey, 21-2 

Northeast, 21-5 

Wisconsin _, 21-3 
Planting for wildlife and erosion 
control, 21-5, 22-35, 25-22, 
23-23, 24-34, 24-49 
Poisonous plants, 24-20 
Pond development, 21-5, 2.1-7, 



co ~t..o 



Prairie chicken, Attwator's, 

3,uail, Valley, 23-24 

Raccoon, 20- 2 8 

Range, 20-31, 21-6, 21-7, 21-13, 
21-14, 22-43 

Refuses, 19-2, 19-4, 19-7, 19-28, 
20-18, 20-23, 20-30, 20-52, 
20-35, 21-6, 21-29, 21-30, 21-51, 





23-25, 24-31, 24-34, 24-49 
For grouse, sage, 19-8 
Mi nnc seta, 21 - 14 
Pheasant, Ring-nocked, in Ohio, 

Private, 21-7 
In relation to overpopulations, 

20-27, 20-30 
In relation to restocking, 

waterfowl, 23-24, 25-25 
Ac wildlife laboratories, 21-7 

magement — Continue d 
Rcinbarsonent for soil conservation 

practices, 22-33 
Reindeer, 21-3, 24-54 
Re st orat i on , • 19-8 

Of environment, 19-7, 19-10, 

Of must el ids, 19-9 
Salting, 21-8 
Seal, Fur, 21-8 

Breaking dormancy of Crataegus, 

Storage, aquatic plants, 21-4 

O .V U U .C , i~y'J-iiO 

Soil conservation: 

Reimbursable practices, 23-3 
In relation to wildlife, 20-22, 
20-25, 21-9, 21-13 
Spraying wild fruit, 21-9 
Squirrel, Gray, 20-34, 23.-26 
Squirrel box, 24-55 
3 qu i rrols , \ Ji s cons in , 24—28 
Stocking, 21-10, 21-11, 22-50 
Big game, 20-18 
Caribou, 21-11 
Cost of in Delaware, 21-30 
Cottontail, 19-24, 21-11 
Ducks, New York, 23-25 
Elk, 20-34 

Grouse, Sharp-tailed, 20-35 
In Missouri, 24-5 
Moose', 20-34 
Partridge, Cbukar: 
Missouri, 23-26 
Pennsylvania, 21-11 
Pheasant, 21-10, 21-11, 22-28 

Reeves* , Pennsylvania, 21-11 
Ring- necked: 

New Jersey, 23-17 
Ohio, 23-26 
Pennsylvania, 21-12 
Quail, Valley, 22-33 
Swan, Trumpeter, 23-26 
Transplanting, 22-30 

Beavers, 20-18, 24-35 

Caribou, 21-7, 21-11, 21-12 

Doer, Mule, 25-21 

Elk, 21-12 

grouse, Shnrp-tai] ed, 23-13 



Doc onoc 


Management — C ontinucd 

Transplanting- -Continued 

Pheasant, Ring-nocked, 21-7, 
21-10, 25-26 

Quail, Valley, 22-53 

■ Beaver, 20-11 

Caribou, 21-12 

Deer, White-tailed, 24-35 

Focos, 21-25 

Grouse, prairie, 21-12 

Pheasant, Ring-necked, 23-26 
Water supply, 20-28 
Waterfowl, 20-23, 133-3 

On the range, 21-13 

Of the 'Southwest, 19-10 
Winter feeding, 19-7, 19-35, 21-13 

Deer, 22-29, 23-12, 24-31 

Quail, Valley, 23-24 

Squirrels, 21-14, 22-34 
Winter range, 21-14 
Wood chuck, 20-28 
Menageries, regulation of, 20-35 
Natural history: 
Age indicator: 

Game birds, 26-27 

Quail, 22-34 

Wat erf ova, 21-16 
Alaska, 24-35 
Birds of: 

Dallas County, Texas, -24-36 

Grand Canyon, Arizona, 24-36 

Nebraska, 19-34 

New York, Alleghany State Park, 

Tennessee, 21-15 

- .• *"*Q 



Birds of prey, 24-56 

Doer of the world', 24-56 

Fauna, Olympic National Park, 21-15 

Frogs ana toads, southeastern 

United States, 24-37 
Fur and game mammals' of: 

Alabama, 24-37 

Alaska, 21-15 
Korpetology of: 

Kentucky, 24-37 

Minnesota, 24-50 

Oregon, 24-37 

Quebec, 24-37 

Na t u ral hi s t or y- - c o nt i nue d 

Legumes of 'Wisconsin, 21-16 
Mammals of: 

C ommand o r Is land s , 19-5 

Idaho, ,21-16 

Labrador, 19-3 

Nov/ York, 24-33 

Oklahoma, 19-29 

'Quebec, 21-17 

Tennessee, 21-17 

Vermont, 19-3 
Migration, 22-34 
Papaw, 2.1-17 

Reptiles of: 

Arkan s a s , 21-1 7 
Ohio, 21-18 
Snake bite vs. livestock, 22-34 
Warblcrs of ITev; Jersey, 21-18 
Wildlife of: 

Salt marshes., 21-18 ' 
Tennessee, 81-15 
Pollution, 19-8, 20-53, 22-20 
Prcdatiou, 19-4, 19-5, 22-27, 
( gene ral art i clos ) 
Ground squirrols in relation to 

valley, 21-25 
Hawks in relation to .quail, 21-16 
Prey determining number of predators, 

Eolation to animal populations, 22-4 
Role of cover in, 24-15 
Squirrel, Gray, in relation to birds, 

"Vermin" problem, 19-4, 19-5, 21-6, 

Predation on: 

Bighorn, 20-11 

Bob -white, 21-13, 23-28 

Cottontail, 22-28 

Door, Oregon, 20-30 

Ducklings, 24-33 

Fishes, 22-4 

Goat, Mountain, 20-11 

Grouse, Ruffed, 22-25, 

Hare , S u ow s ho c , 22-55 

Microtias, Ontario, 22-5 

Partridge, Chnkar, 23-26 ' 

Phoasant, Ring-necked, 21-7 

Quail, Valley, 21-25, 23-24 

Salmon, 24-6 

22-55, 24-7 



Do c enb o j" , 1 9 3 9 

Prcdation on — Continued 

Shoveller, 23-15 

Thrush, Song, 24-43 

Waterfowl, 23-8 
Predators, 19-35, 20-32 

Control policy in national parks, 

(j6-'l j 

Fire ants, 22-27 j 

Identification by their work, 20-15 
Of Minnesota, 22-35 
Need of, 20-28 

Relative quantities of food con- 
sumed by, 21-19 

Artificial, limitations on, 21-10 

Bob-white, 21-21 

Cottontail, 22-30 

Deer, 24-45 


Mandarin, 21-19 

"Joed, 21-19 
Foxes, 21-25, 21-25 
Fur animals, 22-37 
Goose, Canada, 21-19 
Grouse, Ruffed, 22-35' 
Incubation, period of, for 39 kinds 

of pheasants, 21-21 
Irradi at ion re suit s : 

Game birds, 23-27 

Mink, 22-35 

Pheasants, 21-20 

Raccoon, 21-20 
Mammals, small, care in captivity, 

Mortality in gallinaceous embryos, 

Partridge, Hungarian, 21-21 
Pheasant, Ring-necked, 21-12, 21-21, 

22-30, 24-31 
Raccoon, 21-22 
To ..Is, 21-22 

Turkey, Wild, 21-22, 22-20, 24-39 
Vices, control of, 21-21, 21-22 
Wigoons , 21-22 
Research, 19-4, 23-31 

Basis of management, 21-23 
Bob-white' s resistance to cold, 

21-23, 23-27 
Carrying capacity, 22-36 
Climatomoter, 21-23 - j 

Climbing method, 24-39 

Re s on re h- -Cent i nuo d 

Control methods, 19-2 

Cover, 22-37 

Deer, White-tailed, 22-57 

Diseases of wildlife t 19-2 

Economics cf wildlife, 19-2 

Experiment Station, Michigan, 23-23 

Experimental are .s, 19-9 

Federal -6 tat a cooperative wildlife 

program, 1S-34, 21-26 
Food habits, 22-36 

Of predators, 20-35 
Food supplies, 22-37 
On forest-wildlife relationships, 

19-2, 21-26 
Far animal : 

C o ns o rvat i on , 19 - 2 

Utilization, 19-2 
Hair identification, 24-39 
1 Re.stolO; y in stomach analysis, 22-36 

X£b? OU S , It I f f O d , 2 2-57 
Lar.d user, in relation to 'wildlife, 

Live trapping rabbits, 24—40 
i/ia. lUgGi , j.y-fO 

Of grouse, ruffed, 20-3.5 
Marking rabbits, 24-40 


Birds, goner. 1 instructions, 

Woodcock, 21-22 
Feather marking, 22-36 
Tagging elk, 21-24 
Population studios, 19-32 
Range wildlife, 19-2, 24-14 
Res p i r erne t e r , 21 - 2 4 
Soxing sharp-t .ilod grouse, 24-40 
Sperm studies, 22-37 
Squirrel, Gray, 22-37 
Status oi'' wildlife, 19-2 
Tracking, 23-28 

Lizards, 24-40 
■. Fur animals, in P^nasylvania, 
Water supplies, 22-37 
On wildlife of Ohio, 22-37 


i/ILDLIFE REvIE'J: No. 25 

December, 1939 

U. S. Government: 
Biological Survey: 

Aleutian Islands Refuge, 24-4-8 

Annual Report, 1957-33, 19-2 

G ont r o 1 c p er at i on s , 19-2 

Cooperative wildlife management 
research, 19-34, 21-26, 21-50, 

Educat i onal ac t i vi t i es , 24—1 7 

Federal aid in wildlife resto- 
ration, 19-2, 21-29, 22-2, 

Plans and needs, 19-8 

Refuse program, 19-2, 19-3, 

Waterfowl situation, 1933-39, 
Bureau of Agricultural Economics: 

"Jork bearing on v/ildlife, 19-8 
Bureau of Fisheries: 

Plans and needs, 19-8 
G i v i 1 i an Cons er v :■ t ion C o rps : 

Educational activities, 24-17 

Work bearing on wildlife, 19-7, 
Extension Service: 

Educational activities, 23-9, 
Forest Service: 

Bigiiorn on national forests, 

Deer winter range survey, Mal- 
heur national Forest, Oregon, 
1938, 20-30 

Educational activities, 24-17 

Plans and needs, 19-8 

Policy in game management, 
National Park Service: 

Educational activities, 24—17 

Plans and needs, 19-8 

VJildlifo census, 24-48 

T J. S. Government --Continued 
Office of Education: 

Conservation activities, 24-17 
Soil Conservation Service: 

Bibliography of soil erosion 
and soil raid water conserva- 
tion, 19-2 
Educational activities, 24-17 
Hedges conserve soil and wild- 
life, 19-25 
Legumes for erosion control and 

wildlife, 20-6 
Plans and needs, 19-8 
Rodents and soil conservation, 

VJildlifc in the land utiliza- 
tion program, 20-32 
Uildlifo management in, 24-49 
; /eights: 

Bear, Black, 24-17, 24-41 
Birds in general, 21-24 
Cottontail, 24-24 
Coyote, 24-25 

flic, 24-32 

IJhito-tailcd, 20-20, 24-41 
Elk, 24-52 
Ground squirrel: 

Thirt ecu-striped, 20-12 
Townscnd's, 22-22 
Grouse, Sharp-tailed, 24-40 
Hare, Snowshoo, 19-19 
Marten, 20-13 
Owl, Great horned, 20-3 
Skunk, 22-24 
Sparrow, Hoiislow 1 s , 24-28 

walrus, 24-2 






December, 1939 

Nos. 19-24, April-November 1939 

[Numbers, as 24-9, refer to the issue and page] 

Abbott, Clinton 0., 2-1-9 

Abcgg, Roland, 21-21 

Ackers, C. P. , 20-26 

Adams, Lowell, 21-22 

Aldous, Clarence M. , 23-15 

Aldous, ShalcrE., 20-3, 22-37, 2-1—1-9 

Allan, Philip F. , 23-23 

Allen, Durvcrd L. , 21-10, 22-24, 25-28 

C\ A r^, .' 

C -jz — C-j: 

Allen, ELsa G. , 22-22 

Allen, Joseph C, 23-11 

Allrod, Charles E. , 21-15 

Anderson, Parker 0.-, 2-1—19 

Anderson, Rudolph M. , 21-17 

Arant, Frank S* , 24-37 

Asmundson, V. 3., 21-20 

Atkins, Samuel 'J., 21-15 

Austin, Thomas 8., 24-24 

Baglcy, Lester, 21-12 

Bailey, Florence M. , 21-36 

Bailey, Robeson, 21-13 

Bailey, W. 17. , 20-5 

Baker, John H. , 20-23, 25-16 

Baker, Roll in II. , 20-15 

Baldwin, S. Prentiss, 21-24 

Barabash-Nikiforov, I., 19-3 

Barker, Elliott 3., 22-3 

Bartlett, I. H. , 20-20, 24-33 

Bass, Charles C. , 19-20, 21-22, 24-42 

Bassctt, Charles F. , 21-25, 21-26 

Baumgartncr, Frederick IvI. , 22-16, 

22-34, 22-36, 23-13 
Baumgartncr, Luther L. , 21-13, 25-11 
Beadcl, II. L. , 21-18 
Beat tie, R. Kent, 19-20 
Boaudotte, F. R. , 19-17 
Boll, J. Frederick, 19-16 
Bcllroso, Frank C. , 22-32 
Benjamin, J. R. , 23-15 
Bennett, Byron L. , 19-17 
Bennett, J. II. , 21-2 
Bennett, Logan J., 20-2, 25-4 
Bonnitt, Rudolf, 22-30, 22-31, 23-14 
Benson, Dirck, 23-25 
Bent, Arthur C, 22-26 
Bernard, Richard M. , 20-13 

Beyers, Lillian E. , 21-22 

Bills, William E. , 22-6 

Bissonnette, Thomas Hume, 21-20, 22-35 

Blair, w. Frank, 19-25, 19-29, 24-9 

Blake, James, 19-26, 24-32 

3oeglin, Louis, 21-3 

Boottigor, Edward G. , 21-24 

Bolandcr, Cordon, 22-20 

Bond, Richard M. , 19-1.1, 20-5, 22-18 

Bonnet, Paul, 19-26 

Bordner, John 8., 20-51 

Borell, AdreyE., 19-11 

Bought or, Donald C, 19-17 

Bourn, Uarren 8 . , 23-5, 23-6 

Bower, Ward T. , 21-8 

Brackctt, Sterling, 19-16 

Bradbury, Harold II. , 22-26 

Bradley, G. H. , 19-29 

Bradt, G. \I. , 23-16 

Brassard, J. A., 20-13 

Breckenridgc, "J. J., 24-50 

Brown, Richard M. , 22-7 

Bahlor, Ernest 0., 21-51 

Bump, Gardiner, 23-2, 25-27 

Burlington, H. J. , 23-15 

Burroughs, R. D. , 20-23, 20-29 

Burt, Charles E. , 24-37 

Burton, 0. A. , 24-59 

Byrd, Slon E. , 19-17, 19-24 

Cahalane, Victor H. , 20-17, 21-15, 

22-1, 24-56 
Caldwell, Cyril, 22-20 
Caldwell, JohnC, 19-55 
Cameron, Thomas \i. IvI., 19-24 
Cannon, D. G. , 19-22, 19-25 
Carr, Eathcrine, 24-57 
Car hart, Arthur II., 19-6 
Case, George, 19-29, 21-8 
Causey, 0. R. , 24—12 
Chaddock, T. T., 19-20, 22-21, 24-19 
Cliapol, Urn. L. , 20-53 
Chapman, Floyd B. , 20-28, 21-9, 21-13, 

21-26, 22-34, 22-57, 23-12, 24-25, 

Chapman, II. H. , 19-10 
Chapman, Lawrence 3. , 22-25 



December, 19139 

Chitty, Donnis, 19-12, 22-5 

Chitty, Helen, 20-8 

Christ offers, Harry J. , 21-8 

Clerk, Arthur L. , 22-33 

Clark, G. II. , 19-26 

Clerk, Leonard, 23-27 

Clarke, C. II. D. , 20-9 

Clarke, J. Lyell, 23-6 

Clarke, Miriam K. , 22-9 

Clarke, Talbott E. , 20-5, 23-10, 23- 

Clausen, Robert T. , 24-37 
Clay, William M. , 24-2 
Clemens, J. A. , 20-7 
Cliff, Edward P., 23-8 
Clinc, Justus H. , 22-29, 23-16 
Coburn, Don R. , 23-3 
Cochill, G. E. , 24-42 
Collins, Grcnold, 24-29 
Compton, Lawrence V. , 21-12 
Conant, Roger, 21-18 
Conklin, ST. Gard, 20-23, 24-31, 24-3 
Connors, Charles H. , 21-2 
Conti, L. F. , 24-41 
Cook, David B. , 22-30 
Coclcy, R. A., 24-13 
Cory, Ernest N. , 22-15 
Cottam, Clarence, 20-2, 22-19, 23-5, 

23-6, 23-10, 24-10, 24-17, 24-19 
Couch, Leo K. , 22-2 
Cox, William!., 20-5, 21-6 
Craighead j Frank, Jr. , 24-36 
Craighead, John J,, 2-1-36 
Cramer, Albert J., 21-24 
Crcndall, Bowcn S . , 19-20 
Griddle, Stuart, 20-12 
Crosthwait, S. L. , 22-15 
Crowley, J. H. , 24-41 
Cruickshank, Allan D. , 22-24 
Csech, Albert G. , 21-20 
Cullcy, Matt, 22-36 
Dachnowski-S tokos, A. P., 22-15 
Da hi en, BcrnhardC., 24-35 
Dale, Frederick II., 24-41 
Dambach, Charles A. , 20-22 
Darrou, Robert, 23-10 
Davenport , La Verne A . , 23-10 
Davis, Cecil N. , 21-5, 23-23 
Davis, D. II. 3. , 22-14 
Davis, KonaethS., 20-22 
Davis, William B. , 21-16, 24-2' 


Davison, Verne' E. , 20-25, 22-38 

Day, Albert II., 19-2, 22-2, 25-19 

Dearborn, Ned, 24-39 

Deck, Raymond S., 20-9 

Dclaplanc, J. P., 22-9 

Do Nio, R. IvL , 20-4 

Denton, J. Fred, 19-24 

Dory, A. , 20-12 

Dousing, Murl, 24-26 

Dice, Lee R. , 22-16, 24-27 

• Dickerson, L. M., 22-5 
; Dill, Herbert H. , 23-24 

Ditmars, Raymond L., 22-34 

Dixon, Josephs., 22-3, 23-20 
j Dougherty, R. W. , 19-22 
j Drill, Edna, 24-38 
i Dymond, J. R. , 19-12 

Eadie, W, Robert, 24-26 
j Edminster, Frank C., 20-25, 25-22, 24-7 
I Edwards, 0. T., 20-30 

Egbert, Gcorgo L. , 19-11 

Ehrhart, E. 0. , 24-30 

Einarscn, Arthurs., 25-20 

Elkins, Winston A., 24-50 

Elton, Charles, 19-32, 22-5, 24-15 

Emlon, John T . , Jr. , 22-24 

Enders, Robert K. , 22-37, 23-14 

English, P. F. , 20-2 

Enlow, C. R. , 19-25 

Erickson, Arnold E. , 19-12, 19-15, 

Errington, Paul L. , 19-14, 20-2, 20-13, 

Eskcy, C. R. , 24-12 

Evans, C. A., 19-19, 22-8 

Evans, Richard I., 21-16 

Fas sett, Noiman C , , 21-15 

Fcldman, i/fa. II. , 19-15 

Fonstermacher, R. , 24-49 

Font on, Carroll Lane, 19-33 

Fisher, Edna M. , 20-14 

Fisher, Loo W. , 22-23 

Flomion, Florence, 21-8 

Ford, John, 20-8 

Fox, Adrian C, , 21-9 

Fox, Herbert, 22-7 

Franc i s , Sdward , 24- - 13 

Franklin, Sydney, 23-22 

Fredine, Gordon, 3.9-15, 24-49 

Frison, Theodore H. , 19-8 

Fryer, J. C. F. , 24-18 



Gabriclson, Ira IT., 19-2, 19-9, 20-12, 

21-6, 23-2 

Gaines, Stanley H. , 19-2 

Gcrstcll, Richard, 21-2o, 22-27, 23-27 

24-15, 24-41 
Gibbons, R. J., 24-13 
Gibson, Arthur, 24-7 
Giles, LeRoy W. , 20-9 
Gillese, John, 21-4 
Gill ham, C. E. , 24-49 
Girard, George L., 19-8, 25-14 
Glading, Ben, 20-15 
Glasgow, Robert D. , 19-50 
Glover, Katherine, 19-3 
Godden, F. U. , 20-11 
Goldman, E. A. , 24-2 
Good, Ernest E. , 20-22 
Gooding, Leslie N. , 22-53 
Gordon" Kenneth L., 24-37 
Gorsueh, D. M. , 22-29 
Gould, H. P. , 21-17 
Gowanloch, Janes N. , 22-5, 24-5 
Gower, "./. Carl, 19-18, 19-21, 19-23, 

Graf, William, 24-57 

Graham, Edward H. , 20-6, 22-21, 23-23 
Gray, Anderson M. , 20-3 
Gray, Donald V. , 25 -8 
Green, R. G. , 19-16, 19-19, 19-21, 

19-26, 22-8, 22-11, 22-12, 22-15, 

Green, Un. E. , 20-14 
Greene, S, W. , 24-29 
Greffenius, R. J., 22-13 
Griffith, Richard E. , 23-3 
Grimm, Rudolf .L. , 24-14 
Guilford, H. M. , 19-21 
Gutemuth, C. R. , 21-17 
Gutzman, L. T., 20-11 
Gwatkin, Ronald, 24-11 
Bias, V. II. , 24-12 
Hall, E. Raymond, 24-41 
Hall, I. C. , 19-15 
Hamerstrom, F. IT. , Jr., 19-26, 21-12, 

£5£j— &£$ 9 C,'zz~0 Cj 

Hamilton, \h J., Jr., 19-4, 22-18, 

Hanson, Herbert C, 19-27, 22-13 
Hanson, John, 22-8 
Harrington, Robert '.)., Jr., 22-10 
Harris, Kenton L. , 20-20 

December, 19: 

'Hatton, 3. Ross, -19-26 

"Hatch, A. 3., 20-18, 21-9, 21-10 
Hatfield,- Donald M. , 24-19 
Hausman, Leon A-. , 21-18 
Hawbecker, Albert C, 24-18 
Hawkins, Arthurs., 22-32 
Hegner, Robert, 22-7 ■ 
Heihtzleman, 3. Frank, 22-2 
Hendrickson, George 0., 20-8, 23-21 
Henry, Cordia.J., 23-24. 
Herman, Carlton M. , 19-18, 22-12 
Hermel, Louis C. , 23-8 
Hero , Ca z imi r , 19-32 
Heyward, Frank, 20-18 
Ilickey, Joseph J. , 24-16 
Hicki e , Paul , 21 -11 
Hicks, Lawrence E. , 20-29, 22-31, 

23-26, 24-35 ■ 
Hill, Russell G. , 19-34, 20-24, 22-3 
Hochbaum, Albert, 23-13 
Hoffmaster, P. J., 23-19 
Holt, ErnestG., 19-25, 21-9 
Holtzapple, Raymond, 24-55 
Hones s, Ralph F., 24-11 
Hopkins, Ralph, 24-41 
Horn, E. E. , 21-25, 21-26 
Ilosley, N. U. , 19-35, 22-20 
Hoyle, Vta. L. , 19-20 
Howarth , C . R. 
Hubbell, T. H. 
Huff, Clay G., 24-10 
Hull, A. V., 23-26 
Hunt , Roy M. , 21-21 
Hunter, Russell T . , 22-18 
Hurley, Richard J., 19-6 
Hyde, A. Sidney, 24-28 
Hyslop, J. A. , 19-33 
Xmler, Ralph II., 21-25, 22-18 
Irving, Laurence, 20-13 
Ivey, Julian C, 23-29 
Jackson, C. F. , 19-3 
Jellison, iJilliam L. , 22-11 
Jensen, L. P. , 21-4 
Jewett, Stanley G. , Jr., 24-37 
Johnson, F. if. , 22-52 
Johnson, Karl en G. , 24-55 
Jones, Elmer A. , 23-32 
Jones, II. Walter, Jr., 24-28 
Jones, Joha C. , 24-11 
Jones, Halter B. , 25-6 
Jungherr, Scwin, 19-18 
Kalmbach, E. R. , 21-25, 22-7, 23-7 

, 22-6 
, 19-25 



December, 1939 

Kauffnann, Eric, 24-5 

Kelker, George H. , 19-29 

poller, "Jm. N. , 24-42 

Kellogg, Ronington, 21-17 

Kelso, Loon II., 24-20 

Kclway, Phyllis, 20-1G 

Kcid eia,h , 3 . C harlos , 21-24 

Kcnnoy, F. R. , 19 -2C 

Kostlcr, J. J. , 20-54 

Kettunon, A. G. , 24-17 

Eichlbauch, VJr.i. , 21-19 

Kirk, Walter F. , 25-16 bor, Laurence II. , 24-38 

Knappon, Phocbo, 20-2 

Knox/lton, George E. , 20-5 

Kohls , Glen II. , 24-13 

Krauch, Hermann , 19 -10 

Lacier, Karl F. , 20-6, 22-4 

Langcnbach, John R. , 20-8 

La Nouc, Francis D. , 19-25 

Larson, C. L. , 19-21 

Larson, Charles P. , 24-42 

Lascclles, Tony, 19-8 

Latham, Rogor M. , 22-25 

Lay, Daniel W. , 19-27, 19-32, 20-15 

Lcedy, Daniel L., 19-27, 20-14, 20-29, 

20-30, 21-7, 23-5, 25-26 
Lchuann, Valine ff. , 30-18, 22-40, 

Lchmor, C. 3. , 22-35 
Leopold, Aldo, 20-25, 20-28, 25-16, 

24-3, 24-4 
Leopold, A. Starker, 22-54 
Lcscarhoura, Austin C. , 24-39 
Leslie, P. H. , 22-14 
Levis, Harrison F.., 20-11 
Ligon, J. Stokloy, 19-10 
Lloyd, lioyos, 23-2 
Lincoln, Frederick C, 22-34, 24-45 
Lindscy, Alton A. , 24-22 
Little, Elbert L., Jr., 20-7 
Loukashkir., A. S., 24-20 
Lui.ilcy, Ellsworth D. , 19-7, 22-3 
Lylc, Clay, 24-5 
Lynch, John J. , 24-17 
Mackio, D. 3. , 22-12 
MacNamara, Looter G. , 23-15 
Madscn, Holgor, 24-21 
Manges, J. D. , 34-42 
Manwoiler, J., 21-5, 21-11, 21-12, 

24-40, 24-50 

Marsdcn, Stanley J., 24-59 

Martin, A. C, 22-19, 22-55, 25-11 

Martin, J. Ifc Lies, 24-39 

Marshall, William E. , 19-9 

Mass, Fred II. , 19-23 

Mas soy, A. 3. , 21-3 

May, Franklin "I. , 23-11 

Mayr, Ernst, 20-16 

McAtoe, 17. L. , 19-28, 20-21, 20-33, 

21-18, 21-27 
McCachran, R. A. , 24-31 
McCain, Randal, 25-22 
McCann, Lester J., 20-4 
McClanahan, Robert C, 24-44 
McClure, E. Elliott, 24-14, 24-59 
IIcDomid, A. M. , 19-17, 22-8 
McDougall, \J. A., 24-8 
J "c Do we 11, R o b ort D . , 20-8 
Mcllhonny, E. A. , 24-23 
McLean, D., 22-10 
McKcnny, Margaret, 24—29 
Melandcr, L. "J. , 22-10 
Molis, Percy E., 20-27 
Mendall, HoxvardL., 21-22 
Middloton, A. D. , 20-8 
Middour, J. C. , 20-3 
Millard, Clarence, 21-21 
Miller, Fred, 21-13 
Minor, Fred T. , 22-8 
Moffitt, Janes, 19-32 
Mohr, Carl 0. , 22-16 
Mollonhauor, Un. , Jr., 22-21 
Mont aonc ry , George A. , 22-29 
Montgonory, W. E. , 24-32 
Moore, Eliwood 3., 20-25 
Mooro, Eugenia Rutland, 23-34 
Moore, George C, 23-13 
Morse , Marius A. , 22-35 
Morton, Jamos II., 20-3, 22-50 
Mo so, Catherine, 21-15 
Moss, A. E. , 22-51 
Mullen, Franks., 23-9 
Munro, J. A., 20-7, 24-23, 24-38 
Murphy, Rohort Caspian, 19-4, 19-5, 

Murray, T. 3., 20-11, 20-12 
Musslor, Glenn E. , 21-34 
Nagol, ilorner . , 25-25 
Nelson, A. L., 20-5, 24-17 
ITichols, J. T., 22-24 
C'Connell, Frank B. , 21-4 



December, 1939 

Odlaug, Theron 0., 19-19 

Odum, Eugene P. , 24-9 

Olivier, Louis, 19-19 

Olsen, Orange A., 21-14 

Olson, A, L. , 20-31 

Osgood, Frederick L., Jr., 19-3 . 

Ott, George L. , Jr. , 22-9 

Palmer, C. I.:., Jr., 19-34 

Palmer, E. Laurence, 23-9, 24-16, 

Parsell, Jack, 20-22 
Parsonson, W. J., 21-19, 21-22 
Fart en, II. L. , 24-7 
Paul, Allard A., 19-23 
Pearson, Allen M. , 21-2, 23-13 
Peterson, Walter A. , 20-32 
Pettingill, OlinS., Jr., 22-22, 24- 
Philip, Cornelius B. , 19-13, ' 19-15, 

Fitelka, Frank A. , 24-9 
Piatt es, Cyril, 20-4 
Pough, Richard, 22-4 
Price, Raymond, 24-7 
Pyle, Norman J. , 22-7 
Qu ort nip , E . R . , 25-3 
Rachford, C. E. , 24-54 
Randall, Pierce E. , 22-23, 22-32, 

23-4, 24-20 
Raskopf , Benjamin D. , 21-15 
Rasmussen, D. I., 23-12, 24-30 
Reed, II. R. , 24-29 
Reeds, Frank B. , 24-54 
Riley, William A., 22-9, 24-10 
Ritter, Urn. E. , 20-17 
Roberts, Thomas S., 24-50 
Rodgers, Thomas L. , 24-40 
Rosenc, Walter, Jr., 21-26 
Ross, W. A., 23-9 
Royal, Lloyd A. , 24-22 
Ruedemanu, Rudolf, 20-10 
Ruff, Frederick J., 25-4, 24-35 
Rdggles, Dyor N. , 23-52 
Buhl, H. D. , 20-34 
Rule , Glenn K. , 21-5 
Rutland, Don, 21-15 
Rutledge, Archibald, 21-7 
Saari, Matt, 22-17 
Salyer, J. Clark, II., 20-6 
Sampson, Arthur W. , 19-31 
Sanders, Roy D. , 23-20 
Saugstad, Stanley, 19-33 

' s 

Saunders, Aretas A. , 21-14 

Schantz, William E. , 24-27 

Schoonmaker, W. J., 20-10, 20-11 

Scott, W. E. , 24-10 

Scott, Thos. G., 19-13, 22-14 

Schwardt, H. H. , 21-17 

Sedam, John, 24-34 

Seghetti, L., 22-6 

Self, J. Teague, 24-23 

Seiko, Lyle F., 22-14 

Sellards, Andrew W. , 19-17 

Shadle, Albert R. 24-24 

Slants, II. L. , 19-6 

Sharp, Ward M. , 21-4, 23-22 

Sheldon, Carolyn, 20-14 

Sheldon , H. K. , 24-4 

Sheldon, H. P., 21-25 

Sherman, K. B. , 20-2 

Shepherd, Harry W. , 21-5 

Shoemaker, Carl D. , 23-19 

Short, Alexander W. , 22-29, 23-19 

S i i to ne n , La u r i , 2 4 - 4 2 

Silta, Henry, 21-21 

Simmons, J:uicjs R., 19-15, 21-5 

Simpson, Thomas W., 20-10 

Slattery, Harry, 24-55 

Smith, Clarence F., 22-57 

Smith, Laurence H. , 20-17 

Smith, Robert H. , 25-24 

Southern, H. II. , 24-40 

Soils, Lyle E. , 20-25 

Speakes, Harry E. , 21-14 

Speirs, J. Hurray, 24-3 

Saerry, Charles C, 24-18 

Stanber, Leslie A., 22-10 

Ste.bler, A. M. , 23-28 

3 1 q e n i s , Jo hn H . , 23-25 

Stephens, S. Sydney, 24-5 

Stevens, Hail E. , 24-11 

Stovanson, Donald D. , 19-12 

S b cwart , Goo r ge , 24—7 

Steward , M. A., 22-12 

Stickel, William. H. , 24-2 

Soil-os, G. W. , 19-15 

Stillwell, Jerry E. , 24-56 

Stoddard, Herbert L., 20-19, 22-26, 

Stuart, H. 0. , 22-9 
Sumner, E. Lowell, Jr., 22-3, 22-45, 

Sutton, George M. , 20-12 



Doconbcr, 1939 

Svihla, Arthur, 22-22 

Bwan, Charles, 20-8 

Swan son, Gustav, 24-50 

Suanson, Harold B. , 22-55 

Swcnk, Myron H. , 19-34 

Swift, Ernest, 20-20 

Svi;;art, Mrs. H. M. , 24-29 

Taylor, E. L., 24-21 

Taylor , No man , 19 -3 

Taylor, Walter P. , 19-9, 21-23, 21 

Teller, C. Roy, 22-29 ' 

Torres, J. Kenneth, 24-22 

Thomas, W. Stephen, 19-34 

Thompson, Dave, 24-20 

Ticchurst, Claud B. , 21-16 

Tinslcy, Scldcn L. , 24-21 

Titus, Harold, 23-16 . 

Towlc, Robert E. , 23-25 

Towns, Homer G. , 20-32 

Trapido, Harold, 24-37 ; 

Trautman, Milton B. , 22-6 


Travis, Bernard V., 19 -P 


Trcnk, F. B. , 21-3 
Truax, Hi Hard, 21-12 
Trump, Ceorac E. , 20-11 
Turner, L. T. , 21-9 
Twicholl, A. R. , 20-16 
Twinn, C. R. , 24-7 
Tyzzcr, Ernest E. , 19-17 
Uhlcr, F. M. , 22-19, 23-10 
Uttal, Leonard J. , 24-2 
Van Cleave, Harlcy J. , 22-11 
Yan Dorsal, William R, , 24-21 
Van Dcvcntcr, Wm. C, 22-14 
Van Roekcl, H. , 22-9 
Varncr, I. II. , 20-27 
Vaughn, Ernest A., 22-28 
Volk, Joseph J., 19-17, 19-18 
.Jade, Douglas E., 20-51, 23-29 
Uahlonborg, W. G. , 24-29 
Wakcman, Ivla:;, 21-7 

Walker, R. II., 24-7 
Wallace, George J., 22-25 
Jallaco, Tom, 23-9 . 
Waller, E. F. , 24-41 
Warburton, C. W., 22-17, 23-9 
Weaver, Florence G., 20-16 
Jcavor, Richard Lee, 22-24, 24-16, 

Webb, James W. , 21-2, 25-53 

Wehr, Everett E. , 22-8, 24-12 

Welsh, Stanley, 22-19 

Welter, Wilfred A. , 24-37 

honzel, Herman C., 20-24 

Wessoll, Chas. W. , 21-11, 21-12 

Wetmore, Alexander, 21-15 

Jotmoro, Psyche W., 24-13 

Wliolan, R. V. , 22-5 

hhitahcr, H. L. , 22-21 

White, H. C, 20- G, 24-6 

Whitlock, S. C, 19-18, 19-22, 19-23, 

19-24, 22-8, 23-4 
Wickliff, Edward L., 22-6 
Wickstrun, R. H. , 22-4 
Wilcoa, Lc Roy, 2.2-24 
Willett, G. , 19-11 
Williams, C. 3., 24-19 
Williams, Louis L., 25-6 
Wilson, Everett, 22-55 
Wilson, I. D. , 24-54 
Wolf, Fred T., 20-9 
Wolf, Frederick A. , 20-9 
Wolf, William, 24-10 
Wolfson, Fruma, 22-7 
Wood, George W. , 25-16 
Wocstcr, L. D. , 19-23, 20-7, 21-19 
Wright, Earl G. , 22-36 
Yeatter, Ralph E. , 22-46 
Young, R. T., 22-13 
Young, Stanley P., 24-25 
Wyma:i, Donald, 21-3 
Ziimicrmaiin, F. R. , 24-23 


December, 1939 

Nos. 19-34, Apri-1-Nov ember 1939 



: Date 


Number of 

, . i. Special 
: Autnors ; , - , . , 

. Articles , 


, and Ne\/s 


. April 1939 

: 110 





20 : 

May 1939 

: 101 ■ 



: — : 


21 .: 

May 1939 


: 88 





August 1939 

124 : 

135 ( : 





: October 1939 

: 79 






November 1939 : 


; 165. 



: 6 








* Duplications deducted. 

The edition of this issue of WILDLIFE RET/TEW is 3,000 copies, 






Bibliography . . 

Biological Survey 

Report, 1936-39 



Conservation 3 

Control 4 

Destruction 5 

Diseases and parasites ... 6 

Ecology 14 

Economics 18 

Education .......... 18 

Food habits IS 

Forest Service 23 

Life histories ♦ 

Management : 

Attracting birds .... 




En vivo mien t a 1 i rap r ov erne nt 

Earmer-sportsman relat i on- 
ship 31 

Feed patches 31 

Feeding 31 





Forest management in rela- 
tion to wildlife manage- 

Forest wildlife 


Herd regulation 

Inventory . . 

Land planning for wildlife 


Planting for wildlife . . 
Planting for wildlife and 
erosion control .... 






'./inter feeding 

Natural history 



Soil Conservation Service . . 
Wildlife leaflets ....... 

Notes and news 

Author index for this issue . . 




Washington, D. C. 

No. 26 

February, 1940 

WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 194 

Bibliograph y; F iling wi Idli fe_ lit erasure 

Ye_age_r Jf Lee E. Subjects for filing wildlife literature, Journ. 
Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalane, National lark Service, Washington, 
D. C. 75 cents a copy), 4(1), Jan. 1040, pp. 44-54, 1 fig., 1 table. 

Author's abstract: "The author's system of indexing wildlife literatur 
is described. This is essentially a flexible, related-subject arrangement of 
about 4-00 headings under five main divisions of the literature, which are 
Gen eral, Organi zat i onal , Specific, Management, and Basic Research. As a i'ilin 
policy, references are placed as specifically as possible, and a simple cross 
reference card system is used for citations which could bo placed under two or 
more subjects. Discussed are several indexing systems for references and re- 
prints, together with various helps used by the anther. Filing mechanics, 
difficulties of file making for field workers, the convenience of clear, 
descriptive titles, and the desirability of developing a standard system for 
indexing wildlife literature are treated briefly. The complete list of filing 
sub j e ct s is g iven . " 

Bibliography: Zooloay of Tennes see 

Shoup_, _CLarles 3. A?i annotated bibliography of the zoology of 
Tennessee and the Tennessee Valley region, Aajoriccn Midland Naturalist 
.( Dane, Ind. $1.00 a cop'0 , 61(3), May L959, pp. 583-635. 



B iol ogical Survey: Annual Report, 1933-39 

Oalrielson, Ira N. Report of the Chief of the Bureau of Biological 
Survey 1959 (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. 0. 15 cents a copy), 75 
pp., 6 tables, December 20, 1939. 

The last of a series of 54 annual reports under the Department of Agri- 
culture. Features deemed of special interest are functioning of The Federal 
Aid to Wildlife Restoration Act , continued rapid progress of the Federal will 
life refuge program, and establishment of the Patuxeiit Research Refuge. 
Numerous other activities are reviewed in brief paragraphs and the operations 
of the Bureau are summarized by subjects including, investigations of migratoi 
waterfowl, birdbanding, and wildlife researches including those of the Federal 
State cooperative units end those on economic investigations, fur animals, and 
disease and rodent control. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration is again 
treated with a tabulation of approved projects, showing their locations and 
purposes. Acquisition of more than 2,000,000 acres of refuge lands is shown i 
a table giving localities and project designations. The restoration of rofugc 
areas by Federal works agencies and their biological development are describee 
Several now and numerous older refuges and ranges are briefly discussed, 
especially as to their utilization by wildlife. The report includes also sec- 
tions on the enforcement of conservation laws, on importations of mammals and 
birds, on predator and rodent control, and en wildlife conservation in Alaska, 


jILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 1940 

pleasure may be derived from keeping these animals in suitably confined areas, 
their maintenance in a wild state in a farming district calls for a higher sacra- 
fice from the agricultural community than the latter can possibly be expected to 
make. Tenants have in fact in several instances threatened to give up their 
farms, if steps were not taken to reduce the numbers of the vagrant deer." The 
control method recommended is shooting, but done selectively, by a few persons, 
rather than by drives. 

Control: Deer repellent 

bJeiss, Siegfriecj.. A simple deer repellent for conifer plantations, 
Journ. Uiidlife Management (Victor II. Cahalane, National Park Service, 
Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 4(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 77-79, 2 tables. 

Cowdung, 5 parts, hydrated lime 1 part, plus enough water to make a thin 
plaster applied to terminals rather effectively protected thorn and did not in 
itself injure the buds. 

Contr o l: Rats 

Fallowf i_old, John. Declaration of war on rats, The Field (114 Fleet 
St., London, E.C. 4, England. 1 shilling a copy), 174(4531), Oct. 20, 1939, 
p. 849, 1 photo. 

With food conservation a necessity in Great Britain, rat control is a 
national duty. Each rat is estimated to cost the country one pound ($4.86) a 
year. "Under the Rats and Mice Destruction Act of 1919 all occupiers of premises 
are expected to control these rodents, but the law is seldom enforced," "One of 
the most serious things is the fact that the Black rat is spreading fast and is 
exterminating the Common or Brown rat." Being a better climber, it is not so 
amenable to rat-proof construction as is the Brown rat. Damage preventive steps 
are outlined and also aggressive control measures including poisoning with red 
squill, etc., and gassing. "Farmers should encourage all the animals and birds 
that help to keep down rats and mice. : ' Owls, hawks, foxes, stoats, and domestic 
cats are mentioned. 

Roberts, 3. G-. The tricks of trapping wolves, Forest and Outdoors 
(610 Canado~"Coment Bldg. , Montreal, Canada), 35(11), Nov. 1939, pp. 340-341, 
1 photo. 

Suggestions as to type and care of traps, scent posts, and the making of 

De st rue 1 1 on: Higjiway mortality, Michigan 

Mar t in, Russ ell J . Highway toll, Michigan Conservation (Michigan 
Dept. of Conservation, Lansing), 9(3), Dec. 193^ 

> .■.-' • 

General remarks, records by two State employes, and estimates of probable 
mortality in the State. Care urged. 

WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 . . February, 1940 

De s t rue t i on : _ _ j±L gjrwa y_ mo r t al i t y , T e xas 

Jk_vis_>_ j{il_lJLar;i B. Mortality of wildlife on a Texas highway, Journ. 
Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalane, National Park Service, Washington, 
D. C. 75 cents a copy), 4(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 90-91, 1 table. 

Ten months records of mammals found dead along 6 miles of concrete high- 
way in Brazos County indicated an average mortality of nearly 10 per mile-year. 
Extending this figure over the mileage of fast highways in the State jives an 
estimate of nearly 157,000 mammals killed annually; probable mortality on 
unimproved roads (40 percent as great) would bring the figure to nearly 180,000, 
This is for mammals alone; birds suffered less but reptiles more. 

Biseases_ and. Parasites: Acarina, Amblyomma 

CjDoley, R. A., and G-len M. Kohls. Amblyomma philipi — a new tick 
from Texas and Mexico, with a key to known species of Amblyomma in the 
United States (Acarina: Ixodidae), J. S. Public Health Service Rep. 54(2), 
Jan. 1939, pp. 44-47, 2 pis. Reprint 2023, 4 pp., 2 pis. (Supt. of Docu- 
ments, "Washington, D. C. 5 cents a copy). 

The title is almost an abstract. The ticks described were collected 
from cottontails, jack rabbits, and coyotes. Separate keys are presented for 
the males and females of 6 species of Amblyomma, 

Diseases and Parasites: AcarinSj Dermacentor 

Cooley_,_ R_._A. The genera Dermacentor and Otocentor (ixodidae) in 
the United States, with studies in variation, U. S. Public Health Service, 
National Institute of health Bui, 171 (Supt. of Documents, Washington, 
D. C. $1.35 a copy), 89 pp., 50 pis., 3 figs. 1933. 

A systematic monograph, introduced by a general account of these ticks 
and their role as vectors of diseases. Descriptive 'terms are defined and 
illustrated, and the method of measuring the ticks is explained. The history 
and synonymy of the gonus is given as woll as key to adults and nymphs. The 
specific accounts include synonymy; description and illustration of sexes, - 
nymphs, and larvae; records of hosts; and statement of distribution (with map) . 
There is a colored plate, besides other illustrations showing males and females. 
of each species. The genus Otocentor is described as new; type species 
Dermacentor nitons ranging from Texas to northern South America. 

PA^SSSJL- 8 ^. Parasites: Acarina, Eutonyssus 

IMbbardj W. Eugjene. Eutonyssus ewingi n. sp. an ophidian lung mite, 
American Midland Naturalist (Notre Dame, Ind. Ol.0° a copy), 21(3), May 
1939, pp. 657-SG2, 1 pi. 

From rattlesnake in Oklahoma.; description, illustration, comparative 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 1940 

Di seas es and ,Paras_it esj^ _ Algal poison ing 

Deem, A. J., and Frank Thorp ,_ Jr. Toxic algae in Colorado, Journ. 
Amer, Veterinary Medical Assoc. (221 N. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 75 
cents a copy), 95(752), Nov. 1939, pp. 542-544, 1 photo, 1 table. 

Mortality among tame ducks at a lake in Weld County, Colo, instigated 
this study which took botulism into consideration but, nevertheless, led to the 
conclusion that true alg&l poisoning had occurred. The alga was identified as 
Anaba ana fp~iA s g>i?2 a io® • k&ld birds were found dead about the lake. 

Diseases and Parasites: Anaplasmosis 

StjLleSj_ GeOj_ J£. Anaplasmosis in cattle, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 
Circular 154 (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. 5 cents a copy), 10 
pp., 3 figs., revised December 1939. 

Nature of the disease, its geographical distribution, symptoms, lesions, 
diagnosis, and treatment. The publication cited here because the malady is 
reported to affect t] e antelope and buffalo. 

Disease_s_ and Parasites: Aspergilloses 

111. 75 cents a ccoy), 95(752), Nov. 1939, pp. G45-646, 2 photos. 

Durant , A. J., and Elvis R. Doll. Pulmonary aspergillosis in a 
skunk, Joum. Amer. Veterinary Medical Assoc. (221 II. La Salle St., Chicago, 

One skunk of a litter of 5 reared by a cat died from aspergillosis. 
Lesions are described. 

Diseases and Parasites: Avian malaria 

ManwolJL^ Reginald D #J) and Frod eri clc Goldstein. Strain immunity in 
avian malaria, Amor. Journ. Hygiene (Prince and Lemon Streets, Lancaster, 
Pa. $2.50 a copy; single number of any section $1.00), 30(3), Nov. 1959, 
pp. 115-122, 3 tables. 

Experiments with six strains of Plas modium circurnfljjxum derived from wild 
birds showed that although immunity was strain specific, it conferred at least 
partial protection against other strains. Bibliography of 18 titles. 

Diseasej3_ and Parasites: Cestoda, Choanotaenia 

Lincicome, David R. A new tapeworm, Chounotaenia_ iola, from the 
robin, Journ. Farasitplogy (Science Press, Lancaster, Pa. 2/1.50 a copy), 
25(3), June 1959, pp. 203-206, 1 pi., 1 fig., 1 table. 

From Illinois; description, illustrations, measurements, comparative 
notes; redefinition of the family Dilepididae. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 194( 

Diseases and Parasites: Cestoda_,_ fh7raenol_epi,s 

Schultz,_ Richard L. Hymen olep is scalopi n. sp. , American Midland 
Naturalist "( Not re Dame," Ind. $1.00 a copy), 21(3), May 1939, pp. 641-645, 
1 pi. 

From moles in Oklahoma; description, illustration, comparative notes. 
Bibliography of 9 titles. 

Di seas e s_ and Parasites: _ _ C e s to d a , S c h i a o t a e n i a 

PA^^A'.P-vilijyi ^' Schizotaeniasis in muskrats, Joum. Parasitology 

(Science Press, Lancaster, Pa. $1.50 a copy), 25(3), June 1959, p. 279. 

Tapeworms from muskrat compared with those from porcupine; this the fir 
report of the genus in the muskrat which, in view of all circumstances, appear 
to be an accidental rather than a normal host. 

Dise ases and Parasi tes:_ Coccidiosis 

Ajppling;^ Phillip. Control of coccidiosis in the chukar, Game Breede 
and Sportsman (205 E. 42nd St., New York, N. Y. 25 cents a copy), 43(11), 
Nov. 1939, p. 165, 1 photo. 

Symptoms and means of distribution of the disease; milk mash treatment; 
recommendation of 5 preventive measures as follows: "(1) Allow no moist place 
in the brooder pans; (2) change the old water fountain for a sterilized one 
twice a day. We sterilized them by turning then up to the sun for a few hours 
(3) use contamination proof feeders that will not spill food on the ground; (4 
go over dropping accumulations daily with a firckill torch; (5) use some sort 
fly-killing de-ice to reduce the number of flics, or screen them out entirely. 

Diseases and Parasites: Coccidiosis 

Ormsbee, Rickard^A. Field studies on coccidiosis in the ring-neck 
pheasants of eastern Washington, Parasitology (Cambridge University Press, 
200 Euston Road, London, N.W. 1, England (18 shillings and a 
copy), 31(3), Sept. 1939, pp. 339-399, PI. 11, 2 tables. 

Methods of the study are described. A section on taxonomy includes 
descriptions (with figures) of one previously described, two new, and one 
undetermined species of EJaneria. A table gives comparative data for them. Tl: 
total average incidence of all species of coccidia was 38 percent; represents 
tion of the parasites was reduced in winter. All infections observed were Ii;j 
and apparently had little pathological significance. The effect of temperatui 
upon oocysts 'and sporulation is discussed. Bibliography of 29 titles. 


WILDLIFE REVIEWS Ho. 26 February, 1940 

Diseases and Parasites: Of cottontail, Iowa 

Morgan, B. 3. , and E. E. waller. A survey of the parasites of the 
Iowa cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus mea rnsi ) , Journ. Wildlife Itfenage- 
ment (Victor H. Cahalane, National Pari: Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents 
a copy), 4(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 21-26. 

Authors' abstract: "All of the 210 Iowa cottontails examined during 
1938-39 harbored at least one, and some as many as seven, species of coccidia. 
Three species were reported as neiv for North America. Sarcocystis cuniculi_ was 
present in approximately 10$ of the rabbits. C it to ta en i a variabilis and Taenia 
pis iform is (larva) were 'the only cestodes and Hasstilesia tricolor the only 
trematode identified. The nematodes found were: T_richuri_s_ leporis, Tricho- 
strong ylus cal ca rat u s , Obeliscoides cuniculi, and NemaJb^odjLrus leporis. Three 
•species of fleas, Cediopsylla simplex, Hoplopsyllus af finis, and Ctenocep_hal_id_es 
canis, and one species of tick, Haemaphysalis leporis-palu stris , were identi- 
fied." ~~ 

Dis eases and Parasites: Distemper 

Gr_een_, P. C-., end C. A. Evans. Aapid diagnosis of canine distemper, 
Cornell Veterinarian (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. ) , 29(1), Jan. 1939, 
pp. 33-40, 

Canine distemper affects also foxes, minks, and ferrets in captivity. 
The method described is examination of stained smears from the epithelium of 
the bladder. Bibliography of 14 titles. Sec abstract of a companion article 
in JILDLIFE REVIEtf No. 22, August 1939, p. 8. 

Diseases and Parasites: Leukoencephalitis 

King, Lester S. Moose encephalitis, Amer. Journ. Pathology (818 
Harrison AVeV," "Boston, Lass.), 15(4), July 1939, pp. 445-454, Pis. 74-75. 

Symptoms, lesions, and seasonal distribution of the disease now known 
from Maine and Minnesota. Bibliography of 17 titles. 

Disease s and Parasites: Mange in squirrels 

Payne^ Ernest A. The return of the California gray squirrel, 
Yo somite Nature" Note's" (Yo semi to National Fark, Calif.), 19(1), Jan. 1940, 
pp. 1-3, 2 figs. 

Mange caused by mites of tac genus No toe dros first noticed in California 
in 1917 spread rapidly and greatly reduced the numbers of gray squirrels. By 
1926 they were nearly exterminated throughout the Yoscmite area. Now the popu- 
lation is definitely on the increase. Competition with the red squirrel or 
Sierra chickaree is discussed. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW He. 26 February, 1040 

Dis ease s _an_d _ Paras i te sj m _ Hor'-atjxl:^. _ JOij^Pj^a rynx 

01_sen_,_0. ^-lford. Di spharynx pipilionis, a now spiruroid nematode 
from the red-eyed townee, American Midland (Hot re Same, Indiana), 
21(2), march 1939, pp» 472-475, 1 pit 

Description and illustration of a now species from P ipilo _c. ery throph- 
thalmu s from PCentucky. A key to 13 species cf the genus (with host records) is 

Di seas c_s and^ Fara_sito s: J5cmatoda, Riqtulerio. 

C ucklor, A shto a C. Rictula ria ojaychomis n. sp. (Nematode: 

Tholaziidao) .from fcho ,; r,..sshoppor mouse, Onyc hoays lc_aco£astor (Uiod. ), 

J cum. Parasitology (Science Press, Lancaster, Pa. §1.50 a copy), 23(5), 
. Oct. 1939, pp. 451-435, 1 pi. 

Key to 24 spocios of tho genus, 1 from Nebraska described (and illus- 
trated) as new. Bibliography of 19 titles. 

Disea^ses^ and Parasites: Nematcria, Spirocerca 

lllllj William C. Sp ire? area Ion- ir-a iculata n. sp. , American. 
Midland" NaturalTst" "( "ifdtre D«aac, Indiana. $1,00 a copy), 21(3), May 1959, 
pp. 636-640, 1 pi. 

From opossums collected in Oklahoma; description, illustration, compara- 
tive notes. Key to 4 species cf the genus. Bibliography of 7 titles, 

il^ s J J i\ s A 3 - iL n J? Parasites: Protozoa, Ilaemobartonella 

T yzzer , Ernest Edward, and David i/einman, Ilaemobartonj^lla n. g. 
(Bartonella olim pro parte) , if. microti n. sp. , of the "field vole, Microtul 
pjfijmsylyani cu s i , A mer. Journ. Hygiene (Prince and Lemon Sts., L(ancaster, 
Pa. -#£.50 a copy; single number of any section $1,00), 30(3), Nov. 1939, 
pp. 141-157, 1 pi., 2 figs., 2 tables. 

Seven different types of blood parasites have been observed in the 
field vole; morphological and biological c]-.aractors are treated for one of then 
here described as new from Massachusetts; comparisons with otber micro-organisii 
known from the blood of mice; tests of susceptibility to infection with deer 
mice and laboratory animals were negative. Bibliography of 28 titles. 

Diseas es and Parasites: Protozoa, Nae1.10prote3.1s_ 

Ooatne y, G. Robert, and Evaline '.[est. Studies on BaemqpTOtous 

sacharovi of mourning doves end pigeons-, with notes on H. mccall umi , 
Amer. Journ. Hygiene (Prince and Lemon Sts., Lancaster, Pa. v2.50 a copy), 
31(1) C, Ian. 1940, pp, 9-14, PI. 1. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: Ho. 26 February, 1940 

The two forms named in the title though morphologically similar are 

apparently physiologically different; both were found in the blood of young 
mourning doves in Nebraska. Notes on their characteristics and development in 
captive pigeons. Bibliography cf 13 titles. 

Dise a s e s a nd_ JPar a s it es_: _ _ JP^^tojso a,_ Hexamita 

M°2MIj_Ji:j- R-.P'.F^J'-^&^^J^j-J 1 !:^^' Hexamita sp. from quail 
and from chukar partridges, Cornell Veterinarian (Ithaca, N. Y. ) , 29(3), 
July 1939, pp. 330-333. 

Report of this parasite in Valley and Gambel's quails and in the chukar 
partridge on California game farms. Description of the parasites and of the 
pathological conditions with which they were associated. Notes on experimental 
transmission. Summary of previous records from birds; bibliography of 9 titles. 

Diseases and Paras i te sp. P s it t a c o sis 

Lasarus_, Alfred S.____ and K. F. Meyer, The virus of psittacosis, 
Journ. Bacteriology (Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md. }, 38(2), 
Aug. 1939. I. Propagation and developmental cycle in the egg membrane, 
purification, and concentration, pp. 121-151, 5 tables; II. Centrifugation, 
filtration, and measurement of particle size, pp. 153-169, 4 tables; III. 
Serological investigations, pp. 171-198, 3 figs., 5 tables. 

Report en highly technical laboratory invest ipat ions with extensive 
bibliography. For the general reader, the most significant conclusion is that 
the virus of psittacosis acts in all respects as a small microorganism requiring 
an intracellular habitat for survival and multiplication, and Parasites: Of Sciuridae 

Katz, J. S. An annotated bibliography of references concerning 
parasites of squirrels (Family, Sciuridae), Ohio Wildlife Research Station 
(Columbus) Relesse 131, 21 pp., mimeographed, Doc. 1939. 

This leaflet contains an abstract of the author's thesis on Parasites of 
Ohio Squirrels with a bibliography of 15 titles. This is followed by an anno- 
tated list of 82 publications referring to parasites of all members of the 
family Sciuridae. 

Dis eas es and_ Parasites: Shock 

^^Pjh^Ii^ 9j.k P'.P.'. ^-^jh.l-?^ ^^?r^ ?J J }J.' Shock disease as the 
cause of the periodic decimation of the snowshoe hare, Amor. Journ, 
Hygiene (Prince and Lemon Sts,, Lancaster, Pa. $2.50 a copy; single number 
of any section $1.00), 30(3), Nov. 1939, pp. 83-102, 2 figs., 6 tables. 

Summary of knowledge of cycles in snowshoe hares; review of concepts as 
to cause; no significant variation found in rate of reproduction in relation to 
the cycle; statistics on hare populations of the stud;/ area of the authors in 


■7ILPLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 194 

Minnesota (number por sciur.rc dropped from 473 in 1933 to 32 in 1938); effects 
predators on cycles (not controlling) ; discussion of infectious diseases and 
parasites in relation to the die-off in which all but shock-disease arc elimi- 
nated as causes; report on studies of this malady -in field and laboratory, as 
symptoms, lesions, and cause; "it is our conclusion that this disease of unde- 
termined etiology is the mortality factor that brings about the periodic deeim 
tion of the snowshoo hare." Bibliography of 24 titles. 

P i seases_ and Paras ite s: _._ S iph onap t era , O p i s od a sy s 

Jell i son, Wm. L, Opisodasys Jordan 1933, a genus of Siphonaptera, 
Journ. Parasitology (Science Press, Lancaster, Pa. $1.50 a copy), 25(5), 
Oct. 1939, pp. 413-420, 3 pis. 

Comparative descriptions, illustrations, and records of hosts (rodents) 
5 North American species all known. Bibliography of 9 titles. 

Pis eases and_ Parasi t es : Of skunk 

St eg email, LeRoy C. Some parasites end pathological conditions of 
the skunk .(Mephitis mephitis nigra) in central New York, Journ. Mammalogy 
' ( T ,/m. B. Davis, A. & M. College, Collego Station, Texas. $1.00 a copy), 

20(4), Nov. 1939, pp. 493-496. 

Notes on lice, fleas, ticks, mite:*, and cestodes, and on miscellaneous 
pathological conditions, one of which 5s due to a worm (Pi^o^JLdes ^Gt_ela_riuu)| 

Diseases and Parasites: _Trenatoda_, Br achy la emus 

Ea^kjjma, Reinard. A new species of Brackylaemus from the barred ow] 
Journ. Parasitology (Science Press, Lancaster, Pa. $1.50 a copy), 25(3), 
June 1939, p. 277, 1 fig. 

From North Carolina; description, illustration; comparative notes. 

P^5_ e P. s A s - P v -A Parasites l Trematoda, Gorgoderina 

Rankin, John S. , Jr. The life cycle of the frog bladder fluke, 
American Midland Naturalist (Notre Dame, Indiana), 21(2), March 1939, 
pp. 476-483, 2 pis. 

Review of literature of bladder flukes in amphibians, 26 titles of will 
are cited. Description of methods, experiments, stages in the life history 
(illustrated) of G_^gojlj3riiia 2^" fce ™^iL a ' ^ e intermediate host of which is a 
small bivalve ( SjDha^rjLumj . 

Dis eases and Parasites^ _ Tr emato dc_, Halipegus 

Thom as, Lyell J. Life cycle of a fluke, ffilipegus p_cco_ntricu g n.sp 
found in the ears of frogs, Journ. Parasitology (Science Press, Lancaster, 
Pa. $1.50 a copy), 25(3), June 1959, pp. 207-221, 2 pis. 


YjILDLLPE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 1940 

From Rana spp. Michigan; description of the new species, and all of its 
stages, illustrated; report on experimental infections; bibliography of 18 titles. 

Dise ases and Parasit es: Trem_atoda ,_ Opi stho rchj s 

W alla ce, F v G-.^^djp.d I^vy^no^e R. PeiSP£.» A nei/ liver fluke of the 
genus Opist horchi s, Journ. Parasitology (Science Press, Lancaster, Pa. 
$1.50 a copyTT £5 T5 ) , Oct. 1939, pp. 437-410, 1 fig. 

0_. to nk a e n, sp. described from Minnesota muskrats; illustration and com- 
parative notes. Bibliography of 8 titles. 

Dl s e a s_es an d Para sit esj ___ T r cma t o da_, Pr o st hog oni mus 

G_ov/er,_W_4 Carl . Infectivit"3 r of Prosthogonimus mhcrorchis Macy for 
the common ring-nocked pheasant, Journ. Parasitology (Science Press, 
Lancaster, Pp. $1,50 a copy), £5(3), Oct. 1939, pp. 447-443. 

Tests by feeding probably infected dragonfly nymphs indicated the 
pheasant to be a refractory host to bhis fluke. 

Dise as es a n_d_ Pa r a si tes : Trea oat oda , Psil o_s t pmum 

B eaver, Paul C. The morphology and life history of Psilqstojoum 
ondatrae Price, 1931 (Tromatoda: Psilostomidae) , Journ. Parasitology 
(Science Press, Lancaster, Pa, $1.50 a copy), 25(5), Oct. 1959, pp. 383- 
393, 1 pi. 

Description and illustration of the various stages and record of hosts, 
which include the nuskrat and a number of birds. Life histories of this and 
related forms. Bibliography of 6 titles. 

Dise ases and Parasites :_ Tr emat oda^ Tamerl ania 

Penner y Lawrence R. T am er lanla melo spizae n. sp. (Trematoda: 
Eucotylidae) with notes on the genus, Journ, Parasitology (Science Press, 
Lancaster, Pa. $1.50 a copy), 25(5), Oct. 1939, pp. 421-424, 1 fig. 

Previous records of parasites of the family and their hosts; history and 
diagnosis of the genua; key to 5 species, one new, which is described, and 
figured; host, Lincoln's sparrow; locality Minnesota. Bibliography of 10 titles. 

Diseases a nd Pajrc^sjltesj^ Trg intodes °JL '^J^L?.. 39 ^ 

Barro od, Fau l P« Notes on Tennessee helminths. IV. North American 
trenatodes of the subfamily Notoootylinae, Journ. Term. Acad. Sci. (Dr. J.T. 
LicGill, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Term. 50 cents a copy), 14(3), 
1939, pp. 332-340; 14(4), 1939, pp. 421-437, 1 pi. 


WILDLIFE REVUT.7: No. 26 February, 1940 

Review of records of members of the subfamily in this country; they are 
mostly from wat erf owl or shore birds. Diagnoses, keys, and descriptions, includ- 
ing those of a new subfamily, one new genus, HofmonjD_st_omum, and S new species. 
Bibliography of 40 titles. A monograph of the subfamily. 

Diseases an d Pa ras It esj _ _ 0f_ turt les 

I7i ecz or owskij^ _Ej-_sie . Parasitic lesions in turtles, Journ. 
Parasitology (Science Press, Lancaster, Pa. $1.50 a copy), 25(5), Oct. 
1959, pp. 595-399, 1 pi. 

. Role of parasites in causing neoplasms; helminths found in 20 Chrysemys 
from Wisconsin; description and illustration of lesions. Bibliography of 9 

Diseases and_ Parasi tesj Virus diseases 

Beach, J. R. , Chairman. Poultry diseases, Journ. Amer. Veterinary 
Medical Assoc". (221 N. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 75 cents a copy), 
95(752), Nov, 1959, pp. G13-622. 

Includes a conspectus and a bibliography (101 titles) of 21 virus 
diseases applying to wild birds as woll as to poultry. 

S_co_log_y:_ _ Avjii la bility_ seasons Tennessee^ game foods 

Wing, Leonard. Availability seasons of some Tennessee game-food 
plants, Journ. Tennessee Acad. Sci. (Dr. J. T. McGill, Vanderbilt University, 
Nashville, Tenn. 50 cents a copy), 13(4), 1939, pp. 325-327. . 

Notes for the vicinity of Ilorris, Tennessee, for 32 groups of plants. 
Some comment on utilization: beech probably the most valuable mast tree; flower- 
ing dogwood and dwarf sumac among the most important food-bearing plants of the 

Ecology: Brood counts^ waterfowl 

Travis_, Bernard V. Duck brood counts in Iowa during the summer of 
1935, Iowa~~3ird LifV"("Jinthrop, Iowa. 25 cents a copy), 9(4), pp. 46-50, 
3 photos, 1 table. 

Observations made on 17 bodies of water are summarized S-nd tabulated; 
107 broods of 6 species were counted. "The average number of ducklings in a 
brood for each of the species was: Blue-winged teal 5.9, mallard 6,8, shoveler 
5.8, pintail 6.9, ruddy 4.7, and redhead 3.0." 

Eco log y; Census me tho ds, beaver 

i^y^^Pj.R'.K', South Fork (Montana) beaver survey: 1939, Journ. 
Wildlife Management (Victor II. Cahalane, National Park Service, Washington, 
D. C. 75 cents a copy), 4(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 100-103, 1 table. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 1940 

Censuses to determine present, and indicate potential, beaver populations 
were carried on; representative results are tabulated. With good Management the 
number of animals could be doubled; poaching is the greatest drain. 

Eco_loj-yj Census methods^ pr airie chicken 

Davison, JVerne E. An 8-year census of lesser prairie chickens, 
Tourn. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalane, National Park Service, 
Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 4(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 55-62, 6 figs. 

Counts of males on "gobbling grounds" were made from an automobile in 
.early morning during the breeding seasons of 8 years, 1932-36, 1933-39. The 
actual numbers counted are tabulated and a variety of computations of them are 
given to demonstrate relative reliability of the estimates. "The minimum area 
to be cer.sused as representative of a range is indicated as 2x2 miles square 
(2,540 acres) but the results from areas 3 x 3 or 4x4 square are more 
dependable. The 4 x 4 mile tract (10,260 acres) can be consused in 5 or 6 days 
using about 3 hours each day." 

Ecology- _ Cjjnsus methods, small m amma ls 

Bple Jj B. P . , Jr. The quadrat method of studying small mammal popula- 
tions, Cleveland Museum of Nat. Hist. (Cleveland, Ohio) 3c i. Publ, 5(4), 
pp. 15-77, 5 figs., 14 tables, Pec. 1939. 

Review of methods, especially that of quadrats for estimating small mammal 
populations; discussion cf actual use of the quadrat method by workers of the 
Cleveland Museum; end results of studies of population of 18 species. The 
author's conclusions are that: 

"(1) The quadrat method provides an accurate means of determining small 
mammal abundances. 

"(2) In general, the larger the quadrat the more accurate the results, and 
that quadrats 150 feet or GO meters on a side or circular units of corresponding 
area are still small enough to be easily operated and are large enough to pro- 
vide a high degree of accuracy, and hence should be considered the standard sizes 
for population investigations of mammals whose home ranges are of the same size 
or smaller than that of the quadrat, 

"(3) The use of shelter-belts or outer tiers of quadrats about a central 
one is not justifiable because of the tremendous labor involved if the quadrat is 
maintained at standard size, because the belts themselves cause population dis- 
turbances within the quadrat, and because the data the belts yield can be put to 
better statistical use if the traps that furnished them are part of the quadrat 

"(4) More than one quadrat should be used in any given community, but 
should be placed no closer to each other on forests than 500 yards, and no 
closer than 100 yards in fields. 

"(5) All parts of a quadrat must be ecologically uniform and similar to 
the larger area which it is meant to represent, if figures on populations for 
one particular habitat arc desired. . • 

"(6) A three-day trapping limit should be set, as the resident population 
is practically exhausted in this time. 

WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 1940 

"(7) Trapping within a quadrat must be thorough and executed with the 
sole purpose in mind of getting all the mammals out of it as swiftly as possible, 
for which reason traps should be set in underground or surface underways or 
wherever the mammals are, and should not be set at regular intervals within the 
quadrat, since the lairs and runways do not so arrange themselves in nature. 

"(8) The use of insulated quadrats is futile as the metal sheeting used 
will cause spectacular changes in the ecological picture of the quadrat, partic- 
ularly if males are part of the small mammal fauna. 

r; (9) The use of very snail quadrats (smaller than 100 feet on a side) is 
indefensible owing to the relatively high percentage of animals drifting into 
them from adjacent terrain. 

"(10) Quadrats are found to be particularly useful in studying cyclical 
changes in small mammal populations and in collecting the less common species of 
a given small-mammal fauna." 

Bibliography of 29 titles. 

Eo o lo gy_:_ __0 ensus_ Lie t h_c diS^ \il: i t_e - 1 si. lo d deer 

.Erickson_,_ Aj^nolcMB. Notes on a method for census trig white-tailed 
deer in the spring and summer, Jourri. Wildlife Management (Victor H. 
Cahalanc, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 4(1), 
Jan. 1940, pp. 15-18. 

Author's abstract: "In 1957 a method was developed for censusing spring 
and summer deer populations in the Lake States (Minnesota) . In this cruising 
method the following factors were controlling: the distance between cruising 
lines, density of cover, running distance, flushing distance, sight distance, 
cover visibility, type of cover, ond sex and age of the deer. Observations on 
33 deer flushed in the St. Croix Pari:, Minnesota, yielded the following informa- 
tion: average flushing distance 140 feet; running distance 70 feet to over a 
quarter of a mile; cover visibility for aspen (Pqpulu s ■tremlo ides ) types aver- 
aged 100 feet. In 18 of 38 observations deer were flushed from aspen types; the, 
sex of 22 of the 58 deer flushed was determined — 10 male, 12 female. By the use; 
of the formula P^v-rr where A is the total area; P the population; Z the number 

of deer flushed; X the miles of line cruised; and Y the average flushing dis- 
tance, the deer population on 27,900 acres was calculated at 557.12 head or 
12.73 per square mile or 30 acres per head." 

Eco logy : r _ pens: is Lie tjhocL j - :il d 1 i f a 

Orator, Russpll.K, Taxing a wildlife census, National Park Service 
Region Til "(Santa* Iq^ IS. :.!ox. ) >.artorly, 1(2), Oct. 1S39, pp. 17-21, 1 pi. 

Notos on matirnds used for oik, door, bighorn, antelope, moose, burro, and 
beaver. Censures arc useful and tho making of them interesting. 

Eco logy: _ _ Fi r o_ offoct a 

Hans on, Herbert 0. Eire in land use raid management, American Mid- 
land Natural is t~TNotrcT Dame, Indiana. $1.00 a copy), 21(2), March 1959, 
pp. 415-434, 2 tables. 


ljLLDLLFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 1940 

A discussion of the ecological effects of fire dealing slightly with on].y 
its injurious relations to wildlife. Of value to all wishing to consider the 
subject as a whole aid especially for its -xtensive bibliography. 

Ec ology : Imp oundraent s 

Saugstad, Stanley. Effect of artificial pounds 0.11 our duck popula- 
tion, IJorth Dakota Agr. Expt. Sta. (Fargo) Bimonthly Bui., 2(2), Nov. 1939, 
PP. 6-8, 2 photos. 

During recent years more than 4,000 dams have been built in North Dakota. 
Feu, however, of the ponds formed have attracted nesting waterfowl. The chief 
reason seems to be unsuitable marginal vegetation, a situation that in tine will 
be remedied by natural processes, if grazing is controlled. 

_Ecology_: Pheasant ,_ ruf f ed grouse ft 

Gould, Ernest U. Progress report of the Southern New Hampshire 
Pheasant Demonstration and Research Project, New Hampshire Fish and Game 
Dept. (Concord), 10 pp., tables, mimeographed, Dec. 1939, 

Summary of work done and results obtained during the first year of a 
project under Federal Aid to the States in Wildlife Restoration. As in the 
other case reported on by Gould (abstracted p. 30), pheasants were released on 
a tract whore food and cover wore inadequate. Losses were, accordingly, heavy; 
The population fell from 112 in May to 19 in September; causes are analyzed. 
A table of mortality by cover typos is interesting but could be interpreted 
better if the populations of the different types were known. The range of a 
single brood studied increased steadily week by week. The acreage of cover 
types included in 4 brood and 6 adult territories is tabulated. Nearly 1,800 
fruit-bearing shrubs and trees were planted with 52 percent survival. The seed 
mixtures, rate of fertilizing, lining, and seeding arc listed for 9 feed patches; 
the average cost per acre was $25.24; average cost per 100 pounds- of feed pro- 
duced $3.38, Nineteen thousand conifers to improve cover wore planted at a 
labor cost of $6.34 per M. The report includes also life history notes upon 
ruffed grouse and on a supplementary pheasant study on farm land. 

i!?°A J3a, : . Salt marsh 

Taylar, _ Norman . Salt tolerance of Long Island salt marsh plants, 
New York State Museum (Albany) Circular 23, 42 pp., 19 figs., tables, 
Nov. 1939. 

Report on field and laboratory studies of salt tolerances of 11 species. 
In general the plants were found to thrive in considerably fresher water than 
that to which they are usually exposed in nature. Tolerances being so wide, 
the author concludes that the effect of ditching salt marshes as a limiting 
factor on the plants is not what some assume it to be. His work indicates that 
it is of minor importance in changing vegetation. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 1940 

Ec onomi c s : _ J3at s t T exaS | 

Osborne_, Ray;. Beits are big aid to l\nd owner, Monthly Bulletin Texas 
Game, Fish, and" Oyster Commission (Austin), 3(l), Dec. 1039, p. 5. 

Interesting notes on the life histories of Texas bats, and figures for 
guano production of several caves; from 20 to 70 tons .re yielded annually ^oy 
some of then; value of the guano #35 per ton. 

Economics : Bird_Joeniding 

Dodge, Mat t N . Economics of bird bending, National Park Service 

Region IlY "( Santa" Fe, IT. Hex.) Quarterly, 2(1), Jan. 194-0, pp. 14-22, 1 pi. 

Popular account of the need of conservation, economic importance of birds, 
history end results of bird bonding, and cooperation of the National Park 
Service in the uork. Bibliography of 13 titles. 

Ejlucat iipnj _ _ C o n_s_ervat i on , rev i e w o f t he field 

[Lutt rinjjer K Le_o_ A_. , Jr.] The place of education in conservation, 
Pennsylvania Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, Darrisburg, 10 cents 
a copy), 10(9), Dec. 1939, p. 10, 1 photo. 

Review of the movement as presented at a conference of Conservation Edu- 
cation and Publicity Writers. 

Education: Deeryard surveys 

■ Weleh ,_ Chorle_s,_ and A. G. Kettunen. Michigan's deer herd. A -/inter 
deeryard study for 4— II Club members, Michigan State College (East Lansing) 
Club Bui. 40, 30 pp., 25 figs., Oct. 1939. 

The introduction by I. II. Bart let t refers to the original moderate number 
of deer, the advent of conditions favoring their increase, the overpopulation of 
winter yards, and the problems of management that confront the Department of 
Conservation. The body of the bulletin is a text for use in acquainting 4— H 
Club members with the factors responsible for the present status of Michigan' s 
deer herd, with the characteristics of deer yards, their limiting factors, and 
the acreage relationship existing between the yards and the total deer range. 
Instructions arc provided for mapping and reporting upon deer yards. 

Educ ation^ Wildlife in vocational agricultural training 

W_hittle_, C. A., H. B. Butner, and A. 0. Duncan. A wild life program 
for Georgia farms, Georgia State Boat, of Education (Atlanta), 48 pp., 
illus., 1939. 

Prepared for use in the instruction of students of vocational agriculture, 
this text discusses the place of wildlife on bho farm, procuring wildlife for 
the farm, providing food and cover (called coverage), conserving wildlife, and 
trapping and shinning animals and handling furs, and gives brief accounts of the 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 10-40 

more common vertebrates of the State, Bibliography of 14 titles. 

Food Habit sj Bears 

Tench, C. V. Hinting down beef-eating, bears, Forest and Outdoors 
(610 Canada" Cement \ELdg, , Montreal, Canada), 35(11), Nov. 19:59, pp. 331- 
332, 1 photo. 

Heavy spring rains delaying the crop of wild berries, torrential streams 
preventing the animals from catching salmon, and reduction in the marmot popula- 
tion (also due to the storms) resulted in a shortage of food that apparently 
forced the bears to become stock-killers. Control became necessary and it was 
accomplished chiefly by government hunters with rifles. To the date of the 
article, more than 40 had been shot.- 

good Habits: Chuckwglla 

ShaWj Charles^E. Food habits of the chuclcw&ll a, Sauromalus obesus t 
Herpetologica (Walter L. Nocker, £001 IT. Clark St., Chicago, 111, 50 
'cents a copy), 1(6), 1939, p. 153, 

Examination of 12 stomachs from San Diego County, California, revealed 
only vegetable food, scientific names of numerous it cans of which are given. 

Food Habi t s_: Crow 

Kaimbach,^ E. R, The crow in its relation to agriculture, U. S. 
Depi;.-. of Agriaul'nixe Farmers' Bui, 1102, 21 pp., 6 figs., 2 tables. 
Revised June 1939 (Jan. 1940) (Supt-. of Documents, Washington, D. C. 
5 cents a copy) . 

This well-known economic treatment of the crow, about half devoted to 
food habits and half to control measures, has been thoroughly revised. The 
changes relate especially to the author's studies of .crows in relation to water- 
fowl on northern plains breeding grounds, the connection between the crow popu- 
lation of that legion and the winter roosts in Oklahoma, .and recently developed 
means of control. The general conclusion as to the economic status of the 
species remains the same as in the 1920 edition--the bird's tendencies for good 
or harm, from man' s point of view, are about equal. 

Z?.°A 1 '^bi t s '■ . P e Q ? » Nhi ^ e J^ ail ec3 - 

LewjL sL r - JJ. G_. Deer on refuge prefer peach twigs above other browse, 
Virginia wildlife (Blacks burg, Va.), 3(3), Nov. 1939, p. 3. 

Tabulation of number of shoots of 20 plants cropped on a tract near 
Salem, 7a. Peach led with 118; black gum (103) and sour :; r ood (49) were next. 


"..TLDLIFE TiWini: No. 26 • February, 1940 

Fo od Habits: Deer d am age 

McCain, Randall . Some effects of heavy deer concentrations in the 
Allegheny National Forest, Pennsylvania Game News (Pennsylvania Game Com- 
mission, Harrisburg. 10 cents a copy), 11(10), Jan. 1940, pp. 10, 29, 
1 fig. , 1 table. 

The deer population seems to have been increasing oven recently as cen- 
suses showed acres per deer as 34 in 1935, 11 in 1936, 7 in 1937, and 8 in 1933. 
Fenced and unfenced plots in pine and spruce plantations revealed the damage 
being done by the deer. Pines outside the fence suffered 91$ loss, those inside 
11$; corresponding figures for spruce are: 36 and 20. Groat difference in the 
condition of survivors also was apparent. The unfenced pine was browsed down to 
an average height of 4.6 inches, and the "spruce 6.6; inside the fence these 
species averaged 24 and 20 inches, respectively. Suppressive effects upon 
native vegetation also wore surveyed and are tabulated. Of comparable plots, 
a fenced one supported 303 plants of 9 species, while an unfenced one had only 
140 plants of 7 kinds. Shrubs wore inorc seriously -injured than trees. In a 
third area a protected plot bore 1,788 stems, an unprotected one only 639. 

Foo d Habits: Grouse, Ruffed 

Kuhr,, Trac y M . Fall foods of the ruffed grouse in Pennsylvania, 
Pennsylvania Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harrisburg, 10 cents 
a copy), 11(10), Jan. 1940, pp. 4-5, 31, 1 fig., 5 tables. 

Report on the contents of 230 crops. Tno average crop contained 5.2 
different foods and Lad a volume of S.3 cubic centimeters. The most important 
foods were cherry buds and twifts, sheep sorrel leaves, neo.cns, and aspen buds, 
with a combined volume of more than a third of the total food. Other items 
averaging from 4 to nearly 5 percent each were supplied by green brier, appio, 
foamf lower, and grape. Animal food and that gleaned from crops were both 
negligible in quant it y. 

Food Habi ts : _ G ull ; _ Herring 

Mendall ; Howard L_. Food habits of the herring gull in relation 
to fresh-water game fishes in Maine, tfilson Bui.. (Josselyn Van Tyne, 
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 60 cents a copy), 51(4), Dec. 1939, 
pp. 223-226, 1 table. 

Report on 50 stomach analyses that are tabulated. Author's summary: 
"From the results of this study, it does not svor. that the presence of Herring 
Gulls at the inland lakes of Maine need cause any alarm to fishermen. Most of 
the fishes taken by galls are either species that are very abundant or else 
those having comparatively little value; pre&at.idas on the abundant species can- 
not be considered as detrimental to sport fishing. The favorite game fishes, 
trout and salmon, were found to constitute one of the smallest items in the 
gulls' diet. Herring Gulls are not as yet very plentiful at any locality within 
the interior of the State except at Moosehoad L~ko, and unless a large popula- 
tion of the inland birds occurs in the future, it would seem unwise to practice 


hlLDLM.RSVIEY: No. 25 February, 1940 

any control. The taking of weak, dying, or dead fishes is probably of distinct 
benefit as a disease-control measure on behalf of the fish population. The 
general scavenger qualities of the (gull are very commendable, especially in the 
summer resort areas. Fishermen and summer residents of Maine's lakes should not 
overlook the fact that, from the food-habits data at hand, the Herring Gull, in 
its present numbers, is an asset and not a liability.* 

■*L°.°A- Habits: Loucost icte 

Mowbray, Vin cent . Food and feeding habits of the Sierra Nevada rosy 
finch, Yosemite Nature Notes (Yosonitc National Park, Calif.), 19(1), Jan. 
1940, pp. 5-6. 

Lo ucosticto t ophro c ot is dawsoni. "Flycatching", and feeding on flower 
heads of Hulsoa algida, Raila rdolla sc aposa , and E r log o nun lobbii , and upon the 
seeds of A rcnari a nut t a lii. 

F ood Habi ts: Lizards 

Knowl ton, C-oorgo _F. Lizard digestion studies,, lierpctologica ("./alter 
L. Necker, 2001 if." Clark St. , Chicago, 111. 50 cents a copy), 1(1), July 
1936, pp. 9-10, 2 tobies. 

Laboratory studios of the rate of digestion of beet leaf hoppers by Uta 
_s. sta nsbur iana and Scoloporus g. graciosus. Details of the experiments arc 
presented in tables. Practically all lcafhoppcr nymphs woro digested by the 
lizards 12 hours and 90 percent of the adults within 18 hours at temper- 
atures of from 60° to 72° F. 

Food_ Habits : Mink , race oon 

H ami lton, "■[._/. , _Jr. The summer food of minks and raccoons on the 
Montezuma Marsh, New York, Jcurn. "Jildlife I.iinagement (Victor K. Cahalane, 
National Park Service, Jashington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 4(1), Jan. 

The environment is described and availability of foods indicated. Analy- 
ses of 300 scats of minks revealed nuskrats, fishes, and aquatic beetles as the 
most important food items; results from 163 raccoon scats indicated preference 
for wild fruits, corn, and insects. All foods of both animals are tabulated and 

Z?i^_ Habits; __ _ Nu tr i tiy e value , g r a in s_j_ et c . 

T_iti.^s_,_IIarry u r . Practical feeding of poultry, Yearbook U. 3. Dept. 
of Agriculture 1939 (Supt. of Documents, ".Washington, D. C. )1.50 a copy), 
pp. 819-843, 3 pis., 9 tables. 

Cited here principally on account of the results of analyses of feed- 
stuffs it presents, some of which relate to grains, seeds, etc., in which wild- 
life managers are interested. Examples are: fetcrita, kafir, milo, proso, 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February. 194 

— j > — - 

shallu, and sunflower seeds. The composition of numerous grains and greens, and 
of feeds of animal origin is tabulated, as are also their principal mineral end 
vitamin constituents. 

Food habits: Ochotona " 

Butt s_j_ Edward. The labors of a cony, Yosemite Nature Notes (Yosemite 
National" Park," Calif. ) , 19(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 5-4, 1 fig. 

Description of feeding habits and analysis of a hay pile; contents: 32 
willow tips, 31 Phacelia flower heads, 16 pieces of Car ex, 1 stem of Lupinus 
longipes , and 2 plants of Queen Anne's lace. 

Food Nabi t s : ■. Phe as an t, Ring-necked 

Frie d, Louis A. The food habits of the ring-necked pheasant in 
Minnesota, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalane, National Park 

Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 4(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 27-36, 
1 graph, 4 tables. 

Author's abstract: ; 'The crop and gizzard contents of 659 Minnesota 
pheasants collected in every month of the year were analyzed. Cultivated grains 
formed 81.3$ of the total annual food. Corn was the most important single item 
in the pheasant's diet, 49.5$ of all the foods eaten. Other important grains 
were oats, barley, and wheat. The damage that pheasants are claimed to do to 
growing corn is greatly exaggerated. The annual weed crop is very little 
affected by pheasants oven though they consume largo quantities of weed seeds. 
I Seeds of the foxtails (Sctariu virijl_is and Sotaria glouca) and common ragweed 
(Ambrosia art omisiac folia ) are the most important foods obtained from woods. 
Wolf berry [S ymph ori carpos occidentalis ) was the largest of the fruit items. 
Grasshoppers and crickets made up nearly 75$ of the total volume of animal food. 
Crass hoppers were consumed in the largest amounts in April and July when in the 
egg and nymphal stages, respectively. 

Z?°A jfabijsj_ _ Ro_dpnt s_,_ Des er t 

?.Ionson_, C-ale, and Wayne Kosslor. Life history notes on the banner- 
tailed kangaroo rat, Mcrriam's kangaroo rat,, and the white-throat od wood 
rat in Arizona and Nov; Mexico, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. 
Cahalane, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a copy), 4(1), 
Jan. 1940, pp. 37-43, 2 tables. 

Authors' abstract: "Seventy dens of the banner-tailed kangaroo rat 
( D ipodomys spoctabilis) , 74 of the Morriam's kangaroo rat (Dipqdqgyjs morricini), 
and 82 of the whit o-thr oat cd wood rat (Ncotoma albigula) , v;ero excavated in 
southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico in an effort to obtain life 
history information, particularly on food habits. Data thus collected indi- 
cated that these rodents subsist largely on the seeds and other parts of annual 
grasses, forbs, and desert shrubs. The3 T are, therefore, not especially harmful 
to the perennial grasses regarded as the most valuable constituents of grazing. 
Although knowledge of the relationships of these rodents to range forage still 

wILDLIFE REVIEW: Ho. 26 February, 191-0 

leaves much to be investigated, plans for controlling them should be carefully 
considered before being adopted," 

^9 °?_ Habits: Ut il i El ation of t imber tree prod ucts 

Van De rs al K Will iara R . Some important timber trees and wildlife, 
Soil Conservation (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. 10 cents a copy), 
5(5), NOT. 1959, pp. 103-107, 4 photos. 

From an economic as well as a biologic point of vie 1 .;, 'wildlife is an 
asset to the forest which in turn provides it with a home. "There is no opera- 
tion that is silviculturally sound which cannot influence wildlife to advantage 
if properly used." Forest values whether for timber production, wildlife, or 
soil and water conservation, fluctuate as one and trie total worth of a forest 
depends on the maximum expression of its several values. This paper is devoted 
especially to portraying the values of timber trees to wildlife, which it does 
in a series of sketches giving general characteristics, number of species, and 
range of the trees, and their utilization by wildlife The groups treated are 
the pines, Douglas fir, oaks, hemlocks, rod gum, maples, redwood, cypress and 
spruce, tuliptrce and tupelo, chestnut and beech,- and ash, basswood, sycamore, 
and locust. 

F orest Service: An nual R epo rt 195S-39 

Silcox, F. A. Report of the Chief of the Forest Service 1939, 48 pp. 
(Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. 10 cents a copy) . 

Wildlife is mentioned in an account of CCC work (both restoration and 
control activities) , and in a special section (pp. 13—14) in which the numbers 
of big game and fur animals on the National Forests are summarized, and 
policies as to wildlife management arc defined. 

L ife Hi st or i e sj Beav er 

Bra dt, G-. 17 . Breeding habits of beaver, Journ. Mammalogy (VJm. B. 
Davis, A. & M. College, College Station, Texas. $1.00 a copy), 20(4), 
Nov. 1939, pp. 4S6-4S9, 1 graph. 

Notes on copulation, gestation period (about 4 months), weight at birth 
(about 1 pound), and growth rate in captivitv for a year. Bibliography of 6 

Life Hist ories: Bigh orn 

j^jig_,_ VJjlliam 3., a nd Ha lter P v Taylor. The bighorn sheep of Texas, 
tTourn. Mammalogy (VJm. 3. Davis, A. & II. College, College Station, Texas. 
$1.00 a copy), 20(4), Nov. 1939, pp. 41.-0-455, 3 figs., 1 table. 

The habitat of the animals, entirely west of the Pecos River, is describ- 
ed, and the population of 15 groups of mountains discussed. Life history 
details are treated as territorial preference, daily activities, beds, feces, 
movements, young, water requirements, and food. Propagation in captivity is 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 1940 

deemed feasible. Seasons for the small population are discussed; competition of 
livestock is apparently foremost, but there may be some unrecognized factor evea 
more important. The number of bighorns in the region has never been large in 
the past and perhaps never will be great enough in the future to warrant an 
open season. Bibliography of 9 titles. 

Life Histor i es: Cro w 

Imlc _r,_ Ralph PI. , a nd Fr a nk B. Mci.iirr y. Sex ratio and weights of 
crows wintering in Oklahoma, Wilson Bui. (Jossclyn Van Tyne, University 
of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 60 cents a copy), 51(4), Dec. 1909, p. 244. 

Of 1,000 birds picked up whore a crow roost had boon bombed, 526 wore 
males, and 474 females; the average weights of these groups were 1.05 and 0.93 
| pounds, respectively. 

Life jlistories: Lccra, White -tailed 

Ruffj jPrcdcrick J[. The white-tailed deer en the Pisgah National Game 
Preserve, North Carolina, U. 3. Forest Service, Southern Region (Glenn 
Bldg. , Atlanta, Ga. ) , 249 pp., 1 map, 7 figs., 37 tables, mimeographed, 
Nov. 1939. [Apparently a _dco luxe edition exists as spaces are left for 27 
photographic illustrations of which a list and legends arc given.] 

Report of results of a detailed 6-yoar study that condenses a great deal 
of information on the characteristics, habits, and life history of the Pisgah 
door. The food requirements are thoroughly considered, palatability ratings of 
available foods presented, and the carrying capacity of the ran:;e, raid effects 
of deer use on vegetation discussed. There is a section also on diseases, 
parasites, and natural enemies. Conclusions and recommendations form a final 
chapter and an appendix contains tabulations of stomach contents, relative 
growth of plants under protection and under deer use, percentage of use of 
important plants, occurrence of internal parasites, use of salt, and composition! 
of the major typos and subtypes of vegetation on the Forest. Bibliography of 
14 titles. A noteworthy compendium, the value of which mil be the more appre- 
ciated with use. 

Life Histories 

Kut z , Harry LjO_on. 

Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalanc, National Parle Service, Washington, 
D. C. 75 cents a copy), 4(1), Ian. 1940, pp. 19-20. 

Author's abstract: "Baiting with cracked corn in known depths marked 
with buoys revealed that black ducks (Arias rabripos) were able to dive and got 
grain in ten feet of water." 

Life H istories: Flamingo 

McCann , Cha r lo s . The flamingo (Phoeiiij^optoras rtabcj* ant i quorum 
Tomm. ) , Journ. Bombay Hat. Hist. Soc. (6 Apollo St., Bombay, India. 10 
rupees a copy), 41(1), A ug. 1939, pp. 12-53, 7 pis. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 ,. . February, 1940 

A co-subspecies with P. r, ruber of the Americas; in connection with 
presenting notes on his own observations in Cutch, India, the author summarizes 
accounts by others, particularly those of Abel Chapman in Spain and Frank Li. 
: Chapman in the Bahamas. Distribution, ahd breeding grounds and breeding sea- 
sons are treated as well as nesting sites, nests, eggs, young, plumage, •molt, 
structure of the beck and tongue, habits, food, relation of food to coloration, 
and migrations. Bibliography of 23 titles. 

L ife Hist o r ie s: Fo xes 

Anon. The fox in New Hampshire, Hew Hampshire Fish and Came Dept. 
(Concord) Tech. Cirpuler 1, S pp., 1 graph, tables, mimeographed, n. d. 

Estimate of the fox population and of poultry losses due to foxes; num- 
ber of animals taken annually 1923-35, uid their fur value; seasons on foxes in 
Now England and Middle Atlantic States; proportion of sportsmen hunting foxes; ^ 
notes on food of red ^rd gray £cxor., compiled from a variety of sources, in- 
cluding 6 analyses of stomachs from New Hampshire. 

Lif e Hi st oric sj ^_oLd on-oy_C£ 

MunrOj J. A. Studies of waterfowl in British Columbia, Barrow's 
golden-eve, America yollcn-cyo, r £rans. Royal Canadian Inst. (198 College 
St., Toronto, Canada) , ; 22( Z) , No. 48, vv. 259-218, Pis.. 2-6, 4 figs., tables. 

Distribution, life history, and economic status in British Columbia of 
the birds mentioned. The accounts include descriptions (accompanied by illus- 
trations) of these in most respects closely similar species, and full state- 
ments of distribution, seasonal movements, courtship, nesting, and food habits. 
The Barrow's golden-eye, though the rarer form, has headquarters in British 
Columbia and is treated in most detail. For this species, sections are added 
on behavior of yearlings, general observations on females and young, and 
especially on population studies. The food of the two species is about the same 
under similar conditions of time and place. "While on fresh water both x x x 
feed upon salmon eggs, insect larvae, and occasionally small fish. In salt 
waters they eat crustaceans and mollusks, and, for a short time, herring ova." 
The author believes that prcdation by these birds docs not cause an appreciable 
drain on salmon eggs. Control is scarcely needed and is inadvisable because it 
might seriously reduce the population of the comparatively local Barrow' s 

Life j^i sj; or i e sj _ Han- o f -war _bi_rd 

Min.aphy^ Robert Cushman. I.h.n-o T -\„ror, Natural History (American Museum 
of Natural HLstoiy, ifcjw 'York, IT. Y. 50 cents a cony), 44(3), Oct. 1939, 
pp. 135-143, 2 graphs, 16 photos. 

Popular account of habits, distribution, plumage patterns, and relation- 
ships; authoritative, tin-roughly \nd attractively illustrated. 

— Qt S— 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 1940 

Life Histor ies: Mi skrat 

Erri ngton, FaulL . Observations on young muskrats in Iowa, Journ. 
Mammalogy (Urn. B. Davis, A. Co 1.1. College, College Station, Texas. $1.00 a 
copy), 20(4), Nov. 1939, pp. 465-478, 3 figs.. 

Author's summary: "During 5 years (1934 to 1938) of field work on 
Ondat ra zib ethica zibethica in Iovia, about 1900 small-sized young and nearly 
800 larger individuals were handled. The data — especially those resulting from 
the tagging of 388 young — portray much of the life history, growth, and develop- 
ment of this animal for the first 3 months after birth. Numbers of very young 
animals in 158 evidently complete litters average 0.5; the members of 7 of 
these litters were kept by their mothers in different nests or in different 
marsh habitations. The sex ratio of 878 young in 162 litters less than 2 weeks 
old was 54.4 percent males, compared with the late fall and early winter ratio 
of 54.9 percent for 584 young of the year. At birth blind, and almost helpless, 
weighing about 21 grams and measuring 100 mm. in total length, the young com- 
monly opened their eyes between the fourteenth and sixteenth days. They were 
then capable of considerable activity, weighed about 80 grams and measured about 
200 mm. ".'leaning took place mostly in the fourth week, and the young (about 180 
grams and 285 mm. ) were living independently by the end of their first month. 
By this time their mothers, if pregnant, were generally ready to give birth to 
subsequent litters. The young reached the 'kit' stage (about 500 to 650 grams 
and 400 to 430 mm.) at between 7C una 90 days; at 3-1/2 months many were simi- 
lar in size and appearance to small and medium-sized adults. The majority of 
the young of the year taken by trappers in November and December wore from 5 to 
8 months old and very adult-like except for their imperfect sexual development. 
Limited data indicate that, by the one of the first year, muskrats reach average 
weights close to 1100 grams, end lengths close to 550 mm. The larger young 
males showed signs of approaching sexual maturity by mid- winter, or at 8 to 9 
mont hs . " 

Bibliography of 11 titles. 

Life Hi stor ie s :_ I lu skra t 

Hame r strom, _F. N. , Jr., and James B l ake . Central Wisconsin muskrat 
study, American Midland Naturalist (Notre Dame, Indiana), 21(2), March 
1939, pp. 514-520, 1 table. 

Lai skrat study in a drainage ditch environment ; the results probably appli 
cable to many drained areas in the upper Mississippi Valley. Constantly vary- 
ing water levels were reflected all the time by shifting populations. Food 
habits are discussed and the food plants tabulated so as to show parts used and 
season and degree of utilization. Car ex, G-lyceria , Lye opus , 3parganium, and 
Typha are of most importance, "/inter decrease in population is attributed to 
unbalance between food and water supplies; water conservation apparently is the 
best corrective. A few unsolved problems also are discussed. Bibliography of 
8 titles. 

"..1LDLIFE REVIE"./: No. 26 February, 1940 

Life Hist orie 3 : Partridge , Ch ukar 

Ar. o n. The chukar partridge (Alectoris *raeca chukar), New Hampshire 
Fish and Game Dept. (Concord) [4 pp.], mimeographed, n. d. 

Popular account of the bird, its habibs, natural range, introduction, 
food, breeding, and sporting value. ■ • / 

Life Histories-; Pheasan t , R ing -ne eked 


Rand all, Pierce E. Nesting habits and jeuses of nest mortality of 
the ringneck pheasant, Pennsylvania C-aice News ^Pennsylvania Game Commission, 
Harrisburg, Pa. 10 cents a copy), 10(9), Dec. -1939, pp. 5-7, 30, 5 photos, 
4 tables. 

Observations on 310 nests in a first-class farming district. Clutch 
sizes: 4 to 23, average 10. S; earlier ones large.?. Fertilitj 94, hatch 90, per 
cent; sex ratio of adult birds 1:6. Location of sects as to typos of cover is 
described and tabulated. The percentage of success was greatest (50) in pas- 
tures and potato field and lowest (0) i?i orchardSi brush, woods, and grain 
stubble. Despite high losses, production was graitost in hayfields. The cocks 
showed territorial instincts but hens upparontly did not; in a number of 
instances two occupied nests were observed only a foot or ovon loss apart. Not 
nesting success was only 20.3, and ir, the test environments was less than 30, 
percent. In hayfields, late nest:- tied is much higher dogroo of success than did 
early ones. Han's activities dostroyed more nests (56.6 percent) than all 
other agencies combined; mowing -.lone was responsible for "9.7 percent of the 
losses. Predators caused 30.6 porcont of the failures, skunks and crows out- 
ranking others. All nest losses are tabulated according to cause. Due to 
rcnestings, from 50-o0 percent of the hen pheasants eventually succeeded in- 
bringing off broods. A few improvements in management aro suggested. 

|»ife Hi stories: .Phoebe 

St oner, Dayton. Temperature, growth, and other studies on the 
eastern phoebe, ifew York State Museum (Albany), Circ. 22, 42 pp., 27 figs., 
5 tables, Nov. 1932. 

Notes on habits of the phoebe and especially on its nests and nesting, 
including number, color, shape, size, and weight of eggs, ind length of incuba- 
tion period. From daily observations and measurements, temperature and growth- 
records vrore made; they are discursed, tabulated, and illustrated. Seventeen 
different measurements wure made to reveal grovrth changes in bones and feathers, 
The findings are summarized in 17 pm ;r par: and there is a bibliography of 42 

Life IIi3t o_ries:_ | Plover , Up] and 

Buss, Irvon 0. , a nd^ A rthur S. Hawkins. The upland plover at Faville 
Grove, 'Wisconsin, Wilson Bui. (Jossolyn Van Tyne, University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor. 60 cents a copy), 51(a), Dec. 1939, pp. 202-220, Pis. 7-3, 
4 figs. , tables. 


"JILDLIFZ REVIEW: No. 25 February, 194 

This bird, once greatly reduced in numbers, has increased at Faville 
Grove in recent years and is reported as having become more common also in 
Minnesota and Pennsylvania. The authors have nade an interesting life history 
study of this highly eligible species for which they discuss the pre-nesting 
period, courtship, nesting, re-nesting, incubation period, nests and eggs, 
choice of nesting site, success of nests, territory, post-nesting period, food 
If habits, and management. Ge neral protection is essential and nests may bo 
., ; ilaa'o v A go by f one in; as the birds will not desert. Bibliography of 15 titles. 

Lj^_J&_st oj^icj3_:_ _ Quailj California 

Eril_cn,_j". T. , Jr. Sex and ago ratios in survival of the California 
qpail, Journ. Wildlife Management (Victor H. Cahalano, national Park 
Service, YJashington, D. 0. 75 cents a cop;/;, 4(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 92-99, 
3 figs. , 3 tables. 

Author's abstract: "Data from museums, banders' report's, hunters' bags 
and field observations provided 17,632 records for the California quail 
(Lophortyx eclifomica) . The sex ratio was 112. 2bb: 10099, the age ratio 
( summer records excluded), 145 immature: 100 adult. Both ratios varied accordi 
to locality, season, and year. Average survival calculated on the basis of ag 
ratio is 8.5$j from egg to one year, 31$ from 5 to IS months, and 50$ per year 
after 12 months. Thj relations of population level (P) , replacement (R), and 
survival (S) arc considered for four localities; 3=P (100-R). Ago ratio data 
make it possible to determine loca.1 critical seasons for quail; a high propor- 
tion of immature birds apparently results from inimical winters, a low propor- 
tion from critical summers. Utilization of such information is suggested in 
planning quail management programs and in analyzing watorfowl and cyclical gar 

Life Hist ories: Road- runner 

Do b i e , J . , _ P ro, nk . The roadruuner in fact and folk-lore, 31 pp., 193^ 
Texas Game, Pish, and Oyster Commission (Austin). Reprinted from In The 
Shadow of History 1939 (Texas Folk-Lore Society, A ustin) and in part from 
Natural History Magazine (American Museum of Natural History, New York, 
N. Y. ), Sept. 1939. 

Factual sections review the food, nesting, and general habits; role of 
the bird as a killer of rattlesnakes is discussed. Folklore is retold and fo3 
names of the species catalogued. Conservation of the road-runner is urged. 

Li fo_ Hist or ies : Sja rro va. Field 

V/a ikin shavg La:/ro^cc_ a. Nesting of the field sparrow and survival 
of the young, Bird-Banding (Charles E. Floyd, 210 South St., Boston, Mass. 
75 cents a copy), 10(3), July 1939, pp. 107-114, 1 map, tables: 10(4), Oct, 
1939, pp. 149-157, 1 photo, tobies. 

'./ILDLIFE EE7IEVJ: No. 26 February, 1940 

Observations near Br.ttlc Creel:, Michigan, on some 130 nests arc reported 
upon as to general nesting habits of the species, eggs, incubation, and the 
young , their survival, and weights. Average number of eggs 3.59; sets were 
sr.k~.llcr in late thin in early nests; incubation period, 11 days; that of fledg- 
ing, 13-14 days; young wore produced in 49 out of 97 nests to the number of 145 
frou 165 hatched eggs, a percentage of 57.5. Banding experience is described. 
Bibliography of 10 titles. 

L i? e -jfe_ s _"k ?Si e S _L Sjnai. rrel , F ox , _d e us 

Baum g a rt ne r , Luther L. Fox squirrel dens, Journ. Mammalogy (Ifa, B. 
Davis, A. & M. College'," College Station, Texas. O^-.OO a copy), 20(4), 
Nov. 1939, pp. 456-465, 2 pis., 1 fig., 1 table. 

Characteristics of dens and den trees; process of den formation (includes 
excavation of partly decayed wood, and constant trimming of entrances to size, 
which averages 2.9"x3.7"); factors involved in den formation; management sugges- 
tions. Tabulation of 169 dens as to species of tree in which located; whito oak, 
elm, and beech comprised 53 percent of the total in Ohio. Squirrel conservation 
demands preservation of den trees. 

I'lanag e_me nt :_ A tt r a c t i ng_ _b i rds 

McKo nn y , Margaret . Birds in the garden and how to attract them, 
xviii+349 pp., numerous plates, 1959. (Roynal and Hitchcock, 3P6 Fourth 
Ave., Nov; York, IT. Y. 05. 00 a copy). 

An attractive well- illustrated and easily legible book, the contents of 
vjhich are in harmony with its impressive appearance. Tie author deals with a 
subject in which she has long been interested and she has put forth considerable 
effort to make the book factually satisfactory. The publishers have collabo- 
rated by including 120 pages of reference material giving details of real value 
to earnest users of the work. The text is organized in 18 chapters that treat 
of the value and habits of birds, planting in gardens, feeding devices, bird 
homes, water supply, and protection. Reference sections relate to plants useful 
to attract birds in various sections of trie country and the birds attracted by 
them, to planting to attract waterfowl, planting city gardens, and to pertinent 

M anage ment : _ Bob -whi to 

_Komo.re_k_,_ Roy . How Florida can protect its bob white quail, North 
Carolina Wildlife Conservation (Division of Game and Inland Fisheries, 
Raleigh), 4(l), Jan. 1940, pp. 6-11, 2 photos. 

Environmental deficiencies may affect quail as seriously as overshooting. 
Favorable and unfavorable characteristics of environment and means of control- 
ling cover and food production are discussed. Maintenance of year-round food 
supply and policy as to quail enemies also receive attention. Improvement of 
environment is preferable to artificial propagation; kill should be limited to 
25 percent of the population. Popular misconceptions [roaring of second broods, 

WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 1940 

perils of inbreeding) are discounted. Reprinted from the Florida Magazine (no1 
ava i la bl e here). 

Managem ent: Burning 

-./at son, i Leroy, Jr. Controlled burning and the management of longleai 
pine, Journ. Forestry (Hills Bldg. , Washington, D. C. 50 cents a copy) , 
38(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 44-47. 

"Although the advantages of controlled burning in x x x management of 
longleaf pine have been presented, the of foresters remains in general 
ono of opposition." The evidence is reviewed and the conclusion reached that 
"foresters in the long-leaf pine belt should act on the basis of available fact 
which show the advantages of properly controlled fires at intervals of several 
years." Wildlife is mentioned in connection with seed consumption (its role ic 
not seriously detrimental to longleaf pixie reproduction) ; and with cover con- 
trol in game management. Bibliography of 27 titles. 

Mana geme nt: Cott entail 

Hick io, P aul. Helping the cottontail, Michigan Conservation 
(Michigan Dcpt. of Conservation, Lansing), 9(3), Dec. 1939, pp. 3, 11, 12, 

• 3 figs. 

Kills in 1937 ind 1938 were about 2,300,000 and 2,500,000, respectively. 
About 10 acres of land on the average are required to produce one rabbit for 
the hunter. One-fifth of the gunners get half of the cottontails bagged. The 
average take is 7-8 rabbits per year, the least successful hunters barely aver- 
aging one bunny each. The limit must be determined by the harvestable surplus 
the land will produce, not by what anyone thinks is "enough," Apparently 
nothing can put as many rabbits in coverts as the hunters desire, but they must; 
learn to be content with what is feasible Providing artificial cover is very 
helpful to the cottontail population and is something sportsmen can do to help 
themselves. Costly management will not ordinarily be adopted by 
farmers but the way is open for sportsmen to cooperate. The harvest should be 
in proportion to the crop. 

Man ag erne nt: Enyir onme nt a 1 improv ement 

Dambach, Charle s A. , and E. S. G-ood. The effect of certain land use 
practices on populations of breeding birds in southwestern Ohio, Journ. 
'Jildlife Management (Victor II. Cahalano, National Pari: Service, Washington, 
D. C. 75 cents a copy), 4(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 63-73, 1 pi., 2 figs., S 

Authors' abstract: "Counts of breeding bird populations incident to 
different land use practices were made on the Soil Conservation Service project 
area at Hamilton, Ohio during 1937, '38, and '39. Data were obtained by record 
ing singing male territories and observing nesting activities of either sex. 
Cropland populations were greatest in meadows (47.90 pairs per 100 acres) 
followed in order by small grain (10.26) and corn (5.23). Populations for the 


..ILDLIFS REVTEU: No. 26 February, 1940 

sar.e crops when in strips varying from 98 to 130 feet wide were materially 
greater, averaging 92.73 pairs per 100 acres in meadow; 27.35 in small grain, 
and 3.32 in corn. The strips decreasing the size of acceptable territories is 
believe! to be the most important factor contributing, to this difference. Popu- 
lations in protected woods were 225.35 pairs per 100 acres compared to only 
111.11 in graced woods. The. total effect of soil conservation planning on 
breeding bird populations on farms actually replanned was to increase them 38.16 
per cent. This estimate docs not include increases resulting from miscellaneous 

jficial practices but only those that affected a considerable proportion of 
the farm area." 

l^I 1 i 1 ii c riiilt. : _ - 1 Cl rx: l c r " S ,E °. r .\siuan rela tio nship 

, B rown , C. t B. The land user and tho hunter, Arizona Uildlifc and 
Sportsman (125 North Second Avo. , Phoenix, Ariz. 15 cents a copy), 1(10), 
Oct, 1939,: pp. 4-5. 

Tabulation; of land oxaicrship in Arizona; only 24.6 percent is privately 
oxmod and only 1 percent cultivated. Nevertheless, the policy of land users has 
benefitted wildlife. Sportsmen should recognize that fact, should keep clearly 
in mind "where public use ends, and should maintain an attitude of friendly 
cooperation. A behavior code is given. 

Management: _ Fc ed pat c he s 

Anon, hildlifc food strip planting, Rhode Island Agr. Expt . Sta. 
(Kingston) Mi'SC Fubl. 2, 3. pp. (mimeographed), Feb. 1939. 

Locating, liming, fertilizing, and planting feed patches; a seed mixture 
is recommended; estimated cost per .acre, not including labor, g35. 

■ Management ^ i Feeding 

Anon. Needs of wildlife in winter, Outdoor Iowa ( Iowa *'on- 
servation Commission, De^ Moines), 1(12;), Dec. 1939, pp. 12-L 

Usefulness of -winter feeding urged. Tho U. S. Soil Conserv. *3 

has established 950 and the St' te Conservation Commission 415 cmorg, 
stations. Suggestions as to supplies of food and grit and as to mam 
stations. Nearly 1,500 pounds of hegari seed was distributed to fame, 
in making food patches. 

Management ; Forest ma nagement in relation to wildlife manag ement 

Moore,, E. B . Forest management in Ucx; Jersey, Now Jersey Dcpt. of 
Conservation and Development (Trenton), 55 pp., 29 figs., 16 tables, 1939. 

•Throe brief sections (pp. 21, 29, 46) of this booklet ere devoted to 
x/ildlifc. They refer to the effect of forest cuttings and plantings, the value 
of edge;, the desirability of intcrspcrsion of wood, brush, marsh, and culti- 
vated lands, the critic:'.! importance of winter food and cover, and to tho value 


•./ILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 194C 

in both forest and wildlife management of cleared fire lanes and food strips. 

Management : Forest management in relation to wildlife management 

Mo ore, E. J3. Forest and wildlife management in the South Jersey 
pine barrens, Journ. Forestry (Mills Bldg. , Washington, D. C. 50 cents 
a copy), 38(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 27-30, 1 fig. 

"Jildlife as the basis of recreation deserves consideration in connect ic 
with forest management. This calls for coordination of overlapping and some- 
times conflicting objectives. Lack of fertility Las resulted in the pine 
barrens being preserved practically as a wilderness. Fires are frequent. 
Recent forest practice has boon directed toward increasing the proportion of 
pines among the preponderant oaks. As to wildlife, deer too plentiful for the, 
interests of cranberry and blueberry growers; other game populations arc spars 
Food is the limiting factor and management for increase should be directed 
toward thinning and opening the existing uniform cover so tji.% more food will 
be produced. The work being done starts at known centers oi \uaii and rabbit 
populations, radiating from which strips connecting clearings are cut, planted 
and improved as to cover. Only native species (listed) arc used for planting. 
From 12 to 15 percent of the total area is in strips and clearings including 
fire-breaks. A third of the total cost is considered properly chargeable to 
fire control. Bibliography of 7 titles. 

Managemen t^: Forest wildlife 

Ma ttoon, M. A. The third responsibility, Pennsylvania Game News 
(Pennsylvania Game Commission, Ilarrisburg. 10 cents a copy), 10(9), 
Dec. 1939, pp. 14, 32, 1 photo. 

After protection and maintenance of forests comes resource management 
which should be for multiple use. The wildlif c-forcst relationship should bo 
kept in reasonable balance under technical guidance. Environment can be im- 
proved by relatively simple measures, some of which are mentioned. Management 
of wildlife calls particularly for adjustment of numbers to carrying capacity. 
The forester should cooperate fully with other authorities responsible for the| 
welfare of wildlife. Education is necessary to public acceptance of wildlife 

Ma n agement : General 

Anon. Game management, Wisconsin Agr. Sept. Sta. (University of 
Wisconsin, Madison), Ann. Rep. 1938-39, Pt. 1 (Bui. 446), Nov. 1939, 
pp. 21-23, 1 map. 

Map showing gradual spread of Hungarian partridges in southeastern 
Wisconsin from plantings made as early as 1908. Experiments with prairie 
chickens indicate that buds are not a subsistence ration for these birds. 
Farmers who wish to encourage them should leave a few corn shocks or a buck- 
wheat stack in an open field for their use. The yield of certain wild food 
crops calculated from samples was seeds of: yellow and green foxtail grasses, 


■ILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 1940 

50-450 lbs. per acre; barnyard grass up to 30C lbs t ; and leaser ragweed 80- 
150 lbs. '..'aste soybeans threshed out 150 pounds to the acre. Trapping 
studies rever;led carry in*: capacity cf a certs in tract as 2 cottontails per acre 
and movements of the animals during the breeding season as far as a mile. 

Manage ment; G enera l, Iovjs 

Sco tt, Thomas_G_.__, and George 0. Hendricks on . Iowa's wildlife is 
increasing, Outdoor Iowa ( Iowa State Conservation Commission, Des Moines), 
1(12), Dec. 1939, supplement, 4 pp. unnumbered. Reprint from Farm Science 
Reporter, Jan. 1940. 

Popular article referring to early abundance of uildlifo and its deple- 
tion as the human population increased, to conservation efforts of the State 
Conservation Commission, and to cooperative programs of research as a basis 
for soiuid management. Illustrative experiences rath the ring-necked pheasant 
and the bob-v/hitc. The farmer's role in conservation and farmer- sport sman 

Management^ _ Herd rcgulat i^ori 

E dwards, Oliver T. 1939 V/intor doer range survey report, Malheur 
national Forest, Oregon (John Day, Oreg.), 21 pp., 3 tables, mimeographed, 
1 map (lithoprint), Aug. 1939. 

Management problems have arisen due to too much protection and not 
enough utilisation of big % me. 0vcrpop-n.lar-.ion of .mule deer on the Malheur 
Forest, evident as early c.s 1935, grew worse because existing laws and senti- 
ment hindered herd regulation. A range survey in 193S led to some remedial 
measures. In the 1939 report, estimates (based on ample counts) of the number 
of deer and of the carrying capacity indicate that the better ranges still 
have twice ar many animals as they should have. Although the v.lntcr was 
favorable, some cf the most important browse plants as bitturbrush and moun- 
tain mahogany suffered considerable damage. Remarks on populations and food 
utilisation are given for 15 areas. Competition rath elk is not yet very seri- 
ous but the elk herd should be favored on only a limited portion of the Forest; 
all other areas should be managed primarily for mule deer. Competition with 
cattle is thoroughly discussed; the range has been overstocked with both cattle 
and deer; in properly regulated numbers they would not seriously compete. 
Winter losses wore chiefly among yearling door. The increase from breeding in 
1938 was from 20 to 25 percent; for 1939 it is estimated at about 10 percent. 
'./eights and antler measurements are given for many bucks, and weights for 91 
docs and 19 fawns. They indicate decline due to ;:ialnutrition. Management 
problems arc discussed in the light of local economics and suggestions given 
additional to those in the 1938 report. The fifty percent reduction in deer 
numbers required is difficult to achieve by hunting, especially if public sen- 
timent is in an3^ degree adverse. An educational campaign is needed. 


.WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 ' February, 19 40 

Management: Inventory, t plApk^^pxa^ip. 

M off itt ,_ James. ' Ninth annual black brant census in California, 
California Fish and Game (Terminal Island, Calif.), 25 (-1), Oct. 1939, 
. pp. 336-342, 1 table. 

The tabulation shows the results for 7 localities in 9 years; the 1939 
figure is/little larger than the average for the previous seven years but 
slightly less than that for 1938. 

Mana g e ment : j^Lyen t qry , game o n nati o nal_ for ests 

Shantz, H._JL. America's wildlife, Pennsylvania Game News ( Pennsyl- 
vania Game Commission, Harrisburg. 10 cents a copy), 10(9), Dec. 1939, 
pp. 11, 27 , 1 photo. 

Review of Forest Service big game estimates for 1939; the total number 
of big game animals on national forests was estimated at 1,842,000, an incroafj 
of 6 percent over the figure for last year and of 300 percent over that for til 
first attempt in 1921. There is an average of more than 5 head of big game or 
every square mile within the national forest boundaries. It is calculated the 1 
32 percent of all the big game in the United States is found on national 
forests; 62 percent on State and private lands; 4 percent on grazing districts 
and the remaining 2 percent on National Pari: Service, Biological Survey, and 
Indian Service lands. Distribution by groups is summarized, deer being by fai 
the most numerous class. Wildlife policies of the Forest Service are outlined 

Managemen t: Inventory, pheasants , ctc._, Onio 

Hicks, Lawrence E. Status of Ohio game birds, 1958, Ohio Wildlife 
Research Station (Columbus), Release No. 122, 23 pp., 18 figs., 7 tables, 
Nov. 1939. 

Trends in gome bird populations in the major pheasant belt of 15 
counties for the year are compared to those of previous years. There is a 
summary containing 24 paragraphs that give among other averages those for: 
pheasant nesting frequence/- (7 per square mile); nests per 100 acres in forage 
crops (12.5); number of pheasants per square mile (75 in 1938, 89 in 1939; 
different figures on pp. 1 and 2); bob-whites 1938, 57.5, and Hungarian par- 
tridges 1938, 7.2 per square mile; proportion of farm operators that hunt 
(about 2/3), their annual bag of all kinds of game (64 head); and pheasant 
highway mortality (7.7 birds per 1,000 miles). These and other matters are 
treated in detail in text, graphs, and tables. The numbers of crows end hawks 
seen by the field observers (17,7 and 0.80 per nan day) wore larger in countie 
having the most pheasants. The paper closes with a bibliography of 24 titles 
of related reports by Kicks and Lccdy. 

Management: Land planning _fpr wildlife 

Gabriel son, Ira N. Land use considers wildlife, U.S. Dept. of 
Agriculture, Extension Service Review (Supt. of Documents, Washington, 
D. C. 10 cents a copy), 10(11), Nov. 1939, p. 163. 


V/ILDLLFE REVIEW: No, 26 February, 1940 of refuge acquisition and development (2554 areo.s, 13-1/2 million 
acres, 21 million dollars since 1934). The conservation of wildlife has a 
definite place in any program of land use, and is being considered by land 
planning agencies. The Biological Survey will be represented on State commit- 
tees. Federal organizations involved are all interested in wildlife conserva- 
tion and their combined efforts vail be of much practical importance. 

Management : Mask rat 

L ay, Dan W. Survey indicates muskrat crop can be increased, 
Monthly Bulletin Texas Game, Fish, and Oyster Commission (Austin), 3(1), 
Dec. 1939, pp. 4-5, 1 photo. 

Yields, not uncommonly 10 pelts to the acre, and prices 70-80 cents per 
skin, have interested Texas coastal farmers in muskrat s. "Unwise trapping, 
grazing, turning,, or other disturbances have serious effects on the muskrats." 
Good management pays, net returns often being $3. per acre. Muskrat lodges 
vary in average number from 0.11 to 11.9 in 5 different grades of environment, 
the characteristic plants of which arc listed. Six ranagement recommendations, 
cheap because mostly negative in character, arc made, and in addition 5 others 
that require substantial expenditures. Harsh management could quadruple the 
muskrat harvest estimated for 3 counties in 193S at 375,000 pelts valued at 
close to' a quarter of a million dollars. 

Managemen t : Fl ant i ng for wildlife, Connecticut 

Crom ie, G . A. , a nd Raymond ICienhoiz . Survival and growth of exotic 
game-food shrubs, Connecticut Agr. Expt. Sta. cooperating with the 
Connecticut Forestry Dept. (Hartford), Rep. of Frogress Circ. 6, 2 pp., 
mimeographed, Nov. 1939. 

From observations made of plantings on State forests, the authors con- 
clude: ; ''(1) That the planting of exotic shrubs is unprofitable and useless 
unless a tremendous amount of weeding is done to protect them from the encroach- 
ment of native root-established and more vigorous species and specimens; (2) 
that almost everywhere along fence rows, in abandoned fields, pastures and in 
moist or rocky hillside woodland areas there arc native food-bearing shrubs, 
trees and vines which will flower and fruit more abundantly if released from 
overtopping trees by a small amount of weeding — perhaps repeated at intervals 
of a few years; (3) whore areas exist that have no or 'few native berry bearing 
plants, planting nay be resorted to, but preference should be given to larger 
sized specimens of native species which can maintain themselves with a minimum 

Manage ment : Planting 'for wil dlife , Lespede za s o rig ea 

Pi est ers^ A. J_. Lespede za senicea and other perennial lespedezas 

for forage and soil conservation, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Circular 534 

(Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. 10 cents a copy), 43 pp., 27 figs., 
7 tables, Nov. 1939 (Jan. 1940). 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 194C 

Discussion of adaptations, culture, and uses of L espedeza seri cea, witt 
supplementary notes on other species and bibliography of 22 titles. A section 
(pp. 31-32) on "Sericea for wildlife" calls attention to the value of the 
plant in providing food and cover and makes suggestions as to its planting. 

Manag em en t : Planting for wil di if e , Hi s si ss ippi 

Bat so n, F . S. Common native shrubs of Mississippi for landscape 
plantings, Mississippi Agr. Expt. Sta. (State College, Miss.), Mimeo- 
graphed Circ. 100, March 1939, 13 pp., 1 table. 

Although this publication does not mention wildlife, it will be of valu 1 
to anyone undertaking a planting program in Mississippi or nearby. Directions 
for planting are included as well as descriptions of 34 species of shrubs, anc 
a tabulation giving scientific and vernacular names of the plants, their typer 
as to evergreen or deciduous, their heights in feet, light preferences, 
seasons of bloom, etc. 

Manag omen t : Planting for wild! if e and erosion control 

Anon . Key to site adaptations of woody plants recommended for 
plantations, together with supplementary information, Soil Conservation 
Service Region One (Upper Darby, Pa.), 21 pp., mimeographed, 1939. 

Plants are listed by scientific names according to their light toler- 
ances and under each division, in conformity with their adaptations as to soi] 
moisture and alkalinity. The table of supplementary information gives both 
scientific and vernacular names, states growth habit, type of planting to 
which adapted, wildlife food value, persistence of fruit, and planting range, 
and contains also remarks on resistance to browsing, cover value, etc. 

Management^ Planting for wildlife and erosion control 

Franklin , Sydney., Mulching to establish vegetation on eroded areas 
of the Southeast, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Leaflet 190 (Supt. of Docu- 
ments, Washington, D. C. 5 cents a copy), 8 pp., 6 figs., 1939 (Jan. 1940) : 

Wildlife is barely mentioned in this publication but wildlife managers 
will be glad to have available its practical instructions in the use of mulch 
and nurse crops in establishing growths of ground cover, especially lespedeza* 

Ma nag e men t : P onds 

Davis, William G-. Wildlife will come Where it is invited, 

Missouri Wildlif e '"( 208 Westport Rd. , Kansas City, Mo.), 2(5), Dec. 1939, 
PP. 7, 11, 2 photos. 

Development of ponds for erosion control improves conditions for wild- 
life and is of both esthetic and economic benefit. Suggestions are given as 
to planting to hold banks, to provide cover and windbreaks , and to reduce wave 
action. Protection from burrowing animals and from livestock may be necessary 


WUDLIFS REVIEW! No. 26 February, 1940 

Managemen t : Refu ges, Fede ral p rogram 

Gabr iels cm , Ira N. The refuse program of the Biological Survey, 
Bird-Lore (1006 Fifth Ave. , New York-, N. Y. 30 cents a copy), 41(6), 
Nov. -Dec. 1939, pp. 325-532, 4 pis. 

The concentration of the waterfowl population in comparatively restricted 
bantering areas makes it imperative that marshes in those regions he preserved 
or restored. Favorable wintering grounds in addition to suitable breeding- 
tracts and migration-path refuges have been acquired by the Biological Survey 
through the- years so that now there are about 13,500,000 acres in the Federal 
refuge system. Special objectives of some of both waterfowl and big game 
reservations arc mentioned. Plans call for the addition of about 8,000,000 
acres of refuge lands within the Unitod States. The use of areas for conserva- 
tion purposes obtained by casements is proving a useful supplement to the 
acquisition program, and now involves song 00 projects totalling about 133,000 
acres. These and other refuge areas contribute also to water conservation, 
flood control, and recreational facilities. Further they arc of benefit to 
many forms of wildlife besides those for which they have primarily been set 

Management: Refi ige s, Hart Mountain 

Jevrett,- Stanley G. Hart I.Iountain Antelope Refuge, U. 3. Dept. of 
Agriculture Misc. Pubi. 355 (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. 10 
cents a copy), 26 pp., 23 figs., June 1939 (Jan. 1940). 

History of the area, development of the refuge since its establishment 
in 1936, description as to topography and life zones and their characteristic 
plants and animals. Mammals and birds known from the area are listed, and 
information for tourists and a list of other big game refuges given. 

Ma nagem ent: Refu ges , Mississippi 

Anon. Game refuges in State comprise over 240,000 acres, 
Mississippi Game and Fish (Mississippi Game end Fish Commission, Jackson) , 
3(11) , Nov. 1939, p. 1, 2. 

List of 40 refuges and their acreages, 

Panagomont : Songbird 

McAtee, W. L. A venture in songbird management, Journ. Wildlife 
Management (Victor H. Cahalane, National Park Service, Washington, D. 0. 
75 cents a copy), 4(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 85-39, 6 tables. 

Near Glenn Dale, Md. , installation of bird houses attracted birds so 
that in some seasons the normal population of the area was quadrupled. Brood 
production in typical years varied from .18.3 to 26.6 per acre. On the average, 
about half of the nest boxes were occupied. Diameter of entrance was probably 
the most important factor influencing birds in their choice of homes. The 



WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 194 

sizes ordinarily recommended for various birds were found satisfactory except 
in the case of the house wren Which preferred an entrance an inch or larger in 
diameter. Boxes placed at moderate heights (5-7 feet) wore well utilized and 
were most convenient for inspecting and cleaning. Apparently from 80-90 per- 
cent 'insolation was most favorable for brood production. Intruders wore best 
dealt with by simple removal. 

Management :' S t oc king , S9-?U9PliL 

Cox, William T . Woodland caribou in Minnesota, Soil Conservation 
(Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. 10 cents a copy), 5(6), Doc. 1939, 
pp. 138-143, 156, 2 figs. 

The v/oodland caribou has been extirpated from a great deal of the 
southern part of its range even in Canada and is fur on the roud to extinction 
The Minnesota herd, reduced to 33 in 1913 and to a much lower number later, is 
to be recruited by animals transplanted from Saskatchewan. The bulk of this 
article is made up of Jack Manwcilor's accounts of surveys of the Beltrami 
Island reservation whore the animals wore placed and of the capture of a numbc; 
of caribous and bringing 7 calves to the project area. 

Manage ment : Stocking, pheasant 

Gou ld', Ern est W . A study of the pheasant in New Hampshire during 
the spring and early summer, New Hampshire Fish and Game Dept. (Concord), 
10 pp., 1 fig., 2 tables, mimeographed, n. d. 

The history of 94 pen-raised pheasants liberated on an 800-acre State 
Game Re f age. The area lacked adequate cover and food and was heavily populate 
with predators. Most of the released birds dispersed rapidly and the rcmaindc 
were depleted by predators or driven out by resident" wild pheasants. Only one 
pon-raiscd cock persisted and only one of the restocked hens is known to have 

Managem ent : Waterfowl 

H awkins, Arthur 3 JLJ _ F rank C. Bcllroso, Jr. _, and Harry G - . Anderson . 
The waterfowl research program in Illinois, Illinois Natural History Survey 
(Urbana) Biological Notes 12, 16 pp., 1 fig., 8 tables (mimeographed), 
Oct. 1939. 

Notes on kinds of work undertaken and reports on 2 branches of it, name 
ly, a survey of the 1933 hunting season, and a study of foods and food habits 
of waterfowl. A paper on the former topic by Hawkins end Bellrose was ab- 
stracted in WILDLIFE REVIEW, No. 22, August 1939, p. 32, from which the presen 
article differs in some respects. Total kill, including cripples lost, is 
estimated at 85,000. The proportion of male to female mallards increased 
through the season from 48 percent in the first half -month to 62 percent in th 
last. Average weights of mallards were: drakes 42.8, and ducks, 37.2, ounces 


WILDLIFE REVISIT: No. 26 February, 1940 

Aquatic vegetation, unfavorably affected by drouth in 1938, improved in 
1939; details of the findings are given for a number of bodies of water. A 
preliminary report is made on food habit studies. In 285 mallard stomachs, corn 
comprised 40 percent, and Leersia oryzoides 13 percent, of the food. Leading 
items in 62 pintail stomachs were: corn, 56 percent; Oypero s esculentus , 8, 
an ^ L Cephalanthus occidental is, 6. Briefer mention .is rade of the food of 
lesser scaup, and ring-necked, ducks. "The belief, sometimes expressed, that 
baiting is necessary to prevent duck starvation, docs not apply to Illinois 

The authors' remarks on the waterfowl crop arc of interest. "The goal 
of game management is the ethical harvesting of the surplus, A surplus is tiiat 
part of a population in excess of a breeding stock large enough to maintain the 
species at some desired population lovol. In waterfowl at the present, time, 
there is no surplus, because the desirod population level is not in sight. Wo 
arc, therefore, harvesting a portion of the capital stock. Although this is 
not good management, under the circumstances, it is the best thing to do. It 
means, howover, that unusual vigilance must be directed toward the status of . , 
the capital stock, to guard against sharp deflation." 

Management : Winter feeding 

Benjamin, J*, F. Foods, feedirg, and feeders, Ohio Conservation Bui. 
(1106 State Office Bldg. , Columbus, Ohio, 10 rents a copy), 3(12), Dec. 
1939, pp. 3-4, ill us. V 

Food should be available early and late, should be suitable and suffi- 
cient, and should not unduly expose the population being fed to predator 
attacks. Food patches are better than feeding station:'; but provision should bo 
made for both. Planting of nature 1 food-bearers also should not be neglected. 
Suggestions are made as to the best foods and methods of making them available, 
and a number of feeding devices are illustrated. 

N at viral Tl st o ry ^ Armadillo 

Tabo r, F. _ Wallace. Extension of the range of the armadillo, Journ. 
Mammalogy (Wm. B. Davis, A. & M. College, College Station, Texas. $1-00 a 
copy), 20(4), Nov. 1939, pp. 489-493, 2 maps. 

Range at different periods since 1880; it has extended steadily in Texas 
and recently has involved several other States for which records aro cited. 
Bibliography" of 6 titles. 

Natur al_ Inst cry; _ Birds of Newfo un dla nd 

Aldrich, J ohn W. , and David C. Nutt . Birds of eastern Newfoundland, 

Cleveland Pus. Nat." Hist. (Cleveland, Ohio"), Scientific Publ. 4(2), pp. 
13-42, Doc. 1239. 

Annotated list of 93 forms, of which a, chickadee, Font host es atri capil - 
lus bartlott i , and a robin, Turdu s; t orius nig r idous , are described as new. 
Bibliography of 31 titles. 

' -39- 

IJILBLIF13 REVIEW: No. 26 ■ February, 1 ( J4, 

Na tural Ill s tors' - : Forest wildlife 

P almer^ E. Laurence. Farm-forest facts, Cornell Rural School 
Leaflet (Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. ) , 33(2), Not. 1939, 32 pp., 
1 pi., 4 portraits, 6 f igs. , 14 cartoons, 2 tables. 

Wildlife is discussed undar the heads of: Forests and furs ( economic 
value, take for alternate years 1927-56, study suggestions); forests and 
feathers (occurrence and kill of ruffed grouse, management suggestions); and 
forests and flesh (food value of forest animals, possible income from lease oi 
hunt i e g right s ) . 

Natural Ulster;;: Herpetol yy o f Great Smoky Mountains N a t ional Parle 

King, Wi llis. A survey of the horpetology of Groat Smoky Mountains 
National F ark, American Midland Naturalist (Notre Dame, Indiana. §1.00 a 
copy), 21(3), May 1939, pp. 531-502, 9 figs., tables. 

Annotated list of 70 species, including 25 salamanders, 11 frogs and 
toads, 8 lizards, 21 snakes, ana 5 turtles. Bibliography of 40 titles. 

Natural History: J^rpetjtl egjv__jtf Cregjui 

Gordon, Kenneth. The amphibia and reptilia of Oregon, Oregon State 
College (CorValli.'J Studies in Zoology, No. 1 (50 cents a copy), 82 pp., 
7 pis., 37 figs., l^y 1339. 

Mas concept ions relative to reptiles and amphibians, distributional are; 
of the State end their herpetological faunas, habitat distribution, life his- 
tories, economic importance, and treatment of snake bites. Illustrated key ai 
running accounts (including description, habitat, and range) of 14 species of 
salamanders, 11 of toads and frogs, 14 of lizards, 23 of snakes, and 2 of 

N atural H isto ry: H erpeto logy _of P ennsylvania 

Pavrling, R. Qldt . The amphibians and reptiles of Union County, 

Pennsylvania, Horpotologica (Walter I. ITccker, 2001 N. Clark St., Chicago, 
111. 50 coats a copy), 1(6), 2JP50 , pp. 165-169, 

Annotated list of 24 specie: of amphibians and 22 of reptilians. 

Natural Hi s tory; Horno b e logy of 3 cut t raps t 

Cowles, R. P., and C. M. B ogert . The herpetology of the Boulder 
Dam Region (Nov., Ariz., Ftah) , Horpotologica (halter L. Necker, 2001 N. 
Clark St., Chicago, III. 50 cents a copy), 1(2), December 1936, pp. 33-42, 

Annotated list of 7 amphibians, 19 lizards, 13 snakes, and 2 turtles. 


UJLDLWE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 1940 

Natural History : He rpetologg' of iBfest^ Vi rginia 

Green , N. Bayard . Tie aiaphibians. and reptiles or Randolph County, 
We st Virginia, Herpetologica (Walter L. Necker, 2001 N. Clark St., 

Chicago, 13 1. 50 cents a copy) j 1(4), No-.. 1957, pp. 113-116. 

Annotated list of 24 species of amphil ians and HO of reptiles. 

Natural History: Me mrnals 

Hamilton, Vf . J. , Jr. Americas mammals. 'Their lives, hahits, end 
economic 'reiatio vs. 2cii+434 pp., fronv.i ~.+92 figs., 1939 ( McGraw-Hill 
Book Co., inc., 55:j YJeet :2n" St., New York, N. Y. $3.75 a copy). 

The aivfchor, as earnest student of mammals, who has contributed more than 
anyone else to knowledge of their food habits, is certainly qualified to pre- 
pare a good book or. these animals and has done so. The approach is broadly 
ecologicox and the style that of a to:.:t-bock, with lists cf literature cited 
ending the chapters. The latter, numbering 16, troat anccstiy, classification, 
adaptations, food, storage, reproduction, homos, 1-ibornarion, migration, 
populations, behavior, distribution, and economics. Sections probably of most 
interest to wildlife managers arc those on food and storage (about 65 pp.), 
good general accounts that the author is ominontly qualified to write, that on 
mammal populations, a subject which also has engaged seme of his special 
research, and the chapters on economies, en which he has cftcn i-rittcn before. 
These relate tc useful and injurious raammalSj game and fur groups, and 
predators, all discussed both as to conservation and control. The book has an 
ample index. 

Natural Hist ory: Mammals o f__ A r i zona 

Cah al an e, Victor H . Mammals cf the Chiricahua Mountains, Cochise 
County, Arizona, Journ. Mammalogy (\'-m. B. Davis, A. & M. College, College 
Station, Texas. $1.00 a copy), 20(4), Nov. 1939, pp. 418-440, 2 pis. 

Annotated list cf G4 species and subspecies; hypothetical list of 9; 
bibliography of 15 titles. 

Natural His t ory: New York wi ldlife in winter 

• Palmer, S . Lauren ce. Fields in winter, Cornell Rural School Leaflet 
(Cornell University, Ithaca, N. y. ) , 33(5), Jan. 1940, 28 cartoons, 3 

Analysis of the farm environment in relation to wildlife; nature and 
value of food and cover'; how xirildlife passes the winter; animal tracks; take 
and, economic value of common game, and fur animals, with some account also of 
non-game species. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 . February, 194) 

N atura l History: Snails of Illij.lols 

Baker, Fr ank Collins. Eieldbook of Illinois land snails, Illinois 
Natural Ili. story Survey (Urbana) Manual 2, ::i+lG5 pp., 4-1/4x7-1/0", 
illus. , Aug. 1959. 

Introductory chapters relate to tie habits and habitats of snails, 
methods of collecting, preserving and identifying the animals, .and to the his- 
tory of the group and of its study in Illinois. Keys are given to all taxo- 
nomic divisions from families to varieties. Hie total number of forms treated 
is 122, and practically all of them are described and illustrated. 

Natural Ni story :__ Whales 

Ke llogg, Renington. '.aides, giants of the se^, National Geographic 
Magazine (Hubbard Memorial Hall, Washington, D. 0. 50 cents a copy) , 
77(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 35-90, 24 col. pis., numerous photos. 

C-eneral account of whales and their commercial uses, and ossays troatir 
36 groups of whales, dolphins, porpoises, and the narwhal, with respect to di£ 
tribution, size, young, habits, food, diving ability, swimming speed, etc. 

Fr o p _a_g a_t i on : Feeding fur animals 

Kellogg, _ Charles _E. Nutrition of fur animals, Yearbook U. 3. Dcpt. 
of Agriculture 1939 (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. $1.50 a copy), 
pp. 871-892, 2 pis., 9 tables. 

Summary of the status of fur farming; accounts of the management incluc 
ing feeding, and the results of dietary research, of silver foxes and minks. 
Briefer treatment is given martens and fishers, and a section is devoted to 
domestic rabbits. 

P ropaga tion: _ Feeding gal lina c eous gam e birds 

Nestler, Ralph _B. Feeding requirements of gallinaceous upland game 
birds, Yearbook U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 1939 (Supt. of Documents, 
Washington, D. C. $1.50 a copy), pp. 895-924, 11 figs,, 8 tables. 

Brief account of the gallinaceous game birds, both native and introduce 
now in the United States and of the extent of their propagation. Notes on the 
food habits of the birds in the wild, with table summarizing information on 8 
species. The desirability of providing feed patches and feeding shelters is 
pointed out and suggestions arc given as to their establishment and maintenance 
Studies of the nutritional requirements, especially as to vitamins and minora] 
of gallinaceous game birds under controlled conditions arc summarized, and 
modern feeding practices are described. 


',/ILDLIEE RE7IE./: No. 26 • February, 1940 

Propagation; }£5jrter. feedi ng of phea sa nt s 

Ju ral e, Be r na r d . Vfintering same pheasants, Modern Game Breeding and 
Hunting Club News (J. A. Gardy Printing Co., 28 W. State St., Doylestown, 
Pa. 25 cents a copy), 10(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 6-7. 

Inadequate winter feeding affects the appearance and performance of 
birds in the breeding season. The author reports on trial of various systems 
and concludes that an essential to proper diet is plenty of roughage, to take 
the place of the grass and other plants available in summer. He found the 
buds and bark of apple prunings and the leaves and even the stalks of corn 
fodder to be oaten. 

Research; Activity reco rding 

Spencer^ Dor-a_ld_A. Electrical recording of the activities of small 
mammals, Journ. Mammalogy (1/m. E. Davis, A. & M. College, College Station, 
Texas. $1.00 a copy), 20(4), Nov. 1959, pp. 479-485, 7 figs. (1-3 on a 

Activity- recording machines arc useful in connection with the planning 
of control measures. Illustration and description of a recorder, discussion 
of difficulties and methods of surmounting them. Suggestions as to the use of 
the apparatus in life-history studios. 

Research; Band i ng 

Mason, m Edw in A . The amateur bird bander, Natural History (American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, N. Y. 50 cents a copy), 44(3), Oct. 
1939, pp. 149-154, 11 photos. 

ifell illustrated popular account of bird bending as cooperated in by the 
Biological Survey, a few other organizations, and many individuals. General 
instructions and illustration of sample equipment and methods. 

Res e arc h ; Band ing , p he a s ant s 

Kellogg, H. B. , Jr . Pheasant banding; statistics, Wisconsin Conserva- 
tion Bui. ( Hi sconsin Conservation Dept. , Madison), 4(12), Dec. 1939, pp.. 

Of 4,844 bands returned, 4,507 were for pheasants stocked in 1938, 298 
in 1937, and 30 in 1956; scattering returns represented birds banded as far back 
as 1929. Of the total birds upon which returns were made, 86.2, mostly young 
cocks, were shot during the open season. . Out of 37.6 percent, for which infor- 
mation as to drift was available , about, half were taken .within 5 miles of t he 
stocking site; long travels were 60 and 78 miles. 

— •U-.'l — 

WILDLIFE REVIEW: Wo, 25 February, 194 

Research: Band ing, wooplco_cks 

Nor r is, ft 1 s s el 1 T . , John p« Be ule, and Allan T. Studholme. Banding 
woodcocks on Pennsylvania singing grounds, Journ. Wildlife Management 
(Victor H. Gahalane, National lark Service, Washington, L. C. 75 cents a 
copy), 4(1), Jon. 1340, pp. 8-14, 1 pi., 1 fig. 

"A fairly heavy, concentration of breeding woodcocks (Phi lohela mino r) 
was found in the scrub oak-pitch pine forest type of central Pennsylvania. 
Forty singing grounds were found en tl n e 950 acres investigated. To observe tt 
singing male's react lea to an intruder, a woodcock was collected and mounted i 
standing position. This decoy was placed on a singing ground, where the .resi- 
dent male attempted '.o copulate witfc it £1 times during the evening flight 
period. After subsequent observations it xvas evident that all birds would noi 
react similarly in the presence of the decoy; but of the 27 singing males thai 
actually saw the mounted bird, 20 — or 74 percent — attempted copulation the 
first night. The actions of the remaining seven may be attributed to several 
trapping technique defects. Plans far trapping the adult males en their sing- 
ing grounds through the use of the decoy gradually evolved, and finally a No. 
jump trap with enlarged jaws coverod with gill netting was found to be satis- 
factory. Fourteen miles wore trapped end banded during the singing season. 
The trapped birds t.orc net greatly frightened by the procedure and soon return 
to normal singing activiti :s. n — Logan J. Bcrnctt. 

Research^ _ Co opera 1 1 re , i n I o wa 

Scott, T ho mas G « Progress report of the Iowa Cooperative Wildlife 
Research Unit, October 1935 to October 1939, American Wildlife (Investment 
Bldg. , Washington, D. C. 25 cents a copy), 28(5), Nov. -Dec. 1939, pp. 
271-281, 9 photos, I table. 

The fundamental objectives of the undertaking were: M (l) Development 
practicable end efficient census techniques; (2) study of the economic import 
tance of the various forms of wildlife, especially as affected by population 
fluctuations and differences in environment; (3) investigation of the limitingi 
factors that tend to decrease or increase wildlife populations; and (4) de- 
velopment and testing of techniques and practices." A summary is given of 
results with the ring-nocked pheasant, bob-white, mourning dove, blue-winged 
teal, coot, cottontail, r.ushrat, rod fox, two spooics of .skunks, and raccoon. 
There arc notes also on lose advanced studios end a tabulation recording the 
names of projects and investigators and the periods of investigation. 

Research: Irradiation studios 

Biss onnett e, Thomas Hone. Sexual photoperiodic ity in the blue jay 
(Cyanocitta cristata), Wilson Bui. (J'osselyn Van Tyne, University of 
Michigan, Arm Arbor. 60 cents a copy), 51(4), Dec. 1939, pp. 227-232, 
Pis. 9-11. 

Author's summary: "(1) The male Blue Jay is sexually photoperiodic and 
responds to increased illumination in December by almost, if not quite, com- 

WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 . February, 1940 

plete spermatogenesis and activation of the epididymis to breeding condition in 
twenty-eight days; (2) females also respond, but more slowly and less com- 
pletely. Oviducts increase markedly in size and activity in a majority if not 
all experimentally lighted females; (3) exact uniformity of stages of activity 
of germ cells was not found in males taken from the wild x;ithin ten minutes of 
each other in March nor in experimentally activated birds at time of killing. 
This is also true of females; (4) larger germ ceils and nuclei and smaller size 
of tostos in Blue Jays than in Starlings make them easier to treat technically 
and study microscopically; (5) Blue Jays arc hardy, easily kept and fed in 
captivity, and temperamentally good for experimental work," 

Rosoarchj Metab olic rate in mice 

Hatfield » Don a ld M . Rate of metabolism in Microtus and Poromyscus, 
The Murrclct (105 Anderson Hall, University of Washington, Seattle. 50 
cents a copy), 20(3), Sept. -Dec. 1939, pp. 54-56, 2 tables. 

•Description of apparatus and method of experiment; measured by carbon 
dioxide output, meadow mice have a higher metabolic rate than do v/hite-footcd 

Research^ ^ life tabol ism _of_ turkcy_ strains 

Gerstcll, Richard, and William H, Long. Physiological variations 
in wild turkeys and their significance in management, Pennsylvania Game 
Commission (Harrisburg) Research "Bui. 2, 50 pp., 10 figs., 21 tables, 1939. 

C-ersteli, Richard. The inherent "wildness" of different strains of wild 
turkeys, pp. 1-19, 5 figs., 3 tables. 

• Strains of turkeys differ appreciably in "wildness" and the wilder types 
are more suitable for stocking as game. This bulletin reports on a physiologi- 
cal study of two strains, comparing them in their stages of development under 
both outdoor and laboratory conditions. Wildness is a result not only of 
parental education, association with other individuals, and reactions to 
environmental stimuli, but also of hereditary factors. Bibliography of 7 

Long, William H. The heat production and muscular activity of two 
strains of wild turkeys, pp. 20-60, 4 figs., IS tables. 

This paper deals with an experimental study of the metabolism of the two 
strains, including the effects of fasting, activity, and age. Comparisons are 
given also of heat production, body temperature, rate of respiration and heart- 
beat, and the relations between body weight and organ weight of various birds 
and mammals. Apparatus and technique are described. Bibliography of 88 titles. 

Research: Nati onal parks_, southwest 

M cDougall, W. B. Wildlife management, national Park Service 
Region III" "(Santa Fo, N. Mex. ), Quarterly, 1(2), Oct. 1939, pp. 36-40, 1 pi. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 ■ February, 1940 

The goal of the Wildlife Division is "the restoration, preservation, and! 
presentation to the public of complete biotic communities in all park areas." 
Research is needed and some of its particular requirements in the Southwest are 
pointed out. Problems for immediate as well as others for long-time investiga- 
tion are suggested. 

Research: R espiration apparatus 

Long, " Will ia m H . Apparatus for measuring metabolism and activity in 
wild animals, University of Michigan School of Forestry and Conservation 
Circular 5 (University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. 25 cents a copy), 
35 pp., 5 figs, 1 table, 1939. 

Description and illustration of apparatus making it "possible to observe 
and record automatically the effects of either constant or fluctuating tempera- 
ture, humidity, and light on the animal's internal temperature, heat regulation 
head production, heat loss, neuromuscular reaction, digestion, body weight, 
oxygen consumption, carbon- dioxide production, and water vaporized, without 
touching the animal during the experimental period.'" 7 Bibliography of 36 titles 

Research: R ooti ng vroody plants 

Yoagp.ij L oo E. , and L._R. Tchon. Experiments with plant hormones in 
the propagation of wildlife food. and cover, Journ; .Jildlife Management 
(Victor II. Cahalane, national Park Service, Washington, D. C. 75 cents a 
copy), 4(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 1-7, 4 tables. 

Authors' abstract: "About 350 cuttings each of dormant bittersweet, 
frost grape, red mulberry, and hawthorn were treated with Auxilin, Hormodih, 
and potassium permanganate solutions to determine the effect of these materials 1 
in stimulating root growth. Auxilin and Hormodin wore used at the strength 
recommended by the manufacturers; "potassium permanganate at the rate of 0.89 
gram per 1,000 milliliters. The- rooting medium was quartz sand and peat moss 
in nearly equal volume, placed in an ordinary greenhouse bench. Tho rooting 
period was 100 days, from December 20 to April 1. Bittersweet responded well 
to treatment with both Auxilin and Hormodin but hardly at all to- potassium 
permanganate. Frost grape responded to treatment with potassium permanganate 
but was inhibited by Auxilin and Eormodin. Red mulberry responded slightly to 
Auxilin and potassium permanganate but pas unaffected ^oj Hormodin. Hawthorn 
cuttings x/ere not affected by any of the treatments." 

Readers wishing to pursue this subject further may appreciate reference; 
to 3 articles by IT. II. Grace, et al in the Canadian Journal of Research 
(National Research Council, OttavHJ, 17, C (10), Oct. 1959, pp. 313-338. Thes< 
relate chiefly to the responses of dormant cuttings to indolyacetic acid, ethyl 
mercuric phosphate, cane sugar, and nutrient salts. 

Research: Study cage 

Wright ,_ Jtertrand A. The drop-bar activity cage, Turtox News 
(761-763" East" 69th Place"" Chicago, 111.), 18(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 19-20, 
2 photos . 


;/ILDLLFE REVISIT: No. 26 February, 1940 

For study of the periods of activity, especially of reptiles and amphib- 
ians both in laboratory and field, the author discarded electrical devices as 
too expensive and cumbersome and resorted to mechanical means of recording 
activity. The cage developed is described and illustrated. 

Soil Conservation Service 

Anon. New Soil Conservation Districts provide for managing farm 
game, Virginia Wildlife (Blacks burg, Va. ) , 3(3), Nov. 1939, pp. 1, 7. 

Six districts, covering 19 counties, have already been organized in 
Virginia. Provisions of a typical work plan relating to wildlife are quoted. 

Soil Conservation Service: An nu al Rep ort 1938-3_9 

Bennett, TL H. Report of the Chief of the Soil Conservation 
Service, 19*39, 70 pp., 18 tables (Supt. of Documents, Washington, D. C. 
15 cents a copy) . 

Progress in restoration of wildlife habitat as part of the erosion con- 
trol program is recorded on pages 35-37. The most beneficial practices are 
listed; pond development, beaver stocking, increased use of herbaceous vegeta- 
tion, hedgerow management, and some of the effects of the work upon wildlife 
arc discussed. 


Issues of interest to wildlife managers additional to those previously 
mentioned are listed below. Copies of these mimeographed leaflets can be ob- 
tained from the Biological Survey, U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington, 
D. C. 

JS-146. Lake Llattamuskeet 'Jildlife Refuge, 2 pp., October 1939. 

History and description of this 50,000 acre reservation in North Carolina; 
notes on hunting and fishing privileges, and on the principal waterfowl of the 

JB_-148. Status of the American bison in the United States and 
Alaska, 1939"," 10 pp., 1 table, December 1939. 

Number of the animals in the United States and Alaska, 5,029 (1939), an 
increase of 579 over the 1934 estimate. A five-page tabulation shows the loca- 
tion and ownership of herds, the number of males, females, and calves they 
included, and State, United States, and Alaska totals. Bibliography of 50 

ES-149. Protecting field crops from waterfowl damage by means of 
reflectors and revolving beacons, by F. M. Uhlcr and Stephen Creech, 5 pp., 
1 pi., November 1939. 


WILDLIFE EEV1S17: No. 25 February, 1940 

Account of experiments in protecting "buckwheat, rice, and lettuce by 
means of spinning reflectors and revolving beacons, the construction and use 
of which are described. The plate illustrates details of the devices. 

notes and ims 

The Colorado State College Library (Fort Collins) has issued as its 
Bulletin 5, "The memoirs of Estos Park" by Milton Estes. The publication give 
information on the locality and its wildlife during the period 1859-66. 

Papers presented at the Third Northeastern Uildlifc Conference in con- 
nection with the Eleventh Annual New England Game Conference, February 3-4, 
1939. Mimeographed copies of all (10) of these arc available at a cost of 25 
cents per set; remittance should be made to David A, Aylward, 20 Spruce St., 
Boston, Mass. Four of the articles relate to fishes and one to conservation 
law; the ether 5 are briefly abstracted herewith: 

Webb, William L . The new program of the Roosevelt wildlife Forest 

Experiment Station, Now York State College of Forestry at Syracuse Univer- 
sity, 5 pp. 

Account of the establishment of the Station, its facilities, and re- 
search and educational programs, and its publications. 

Gre ene , l/illard C . Multiple blood parasites in waterfowl, 4 pp. 

One bacilliform and three protozoan parasites found in the blood of 
black ducks on Cape Cod, Mass. Evidently subnormal ducks are likely to be 
those infested with blood parasites which bring on anemia, toxemia, malnutri- 
tion, lowered resistance to other diseases, and loss of strength and of abilrt 
to migrate, nest, and reproduce. 

Hosley, N. V. r . The place of foods in New England wildlife management, 
6 pp. 

Mich the same paper as abstracted in WILDLIFE PEvTEJ, No. 22, August 
1939, p. 20, but with a somewhat fuller discussion of nutritional details, anc 
a bibliography of 10 titles (3 others incomplete). 

Morton ,_ James N. Stopping up game production in Pennsylvania, 11 pp. 

Modern developments including clean farming, increased posting of land] 
and growth in the number of hunters have intensified the problems of State gaii 
departments. The Pennsylvania organization is endeavoring to meet the situa- 
tion by improving environments, bettering farmer- sportsman relationships, and 
readjusting the stocking program. Progress in each of these activities is 

Mil ler, J. Paul. The Pi ttman -Robert son program and what it means to 
conservation, 6 pp. 

Brief history of the legislation, abstract of its provisions, types of 
projects eligible for aid and conditions governing their approval; requiremen 
as to technically trained personnel, supervision, and maintenance; brief de- 
scription of projects approved in Northeastern States; necessity for coopera- 
tion of all interests involved. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 1940 

Feeling that more light might well be Lad upon the tabulation tr Take of 
certain r.ianr.ials in New York State," reproduced in WILDLIFE REVIEW, No. 24, 
November 1939, p. 38, the compiler of the REVIEW appealed to the Conservation 
Department at Albany. Most of the reply -by Robert W. Darrow is here quoted: 

Our figures of reported take, of course, are not accurate as regards the 
actual number hilled. They do, however, present a fairly sound indication of 
trend, which becomes more accurate when the figures are reduced to a take-per- 
license basis. When examined from this standpoint, it seems clear that, except 
for the muskrat, the various fur-bearers have been maintaining themselves or 
somewhat increasing since 1920, and especially since 1930. 

It is unfortunate that Dr. Palmer chose 1927 as the year for which to 
give his initial figures, since for some unexplained reason the take of practi- 
cally all the species was very markedly higher during this year than for a num- 
ber of years before or any year since. An important consideration in analyzing 
these trends is the fact that during the 20' s the fur market was at a very high 
level and greatly encouraged trapping; while since 1930 the reverse has largely 
been true. Another factor is that until the coming year, New York has not had 
a separate trapper's license. 

Therefore, in figuring the take per license, all hunting licenses are 
included in the computation. I believe that since the 20 T s, the number of 
people taking out such licenses for purely hunting purposes have increased to 
a far greater degree than lias the number of trappers. Therefore, it is possible 
that if wo knew the actual number of trappers, the trend of the take among the 
fur-bearers would be considerably more favorable. 

In any case, however, the abundance of muskrat s docs seem to have def- 
initely decreased. How much of this may be attributable to draining and other 
operations which destroy muskrat range, wo do not laiow. We arc anticipating 
the establishment under the Pi ttman -Robert son program of a project dealing with 
fur- bearers, .and hope that as a result of it, we will be able to build up a 
picture of just what .these conditions actually are. 

The otter, fisher and marten, as you undoubtedly know, were given a con- 
tinuously closed season beginning in 1937. 

Regarding cottontails and hares, it seems quite evident that a low point 
in their abundance was experienced between 1934 and 1937. They have now re- 
covered to a considerable degree. 



February, 1940 


































_3 ^ 














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WILDLIFE REVIEW: No, 26 February, 1940 

The report of tlie Ohio Cooperative Wildlife Research Station for the 
fiscal year 1933-59 was received during the holiday period. It is Release No. 
IIS of the Station at G-olumbus, Ohio, and comprises 11 mimeographed pages. 
The report lists the places at which work is being done, and gives a roster of 
the staff and a directory of men formerly associated with the unit, mentioning 
their present employment. The status of research projects is shown in a tabu- 
lation, educational activities are summarized, and publications and manuscript 
reports on the work" cataloged. 

"Wildlife in the Farm Program," by James N. Morton (Bui. 16, Pennsyl- 
vania Game Commission, Harrisburg) , abstracted in WILDLIFE REVIEW, No. 15, July 
1938, pp. 26-2?, has recently been reprinted for the third time. The four 
editions total 95,000 copies. 

A prominent zoologist and biomctrist recommends the following books on 
statistical theory and practice from the point of view of the biologist. They 
are named in the ascending order of their complexity: 

Pearl, Raymond 

Introduction to medical biometry and statistics, 2nd Ed., 459 v~9', 
illus., 1930. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa, 

Simpson, Gecrae G. , and Anno Roe 

Quantitative zoology; numerical concepts and methods in the study 
of recent and fossil animals, xvii+--14 pp., illus., 1939. 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 530 'Jest 42nd St., New York, N. Y. 

Yule, O-oorgc U. , and M. G. Kendall 

An introduction to the theory of statistics, 11th Ed., xiii+570 
pp., illus., 1937. C. Griffiths C: Co., Ltd., Leaden, England. 

A recent review highly recommends an additional book, saying, "No better work 
is available for the beginner." The reference is: 

S no da cor, George H, 

Statistical methods, xiii+388 pp„, illus., 193S. Collegiate Press, 
Ames, Iowa. 

The Quarterly Bulletin of the American Nature Association has been re- 
placed by leaflets on green paper printed as -an integral part of Nature Maga- 
zine (1212 Sixteenth St. , N. W. , Washington, B. C,). The first such brochure 
by E. Laurence Palmer was abstracted in WILDLIFE BEVIEN, No. 24, November 1939, 
p. 16, and the second by William M, Rush in the present issue, p. 3. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 26 February, 194C 

"A pamphlet about pamphlet 3 $" by Lester Condit (University of Chicago 
Press, 104 pp., lithoprint ,. ,195.9, 75 cents a copy), may be of interest to many 
readers of WILDLIFE REVIEW?,, It defines pamphlets in a chiefly historical 
treatment, and suggests methods of preserving, arranging, and cataloging them. 
There is a bibliography of references pertaining to each chapter of the 
brochure, and an indexed list of manufacturers and dealers in library supplies,! 

The Houghton Mifflin Company (2 Park St.,, Boston, Mass.) announces 
publication under the editorship of Dr. John B. May of a revised edition of 
Forbush' s -'Birds of Massachusetts." Accounts of more than 100 species have 
been added and the title correspondingly changed to "Natural History of the 
Birds of Eastern and Central North America." The book runs to 500 pages, has 
96 colored plates; the price: is $4.95. 

Al Belair, Minneapolis, Minnesota, is distributing a small tract entitl 
"Know your crow, its habits and control" in which, although damage by the bird 
is stressed, moderation in control is urged. Tho price is 10 cents per copy. 




February, 1940 


Adc oc 1:, Reginald 
Aldrich, John W, 
Anderson, Harry G. 
Appling, Phillip 
At water, LI. 1.1. 
Baher, Frank Collins 
Bartlett, I. 


Beecn, J. il. 
Beaver, Paul 
Belair, Al 



:her L. 



Bel 1 ro 3 e , Frank C . , Jr. 
Benjamin, J. R. 
Bernett, H. H. 

Beule, John D. 
Bissonnette, Thomas Hume 
Blake, Janes 
Blancbard, Frank N. 
Bogert, C. M. 
Bole, B. P. , Jr. 
Bradt, 0. W. 
Brown , C . B. 
Buss, Irveii 0. 
Butner, H. B. 
Butt s , Edward 
Cahalane, Victor H, 
C oat ney , . Robert 
Condit, Lester 
Cooley, R. A. 
Bowles, R. B. 
Cox, William T. 
Creech, Stephen 
Cromie, G. A. 
Cuckler, Ashton C. 
Culver, L. B. 
Daubach, Charles A. 
Darlington, II. T. 
Darrow, Robert U. 
Davis, William B. 
Davis, William G. 
Davison, Verne S. 
Deem, A. W. 
Dobie, J. Frank 
Dodge, Natt N, 
Doll, Elvis R. 

Pag e 











Duncan, A. 0. 
Durant, A. J. 
Edwards, Oliver T. 
Emlen, J. T. , Jr. 
Erickson, Arnold B. 
Errington, Paul L. 
Evans, C. A. 
Fallowfield, John 
Fr ankl in , Sydney 
Fried, Louis A. 
Gabriel so::, Ira N. 
Gersbell, Richard 
Goldstein, Frederick 
Good, E. E. 
Gord on , Kenneth 
Gould, Ernest W. 
Gower, W. Carl 
Grace, N. H. 
Grater, Russell K. 
Green, N. Bayard 
Green, R. G. 
Greene, Willard C. 
Hamerstrom, F. N. , Jr. 
Hamilton, W. J. , Jr. 
Hanson, Herbert C. 
Harkema, Reinard 
Harwood, Paul D. 
Eat field, Donald M. 
Hawkins, Arthur 3. 
Hendrickson, George 0. 
Hickic, Paul 
Hicks, Lawrence E. 
Hill, Hi Hi an C. 
Einshaw, W. R. 
Hosley, N. W. 
Hubbard, W. Eugene 
Drier, Ralph H. 
Jcllison, Xh.i. L. 
Jowett, Stanley G. 
Jural o, Bernard 
Kalmbach, E. R. 
Katz, J. S. 
Kellogg, Charles E. 
Kellogg, K. 3., Jr. 
Kellogg, Remington 
Kossler, Wayne 
Kottuncn, A. G. 


2, 54, 37 
17, 38 
9, 11 
21, 41 



Kionholz, Raymond 
King, Lost or S. 
King, Willis 
Knowlton, George E. 
Kohls, Glen M. 
Komarck, Roy 
K\ihn, Tracy M. 
Kutz, Harry Leon 
Larson, C. L. 
Lay, Dan W, 
Lazarus, Alfred S. 
Lewis, M. G-., David R. 


Willi an H. 

Luttringer, Leo A., Jr. 
Manwell, Reginald D. 
Liar tin, Russell J. 
Mason, Edwin A. 
Mat toon, M. A. 
May, Join 3. 
McAtee, W. L. 
McCain, Randall 
McCann, Charles 
He Doug all, W. B. 
McKenny, Margaret 
McMurry, Frank B, 
McNeil, E. 
Mendall, Howard L. 
Meyer, K. E. 
Miller, J. Paul 
Moffitt, Janes 
Monson, Gale 
Moore, E. B. 
Morgan, B. B. 
Morton, Janes N. 
Mowbray, Vincent 
Munro, J. A. 
Mu rp hy , Ro b e rt Cu s hman 
Nestle r, Ralph B. 
Norris, Russell T. 
Nutt, David C. 
01s en, 0. Wilford 
Ormsbee, Richard A. 
Osborne, Ray 
Paine r , E . Lau r en c e 
Pawling, R. 01 dt 
Payne, Ernest A. 







31 , 


i t> 





8, 10 





tO, 41 


Penner, Lawrence R. 
Pieters, A . J. 
Piatt, E. D. 
Randall, Pierce E. 
Rankin, John S. , Jr. 
Roberts, Pi. G. 
Ruff, Frederick J. 
Rush, William M. 
Saug s t a d , St aril ey 
Scott, Thomas G. 
Schultz, Richard L. 
Shout z, H. L. 
Shaw, Charles E. 
3 hou p , C ha r 1 c s S . 
Silo ox, E. A. 
Spencer, Donald A. 
Stegeran, LeRoy C. 
Stiles, Geo. W. 
Storer, Dayton 
Studholme," Allan T. 
Tuber 4 E. Wallace 
Taylor, Woman 
Taylor,, '/alter P. 
Tohon, L. R. 
Touch, C. V. 
Thomas, Lyoil J. 
Thorp, Frank, Jr. 
Titus, Harry W. 
Travis, Bernard V. 
Tyzzer, Ernest Edv.ard 
Uhler, E. M. 
Van Dorsal, William R. 
Walkinshaw, Lawrence IT. 
Wallace, F. G. 
Waller, E. E. 
VJatson, Loroy, Jr. 
Webb, .Jill i ara L. 
iJoinman, David 
Weiss, Siegfried 
Welch, Charles 
West, Eva lino 
Whittle, C. A. 
Wiec zorowski , Elsie 
Wing, Leonard 
Wright, Bertrond A. 
"eager, Lee E. 

February, 1940 
I' age 
11 . 
3, 4 











Abstracts : 

Bibliography . . 

Classification . 

Conservation . . 

Control «... 


Diseases and parasites 

Ecology .... 

Economics . . . 

Education . . . 

Food habits , . 

Pheasant damage 

Utilization of rung 

Of bobcat .... 

Bobwhite . . . 

Chipmunk, Tahoe 

Deer, White-tailed 

Gallinaceous birds 


Kite, '/'Jhite-tailed 


Merganser, American 


Opossum ..... 
Owl, Barn .... 
Owl, Great horned . 


Quail, California 
Rabbit, European , 


Weasel, Mountain . 

Life histories 


Attracting birds . . 







Abstracts — C ont inucd 
Liana g omen t — Co nt i nu c d 

Big game, national forests 

Big game, Ohio 

Bob- white 

Cover .... 

Farm wildlife 

Farmer-sportsman relation- 

Eood patches 

Fencing , 

Forest v/ildlifc 

Gallinaceous birds .... 



Inventory ..... . . . . 

Planting, seed cleaning . . 
Planting for wildlife . . . 
Planting for wildlife and 

erosion control 

Sandhill area in North 

Carolina ........ 

Seed collecting and handling 
Soil conservation in relation 
to wildlife management 

Stocking, beaver 

water supply ....... 

Natural history 



Research . . 

Wildlife leaflets 

Notes and news 

Author index for this issue . . . 









Washington, D, C. 


May, 1940 

"..TLDLIFE REVIEW No. 27 May, 1940 

_Bi ol i ogra phy : Bi r ds 

St rong, R euben M. A bibliography of birds, with special reference 
to anatoray, behavior, biochemistry, embryology, pathology, physiology, 
genetics, ecology, aviculture, economic ornithology, poultry culture, 
evolution, and related subjects, Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago, 
111.) Zoological Series, Vol. 25, Fart 1, Author Catalogue A to J, pp. 
1-464; Part 2, Author Catalogue K to Z, pp. 465-937, 1939. Part 3 con- 
taining the subject index is in press. Price for the three parts, post- 
paid, $11.00. - • 

An outgrowth of the author's original bibliography on bird morphology, 
this work is largely non-taxonomic and relates ■ especially to- anatomy, physi- 
ology, ecology, and behavior. Paleontology, ■ parasitology, ■ aviculture, and 
migration in addition, however, are not ignored.- Volume 1 includes a key list 
of abbreviations for periodicals cited (pp. 17-72), and a list. of periodicals 
not cited but relating to birds (pp. 73-82). In both volumes, symbols indicati 
libraries in^which many of the works listed may bo found, .JL monumental task, 
well done; • completeness, : however, was not aimed for and should not be expected 
A literally complete bibliography unavoidably would include references of 
little value. 

3i bl i og_r aphy ;. geology; 

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ * • i 

i^PA^^Jj-JL' RA char il* Recent Russian work on community ecology, 

■ Journ. Animal Ecology (Cambridge University Press,* 200 Euston Road, 

N. W. 1, London, England. 20 shillings a copy), 8(.2), Nov. 1939, pp. 354- 

History of ecological studies in Russia, statement of present organiza- 1 
tion for these researches, discussion of concepts and theories, and bibliograpi 
of 517 titles. 

Classif i cat ion ; Fleas 

' " ffozy Irving . Fleas of eastern United States, Iowa State College 
Press (Ames) ,' vii+191 pp., 31 pis., Feb. -1940 (§3.00 a copy, postpaid). 

1 • The introductory chapter discusses the collection and preservation, 
morphology and terminology, and life' history and control of floas. The 
remainder of the book is a systematic treatment, including keys from sub- 
orders to species, synonymy, and citations to the literature of all groups, 
and descriptions, illustrations, and locality and host records for 55 species. 
This the first comprehensive treatment of American fleas since 1904, should 
be of considerable value to students of animal diseases. 

Cons orvat ion 

Po_c_j_ JT_. _ ^^p-J^l_C3. . V/ildlife -conservation in Tennessee, Educational 
Publication Ifo. 1 ( Dcpt . of Conservation, Nashville, Tcnn.), 14 pp., 
n. d. , mimeographed. 


bTLDLIFE REVIEW: ITo. 27 May, 1940 

History of the exploitation of natural resources of the State. To be 
effective, conservation of all of them r.iust proceed simultaneously, national 
and State organisations for conservation are described and some of their cur- 
rently available publications listed. 

Conservation :_ _ Dpve^ Mour ning 

P almer, C. M. , Jr . I.Iourniirj dove menaced, American Wildlife 
(Investment Bids. , Washington, D. C. 25 cents a copy), 29(1), Jan. -Feb. 
1940, pp. 45-47. 

Sketching a background of the fate of the passenger pigeon, the author 
emphasizes care to preserve the mourning dove. Its desirability as a game 
bird, its habits, and useful economic status arc briefly summarized. Its 
multiple brood production, prolonging tho breeding season past the customary 
date for tho opening of the hunting soason, imposes a problem in management 
which the writer thinks can bo solved by education and gradual action. 

C o ns e rvat i on : I. Ir.rr o 

Johnson^ R t> A _. Present range, migration, and abundance of the 
Atlantic murrc in ITorth America, Bird-Banding (Charlos 3. Floyd, 310 South 
St., Boston, Mass. 75 cents a copy), 11(1), Ian. 1940, i~n. 1-17, 1 map, 
1 table. 

Location and size of recent brooding colonies, notes on migration, 
winter range, and winter populations, especially as elucidated by banding. 
The total breeding population is soma 50,000 birds. Eggors who collected 
eggs for the Boston market 80 to 100 years ago together with local marauders 
reduced the niirrc population about 95.5 percent up to tho time that tho 
Canadian Government created sanctuaries for. the birds. They are now increas- 
ing on the refuges. 

£9S*£2ii. Pre dators 

9T. e P}h. P_' JL* Controlling predatory animals, American ".midlife 
(Investment Bldg. , Washington, B. C. 25 cents a copy), 29(1), Jan. -Feb. 
1940, pp. 35-40, 5 photos. 

Predator control in America pursuant to legislation dates from 1630. 
Its necessity has continued longer in the sparsely settled West than in the 
East and urgent requests resulted first in investigation of the problem, and 
in 1914 in a small appropriation oj Congress for experiments and demonstra- 
tions. A considerably larger allotment the next year enabled the Biological 
Survey to take over the work along this line that had been carried on by the 
Forest Service. In that year 14,072 predators were killed. Organization and 
methods have boon improved to handle the problem in 11 western range States 
totalling 761,000,000 acres, nearly half of which is public domain. In illus- 
tration of losses is cited the Forest Service report that in 193S, 73,404 
sheep and goats wore killed by predators on national forests in the United 
States during the summer grazing season of about 3 months. Despite control 


bTLDLIFE REVIEW: No. 27 May, 1940 

operations, coyotes seem to be both increasing and spreading. Improved 
methods are a a;reat need and are being sought. In contrast the control of the 
wolf, bobcat, bear, and mountain lion is local in character and readily accom- 
plished with adequate personnel. Criticisms of the work are discussed and the 
results of investigations cited. 

Control: i later che stnut 

Hani 11, J. S. ' Deadly water chestnut chokes Potomac, Outdoor 
A merica (1167 Merchandise Mart, Chicago, 111. 10 cents a copy), 5(3), 
Jan. 1940, pp. 4-5, 3 photos. 

Spread of the plant, suppression of other vegetation of more value to 
wildlife, description, illustration, and life history of water chestnut; steps 
being taken in control. 

Cycles: Arctic animals 

Chit ty , Donnis . Canadian Arctic wild life enquiry, 1937-38, Journ. 
Animal Ecology (Cambridge University Press, 200 Eustcn Road, N. U. 1, 
London, England. 20 shillings a copy), 3(2), Nov. 1939, pp. 247-260, 
4 maps, 2 tables. 

Third report in this scries, the second of which was noticed in 
./TLDLIEE HEVUT.J, Ho, 19, April 1939, p. 12. Data arc summarized on increase 
and decrease of lemmings, arctic foxes, and snowy owls, and upon ''distemper" 
among sledge dogs. 

Q79}£?J -£- ar ^L> Snow shoe 

Greenj^R. G_. , and C« A. Evans. Studies on a population cjrele of 
snows hoe hares on the Lake Alexander Area. I. Gross annual censuses, 
1932-1939, Journ. Jildlife Management (Frank C. Edminster, Soil Conserva- 
tion Service, Upper Darby, Pa. 75 cents a copy), 4(2), April 1940, pp. 
220-258, 4 figs., 9 tables. 

Authors* abstract: "An intensive study of populations of the snowshoo 
hare (Lopus americanus) has been pursued since 1951 on the Lake Alexander Area, 
a tract of about six and one-half square miles in Morrison County, Minnesota. 
Calculations arc based on systematic trapping and banding operations carried 
on during the months of November through April since 1932. Field observations 
made before trapping .and banding procedures were instituted showed that snow- 
shoe hares were not common on the Lake Alexander Aroa in 1928. The population 
gradually increased in the course of the next few years to a maximum calculate! 
population of 500 hares to the square mile in 1935. During the next two yjars 
a moderate focal decline in the numbers of hares occurred on some parts of the 
area. From 1935 through 1938 there was a continuous, sharp decline until the 
number of hares was only about 10 per cent of the peak population. The begin- 
ning of recovery from the decimation was marked by an increase in numbers of 
hares in 1939 to about twice the population in 1938. Those changes in popula- 
tion coincided with parallel changes in numbers of hares observed in other 


JUDLIPE REVIEW": No. 27 May, 1940 

parts of Minnesota and in Wisconsin and may be considered representative of 

the periodic fluctuations in population to which these animals are subject. 

It was estimated that a winter mortality of about 50 per cent occurred during 

a period of ton weeks in each of two successive years. An analysis of the 

error of random sampling entailed in calculating yearly populations is presented. r 

Msease?. i\ n A J^J^Si* e . s J ^L° od_jparas_ites_ 

Eerms, ¥. B. Jm C_._ G. Kadner, P. QalinclOj 7. Armstrong, and D« E. 

AFi^JiUlS. Blood parasites of California birds, Journ. Parasitology 
"(Lancaster, Pa. $1.50 a copy), 25(6), Lee. 1939, pp. 511-512. 

Report on examination of 150 birds embracing 30 species of which 41 of 
6 species were found infected; records of infection by Plasmodium, Haenopro- 
teus, Trypanosoma, and microfilariae are given, and also a list of the unin- 
fected birds, 

Ji_sea_s e_s_ and Paras i t e s : _ C e st od a^ D J. o rchis 

Long,, L_.^e_le: n, T and Nol .soil • E .^ Wi^ins. A new species of Di orchis 
(Cestoda: Hymen olepididae) from the canvasback, Journ. Parasitology 
(Lancaster, Pa. #1.50 a copy), 25(c), Dec. 1939, pp. 483-486, 1 pi. 

£• I}TJl £-Jl n * s -°* f ro:T1 Oklahoma; description, illustration, comparative 
notes, and list of knov/n species of the genus. 

Diseases^ and RirjiSjLtpsj_ _ Cost oda, Oochoristica 

Peerjr, Bajold. J_, A new unarmed tapeworm from the spotted skunk, 
Journ. Parasitology (Lancaster, Pa. Ol« 50 a copy), 25(6), Dec. 1959, 
pp. 487-490, 1 pi. 

oc hor i s t i ca qklahoraensis; description, illustration, comparative notes, 
list of species of the genus from mammal hosts; bibliography of 6 titles, 

.Diseases^ and Parasites: Oochoristica 

3tee_lmanj Gerald II. Oochoristica whitentoni, a new anoplocephalid 
cestode from a land tortoise, Journ. Parasitology (Lancaster, Pa. #1,50 
a copy), 25(6), Dec. 1939, pp. '479-182, 1 pi. 

In Ter rapene triunguis from Oklahoma; description, illustration, and 
comparative notes, 

IQ^S^StB.S^-I^S&sitesj, Cest oda, Tatria 

0l3en J _ 0. Wilf ord. Tatria duodecacantha, a new species of cestode 
(Amabiliidae Braun, 1900) from the picd-billed grebe (Podilymbus p_odiceps 
pp^l_ccp_s (Linn.)), Journ. Parasitology (Lancaster, Pa. $1.50 a copyT, 
25(6), Doc, 1939, pp. 495-499, 1 pi. 


..TLDLIFE :rS7lE:/: Ho. 27 ' May, 194C 

Prom Iowa; description, illustration, comparative notes; key to 5 known 
species of the genus; bibliography of 6 titles. 

Dise ases and Paras it eg;.; Ei neria 

lioness, Ralph J 1 . The coccidia infesting the cottontail rabbit, 
Sylvil agus putt all ii granger i (Allen),, with descriptions of two new species, 
Parasitology (Cambridge University Press, 200 Euston Road, N. U. 1, London, 
England. 18 shillings 6 pence a copy), 31(3), Sept. 1939, pp.- 281-284, 
3 figs. , 1 table. 

Brief notes on technique; accounts of 4 species of Eime ria, 3 illus- 
trated, and 2 new (E. major and E. e nviron presumably from Wyoming); the table 
compares characters of 8 species and one Variety of the genus; bibliography of 
7 titles. 

D isea s e s a nd Park as jites : Gas t r oe nt or it is 

Wal lor, E. E. Infectious gastroenteritis in raccoons ( Pro c yon 
lotor) , Journ. Amor. Veterinary Medical Assoc. (221 N. La Salle St., 
Chicago, 111. 75 cents a copy), 96(755), Feb. 1940, pp. 256-268. 

Account of an infectious malady of captive raccoons in Iowa; course of 
the disease, necropsies and experimental studies of it. It was similar to, 
if not identical with, gastroenteritis of cats, the causative organism of 
which is Es c hor i c hia coli comauuior. 

Jisoa sos and Paras it csj _ M alaria 

C-ambrell, El izabeth. Avian malaria, The Oriole (Emory University, 
Ga.), 4(4), Dec/ 1939V PP." 57-58. 

Popular article describing the disease and its transmission and review- 
ing recent findings as to malaria in birds of the United States. It is sug- 
gested that the malady is most destructive to 3 T oung birds. 

Diseas es and p arasites; __ Nematode. , Dracuncuius 

3enbrook, E. A. The occurrence of the guinea \iorm, Dracuncuius 
medinensis, in a dog and in a mink, with a review of this parasitism, 
Journ. Amer. Yet erinary Medical Assoc. (221 H. La Salle St., Chicago, 
111. 75 cents a copy), 96(755), Feb. 1940, pp. 260-263, 1 photo. 

Review of literature, of which 23 titles arc cited; wild animals from 
which the parasite (an enormous nematode) have been reported include the fox 
and mink. Description of the worm, infections by it, and treatment. 

DjLj3jja_sps_ and Parasites: ITcmatoda, S kra j a b i ng y lu s_ 

Boll^ William C. The nematode Skra j abingylus chi twoodorum n. sp. 
from the skunk, Journ. Parasitology (Lancastor, Pa. $1.50 a copy), 
25(6), Dec. 1939, pp. 475-478, 1 pi. 

TULDLIFE REVIEW: No. 27 May, 1940 

In Mephitis and Spilogale from Oklahoma; description, illustration, 
comparative notes. 

Pil?J^J^s_and._ P- a - ras i t es : Re laps inf ; fever 

D avis, Gor don S . Qriiitligdorgs parkeri : distribution and host data; 
spontaneous infection with relapsing fever spirochetes, U. S. Public Health 
Reports (Supt. of Documents, "Washington, D. C. 5 cents a copy), 54(29), 
July 21, 1939, pp. 1345-1349, 1 table. 

Records of collection, giving locality, date, and host animal (ground 
squirrels, prairie dogs, rabbits, weasel, deer mouse). Specimens from 3 local- 
ities were found infected with relapsing fever spirochetes, but no transmis- 
sion to man has as yet been demonstrated. 

PJ^JlS^iL J?2^L jfe^ es : S el enium pois oning 

Twomey ^ Arthur C . , Sarah J . Twomey, an d Lo r_ing r R._ Wi_l_l_i_ams_. 
Selenium and duck sickness, Science (C rand Central Terminal, New York, 
N. Y. 15 cents a copy), 90(234-6), Dec. 15, 1939, pp. 572-573, 1 table. 

Analyses of the livers of birds dying from duck sickness in Utah revealed 
definite traces of selenium; those for a check series from Pennsylvania did not. 
Selenium poisoning was also experimentally demonstrated. The symptoms arc the 
sar.ic as those of botulinus infection. The authors are of the opinion that 
selenium is an important factor in wostorn duck sickness in the areas studied. 

Diseases and^ Paras it ejs : Tick , Gu lf Coast 

IL^JiSJb-i^BZ' Field biology and environmental relationships of 
the Gulf Coast tick in southern Georgia, Journ. Economic Entomology 
(E. N. Cory, College Park, Md. 75 cents a copy), 33(1), Feb. 1940, 
pp. 179-189, 2 figs., 7 tables. 

Anblyomma maculatum, not otherwise especially injurious, creates condi- 
tions favoring screw-worm infestation of the ears of domestic animals. The 
literature of the species, 8 titles of which are cited, is reviewed, and the 
life history of the tick fully discussed. Besides livestock, the known hosts 
include 5 species of mammals and 11 of birds. Birds arc more susceptible to 
infestation than are the mammals. Details are given of the findings with 
respect to wild hosts. 

Disea ses and Paras it qs :__ Ticks 

J^olliso_n ? William L. The burrowing owl as a host to the argasid 
tick, Orn i z bgd orus par kc r i , U. S. Public Health Reports (Supt. of Docu- 
ments, Washington," D. C. 5 cents a copy), 55(5), Feb. 2, 1940, pp. 206- 

Nino cf 18 burrows investigated in Washington yielded specimens of this 
tick previously known from a variety cf small mammal hosts. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 27 May, 1940 

Diseases and_ Parasites : Tremato da, Diplo st o mulu m 

Kent, Ge orge C . , Jr. A new trematode: Diplostomulum sirenis, n.sp., 
Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. (H. S. Rappleye, U. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, Washington, D, C. 50 cents a copy), 30(2), Feb. 1940, pp. 87-91, 
1 fig. , 1 table. 

From Siren lacertina , Nashville, Tenn. ; description, measurements, 
illustration, comparative notes; bibliography of G titles. 

Diseases and Parasites : _ Tre matoda, Lep t ophyllum 

Byrdj Elo n B. , and Robert L. Ro uda bush . Lep to phyllur a oval is n. sp., 
a trematode from the brown water snake, Journ. Parasitology (Lancaster, 
Pa. $1.50 a copy), 25(6), Dec. 1939, pp. 471-473, 1 fig. 

In Natrix taxispilota from Florida; description, illustration, compara- 
tive notes. 

Diseases a nd Par asites: Tr ema t oda , Mar i t reiaa .at al . 

Rankin , John S,, Jr . Studies on the trematode family Microphallidae 
Travassos, 1921. ' HI. The genus Maritrema Nicoll 1907, with description of 
a new species and a new genus, Maritreminoidos, Amer. Midland Naturalist 
(Notre Dame, Ind. $1.00 a copy), 22(2), Sept. 1939, pp. 438-451, 1 pi. 

The hosts arc chiefly shore birds, gulls, and ducks. The paper gives a 
historical review of the group and comparative descriptions of the species of 
the genera named, with notes on their hosts and the localities from which they 
arc known. The new genus is based on Maritroma nottac Goivor from the golden- 
eye and lesser scaup and includes two other species. Bibliography of 25 titles 

Diseases a nd Ra_ra_sit esj__ Tv 1 aremia 

Whit eh urs t ? M. Morris . Tularemia (rabbit fever), Maryland Conserva- 
tionist (514 Mans ey Bldg. , Baltimore, Lid.), Winter Issue 1940 (Feb.), 
17(1), pp. 20-22, 2 photos. 

An introductory statement on pp. 19-20 comments on the prevalence of 
tularemia in Maryland, tabulates by counties the cases reported in 1937-38 
(18), and 1939-39 (36), and discusses proposed legislation for control of the 
sale of rabbits. The main article refers briefly to history of knowledge of 
the disease, describes symptoms, lesions, and methods of transmittal. A high 
proportion of the cases arc among markctmen who handle large numbers of rabbit 
carcasses. Sportsmen arc relatively seldom affected and they may reduce the 
incidence of the disease by taking suggested precautions in connection with 
hunting and dressing rabbits. 

•JHJ3LIFE REVIEW: No. 27 May, 1940- 

Dis eas es a nd Pa rasites: Of cottontail . ' 

Clancy^ C. F. , E. Jungherr, and P. R. Sine. Internal parasites of 
cottontail rabbits in Connecticut, Journ. Wildlife Management •( Frank. C. 
Edminster, Soil Conservation Service, Upper Darby, Pa. 75 cents a copy), 
4(2), April 1940, pp. 162-163, 2 charts," 1 table. 

Authors' abstract: "As part of an ecologic study of the cottontail by 
the Connecticut Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, an internal parasite survey 
of 342 cottontail rabbits showed 85$ to be infested as follows : E imeria sp, 
63/b, Obeliscbides cimiculi 4C$, Citt otaenia variab ilis 32$, Cys ticercus pisi- 
f prmls 2&/o, and Passa lurus ambiguus 6p£ Distribution of parasites was apparent- 
ly uniform throughout the state in both hosts (eastern cottontail, Sylv ilagus 
floridanus roa llurus and New England cottontail, Sylvilagus tran s it i onal is ) 
except that Passalurus ambiguus v;as found only in the New England cottontail, 
•primarily in eastern Connecticut. Parasitism by Ob eli sco ides was lowest during 
the winter months." 

Diseases ami Par asit es: Of gallinaceous birds 

Durfee, Thomas, and M. _ Wolf e Lerner. A coliform intormediate from 
diseased quail, Journ. Amer. Veterinary Medical Assoc. (221 N. La Salle 
St., Chicago, 111. 75 cents a copy),. 96(755), Feb. 1940, pp. 245-246. 

Report on an investigation of game farm material, presumably from New 
Jersey. Authors' summary; "Investigation of the bacterial flora in quail 
dying from an unknown disease has been carried out. Strains 'of organisms of 
the Proteus, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Aerobacter, and Escherichia genera 
have been isolated and identified. A strain of Es cherichia freundii has been 
investigated. A shifting of its biochemical reactions was observed. This 
organism appears to be the cause of the unknown disease of quail, Hungarian 
partridge, and pheasants." 

Diseases and Par asites; _0f_ g allinaceous birds 

Wehr, Ever et t E . Nematodes of domestic fowls transmissible to wild 
game birds, Vetorinary Medicine (7652 S. Crandon Ave. , Chicago, 111. 50 
cents a copy), 35(1), Jan. 1940, pp. 52-58. 

Disastrous experience has made it plain that those two types of birds 
snould not be reared together or even in close proximity to each other. Gape- 
worms, crop worms, stomach worms., and intestinal worms arc discussed (as to 
hosts, life history, control, etc.) and references to 20 titles of pertinent 
literature given. Apparently some of the poultry parasites reported to have 
been found in game birds are of different spocios.- The situation calls for 
further study but enough is known to enable breeders to guard against losses 
from these parasites. 

Ecology: B eaver 

Qar r, William H . Beaver raid birds, Bird-Lore (1006 Fifth Ave., 
New York, N. Y. ~ 30 cents a copy), 42(2), March-April 1940, pp. 141-146, 
3 photos. 


I/LLDLIFE REEEEW: No. 27 May, 1940 

Ecological changes following restoration of beavers to the Palisades 
Interstate Park; the animals increased from 3 pairs introduced in 1920 to abou 
150 individuals in 1939. Water and soil conservation and creation of habitat 
for many forms of wildlife are among the benefits enumerated. 

Ecology:. ^ Census methods 

Jack s on, C. H. IT. The analysis of an animal population, Journ. 
Animal Ecology (Cambridge University Press, 200 Easton Road, N. W. 1, 
London, England. 20 shillings a copy), 8(2), Nov. 1939, pp. 238-246, 

1 fig. 

Based on work with tsetse-flies in East Africa. A random sample of 
individuals is marked; at some later time a random sample is caught and ex- 
amined; the proportion of recaptures to the total taken in the second catch 
ought to be the same as the proportion initially marked to the total populatio 
On this principle the data are elaborated, allowance being made for the factor 
of birth, death, and migration. Under certain conditions the absolute number 
of animals in a population can thus be calculated. 

Ecology: Pine seed survival 

G-emme r, Eugene W. , T. E. Maki, and R. A. Cha pman. Ecological 
aspects of longlcaf pine regeneration in south Mississippi, Ecology (Prince 
and Lemon Sts., Lancaster, Pa. $1.50 a copy), 21(1), Jan. 1940, pp.. 75- 
86, 1 fig. , 10 tables. 

The paper contains references to bird and rodent destruction of pine 
seeds. Depredations increased during a cold spell when insect food was less 
available. "Field tests show that longleaf pine seed must be protected from 
birds and (to a lesser extent) from rodents, if a stand of seedlings is to be 
established. In artificial reforestation, the use of small wire tubes, 
mulches, and the mechanical drill seeder gave promising results." On burning, 
the authors concluded that "the protective value of the rough was more impor- 
tant than the favorable soil conditions supplied by burning or cultivating," 

Ec ology: Po p ulo-t ions 

Thompson, W. R. Biological control and the theories of the inter- 
actions of populations, Parasitology (Cambridge University Press, 200 
Euston Road, N. 17, 1, London, England. 18 shillings 6 pence a copy), 
31(3), Sept. 1939, pp. 299-388, 1 fig. 

Historical survey of the subject covering entries in a closely-set 
6-page bibliography. Discussion of the general theories of natural control, 
the problem of random searching, and the mathematical formulation of the inter 
action of populations. The author is a competent mathematician and had much t 
do with the building of mathematical theory of parasito-prcy relationships, bu 
it is clear that he thinks the swing to mathematical treatment of populations 
has gone too far. His views arc briefly summarized in the following extract: 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 27 May, 1940 

"some workers in the field of biological control have apparently decided 
that the mathematical theories ray he considered in some sense as a substitute 
for observation; that the study of them will reveal to us the facts of nature; 
and that we may be guided by them in practical work. Entomologists untrained 
in mathematics might find these conclusions rather discouraging since they 
would be obliged either to accept on trust principles they do not understand 
and cannot justify, or to undertake a lengthy course in difficult mathematics. 
The present writer is convinced that this view is mistaken; that the mathemati- 
cal theories, though a natural and useful development, have not the significance 
attributed to them; that none of the theories so far produced can bo considered 
as an adequate representation of events in nature, while the theory at present 
dominant, being of a form derived from physical phenomena, is particularly in- 
applicable to the behaviour and interaction of living organisms; and that 
observation and experiment arc still the only safe basis for practical opera- 
tions in economic biology." 

Ecology: Populati ons, b ird s, Engl and 

Chapman, W. M. M , The bird population on an Oxfordshire farm, 
Journ. Animal Ecology (Cambridge University Press, 200 Euston Road, N.W. 1, 
London, England. 20 shillings a copy), 8(2), Nov. 1939, pp. 286-299, 5 

Discussion of 86 counts on an area of 125 acres. The bird population 
of hedges fluctuated less than those of arable land, and summer occupancy was 
more stable than that of winter. The average total population was 2 birds per 

Cited here mainly to reassure those who are under the impression that 
birds are more common in Great Britain than in the United States and that, 
therefore, something must be wrong with our policies or with the environment. 
The population figure cited is just the same as has been reached in numerous 
Usonian bird counts. 

Ec ology; Populations, vol e, meadow 

'B lair, If. Frank « Home ranges and populations of the meadow vole in 
southern Michigan, Journ, Wildlife management (Frank C. Edminster, Soil 
Conservation Service, Upper Darby, Pa. 75 cents a copy), 4(2), April 1940, 
pp. 149-161, 1 fig., 7 tables. 

Author's abstract: "Home ranges and populations of the meadow vole 
( Microtus p_. pennsylvanicus ) were studied by a live-trapping method on 20.4 
acres of grassland in Livingston County, Michigan. The sex ratio xvas about 
even. Peaks of breeding activity wore found in spring and fall. A high rate 
of mortality in young -voles was indicated. Adult $2 had average home ranges 
of 0.19 1 .02 acre in moist, and 0.28 ± .03 in dry, grassland. Adult eb had 
average home ro.ngcs of 0.31 t .02 acre in moist, and 0.50 ± .07 in dry, grass- 
land. The ranges of bb were significantly larger than those of the 2$ in both 
situations. The greatest average number of voles per acre was 11.9 in early 
July, 1933, in moist grassland. Voles wore very scarce in the summer of 1939." 


V/ILDLITE REVIEW: No. 27 May , 1940 

Ecol osy : Ro ads ide; erosion 

Smi th, Charles C . Wildlife and roadside-erosion in central 
Oklahoma, Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci. (a. 0. Weese, Editor, University of 
Oklahoma, Norman) -, 19, 193S, pp. 31-35, 2 tables. 

Factors affecting erosion and the composition of vegetation along road- 
sides are discussed in their relation to wildlife. From author's summary: 
(1) Roadside erosion affects not only land plants and animals but also 
aquatic life because of the filling of lakes and streams and the clouding of 
the water by the soil carried to them by roadside ditches. Silt in the water 
interferes with the respiration of aquatic animals and diminishes the light 
available to them; (2) roadside vegetation serves as a source of food and cove 
for wildlife during a large part of the year, especially in closely farmed 
regions; (3) almost every species of plant found growing on the roadside serve 
as a source of food or provides protective and nesting cover; (4) the occur- 
rence of excessive roadside-erosion can be attributed to methods of construe 
tion and maintenance of roads. Bibliography of 10 titles. 


Slaybaugh, Nelson 5. Investing the sportsman's dollar, Pennsylvania 
Game News (Pennsylvania Gome Commission, Harris burg. 10 cents a copy), 
11(1), April 1940,. pp. 5-0, 1 photo, 1 graph, 6 tables. 

Analysis of expenditures , and what is perhaps of more general interest 
estimate of returns from wildlife. Meat value of game in 1938 more than 10 
million dollars and annual value of raw furs $750,000, Payment of bounties 
amounted to 4.83 cents on the dollar. 

Sducatio n_:_ _A rbor Say and B i rd Day 

Authors . Arbor Day and Bird Day, Bulletin to the Schools, Univer- 
sity of the State of Now York (Albany. 10 cents a copy), 26(7), March 
1940, pp. 225-254, illus. 

Educational suggestions and brief popular articles. Those of most 
probable interest to wildlife managers are "A community bird sanctuary," by 
Walter Elwood (pp. 236-237, 261, 2 photos), and "Do birds get sick?" by 
Carlton M. Herman (pp. 245-247). 

E duca tion: Bird book for, children 

Van Coever ing, Jack. Real boys and girls go birding (J. B. Lippin- 
cott Co"., Philadelphia", Pa. $2.00 a copy), 150 pp., illus., 1939. 

Stories of field experiences of children and their mentors in observing 
and photographing wildlife, chiefly birds. A list of recommended bocks, and 
brief directory of conservation and ornithological societies are appended. T 
book is fully illustrated by photographs. The author names a number of promi 
nent wildlife students who have read the text to verify statements of fact. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 27 Hay, 1940 

S ducation^ Birds of Tenne s s ee 

Craig ff John L. ? et al. Birds of Tennessee in verse and story 
(Dept. of Conservation, Nashville, Tenn. 20 cents a copy), 76 pp., illus., 
n. d. 

The Education nl. Service of the Department of Consorvation prepared 
general chapters, for this booklet on the economic value, habits, and protec- 
tion of birds, and nn methods of attracting them.. The author cited contributes 
popular accounts 'of 30 common birds, each accompanied by oight lines of vorsc, 
a form for entering observations, a description of the bird and a frame for a 
colored illustration to be pasted in. These pictures, in separate enclosures 
accompanying the : abli cation, wore donated by the Church and Dwight Company 
from its well knrpr scries. They arc from, paintings -by L. a. Fuortos. 

Education : Co r -i c rvat ion 

Lumjioy, Ellsworth B t Shortage of waterfowl, Emergency Conservation 
Committee (734 Lexington Ave. , Now York, IT. Y. ) Conservation Unit 1, 3rd 
edition, completely revised, £5 pp., illus., 1940. 

Introduction by Edward A. Treble. Discussion of danger of waterfowl 
extermination, history of protection, the refuge program, contributory causes 
of waterfowl depletion, and how the waterfowl may bo saved. The leaflet, 
intended for use in teaching, contains suggestions on Research for Advanced 
Students, Class Assignments for Younger Students, and a bibliography of 30 

Education: Conservation 

Nag e 1 , _ \ Ter ne r . Objectives for the education of youth in wildlife 
conservation, School and Community (Missouri State Teachers Association, 
Columbia, Mo. 25 cents a copy), 26(3), March 1940, pp. 108-111. . 

Conservation education being in the developmental stage is in need of 
standards. Weaknesses at present manifest include: "(1) Failure to recognize 
and plan according to some fundamental objectives of conservation education 
for youth; (2) failure to recognize two distinct youth groups [producers and 
consumers], and to provide instruction suited to the needs of each group; (3) 
lack of standards for use in planning effective activities." "The youth 
program should develop attitudes, x x x It should convince the youth of the 
value of consorvation to him and to society, and of his responsibility in the 
matter. It should show him how to get the desired results. To bo effective, 
the program must be of a type to provoke thought, promote discussion, and 
stimulate activity." The paper is a .:cll-knit exposition of how to attain 
these objectives. It includes itemized standards of activities for the pro- 
ducer and consumer groups, and for the Instructor. 


jTLDLIFE REVIEW: No. 27 May, 1940 

Educ at i onj_ _Cqns ervat lon_ jm_ 4_-II_ c lubs_ 

Harrill, L. R. Wildlife conservation in the 4-H program, 4-H 
Hbrizons^lCf Ferry St., Concord, N. H. ) , 2(4), Dec. 1939, pp. 3, 70, 
2 photos. 

Outline of activities of the clubs in North Carolina in farm environ- 
ment and wildlife surveying, and study of soil conservation, forestry, and 
wildlife projects. 

Education: Forest game management 

Hos le_y ,_ II. _ W. _, _ e t^ ^ al . Re±.)ort of Committee on Came Management with 
reference to forestry, Journ. Forestry (Mills ELdg., Washington, D. C . 50 
cents a copy), 38(2), Feb. 1940, pp. 137-139. 

Relates mainly to Civil Service examinations and makes suggestions as 
to correlation of these tests with teaching in wildlife management. 

Food Habits 

Farnham? _Rous_e. Game food plants, Alabama Farmer (Auburn, Ala.), 
20(6), March 1940," "pp. 16, 22. 

Discussion by plant groups of important sources of food for the bob- 
white and mourning dove, with briefer mention of the diet of the wild turkey, 
cottontail, and gray squirrel. 

F_ood_ Habit s : Fhcasant dam age 

LangonbacJ.1,^ John R. Crop damage by ringnock pheasants, Pennsylvania 
Game News (Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harrisburg. 10 cents a copy), 
10(12), March 1940, pp. 10-11, 2 photos, 2 tables. 

Reports of damage to corn and tomatoes scorned numerous enough to demand 
investigation. This article relates to inquiry into tomato depredations in 
1939. It was found that losses due to rot, sun scald, insects, and culling in 
a total of 10 categories were all in excess of those caused by pheasants. The 
findings arc tabulated to show the percentage of green, red, and all fruits 
damaged, the average losses per ton and their financial significance. 

Fo od_ Hab i t sj Ut ilizati en of fungi 

Diehl, Wil liam. W. Endogone as animal food, Science (Lancaster, 
Pa. 15 cents a copy)', 90(2341), Nov. 10, 1939, p. 442. 

Notes on the finding of -the small truffle-like fructifications of this 
fungus in the stomachs of 3 species each of shrews and mice. 

Food Habits: Of bobcat 

Stebler, A. M. *Cats have their cycles, Michigan Conservation 
(Michigan Dept. of Conservation, Lansing), 9(6), March 1940, p. 11. 



May, 1940 

Data on bounty payments indicate considerable variation in the bobcat 
population from year to year, whether due to cycles or to control pressure is 
uncertain. Analyses of material thus far collected for food habits studies 
showed small mammals to be of most frequent occurrence, with hares and rabbits 
second, deer (mostly carrion) third, and birds (probably also largely carrion) 

Food Habits: Of bob-white 

Warner, S. R . Some quail food plants of southeastern Texas, 
Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas (College Station) Agr. Expt, 
Station Progress Report 3S2A, 9 pp., 1 map, 2 tables, mimeographed, Jan. 
. 1940. 

Summary of valuable seasonal foods, and table (occupying 6 pages) grving 
a classified list of quail food plants with notes on their value, time of seed- 
ing and fruiting, occurrence on grazed or ungrazed areas, and on various soils. 

Food Habits; Of chipmunk, Tahoo 

Baysinger, verlin G . Chipmunk feeding on white fir aphids, 
Yosemite Nature Notes (Yosomito National Park, Calif.), 19(3), March 1940, 
pp. 19-20, 1 fig. 

Field observation; tho incoct, C i nara occidontalis . 

Food Habits: Of deer, white-ta iled 

Pearson, A l len M. , and Carey S. Burnett . Deer food in the Black 
Warrior National Forest, Alabama Game and Fish News (Alabama Dept. of 
Conservation, Montgomery), 11(8), Feb, 1940, pp. 3-4, 1 table. 

Report on analyses of the contents of 19 stomachs collected in December. 
The principal items arc tabulated as to volume and frequency of occurrence and 
all foods identified are mentioned in the text. Acorns and oak browse com- 
prised about half of the total bulk of food; other important elements wore 
fruits and browse of greonbriers and sumacs. Selective timber cutting to keep 
the canopy somewhat open is recommended to encourage the growth of valuable 
food plants. 

Food Habits: Of gallinaceous birds 

Kelso, Leon . Plant foods of upland game birds, Oologist. (R. M. 
Barnes, Lacon, 111.), 56(11), Nov. 1939, pp. 122-132; 56(12), Dec. 1939,'' 
pp. 140-144. 

Discussion by families ' of the more important foods based on the writer* s 
studies while he was a member of the Biological Survey. Author T s summary: "(1) 
The Grouse arc more generalized in their vegetable diet, consuming more stems, 
buds, leaves, fruit and nuts than tho Quails. The Quails cat more seeds than 
do Grouse; (2) in general the Rosaccac are the most important -plant family in 
the food of the Grouse; (3) the Lcguminosac are the most important plant family 
in the diet of Quail and Partridges; (4) the availability of soft fruits is ov: 
dently an important factor in the health and survival of Juvenal . Quail, and 

-15- . . ' ' ' . 

WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 27 , May, 1940 

Food H abits : Of gr ouse .. 

Anon, arouse crop investigation, Wisconsin Conservation Bulletin 
(Wisconsin Conservation Dept., Madison), 5(3), March 1940, pp. 23-24. 

Preliminary reports on analyses of 10 crops of greater prairie chickens 
(1), 40 of sharp- tailed grouse ( 2), and 259 ' of ruffed grouse (3) . Leading 
food items were, respectively, for: (l) corn, birch catkins, dandelion leaves, 
groundcherries, and wintergreen berries; (2) grasshoppers and clover leaves; 
and (3) clover leaves, birch catkins, birch buds, dandelion leaves, and grass- 

Food Habits: Of kite , white-tailed 

Hawbecker, Albert C. The nesting of the white-tailed kite in 
southern Santa Crus County, California, The Condor (W. Lee Chambers, 
2068 Escarpa Drive, Eaglo Rock, Calif. 50 cents a copy), 42(2), March- 
April 1940, pp. 106 -111, figs. 29-30. 

Observations made at 4 nests. Compact pellets wore cast of which about 
180 wore examined. Meadow race were the overwhelmingly predominant food item. 
Four other rodents and one rabbit also were identified. Irregularities in kite 
nesting may be explained by variations in the availability of meadow mice. 

Food Habits: Of li zards 

McCauley, R ober t H. , Jr. Notes on the food habits of certain 
Maryland lizards, American Midland Naturalist (Notre Dame, Ind. $1.00 a 
copy), 22(1), July 1939, pp. 150-153. 

Based on examination of the alimentary content of representatives of •? 

Foo d Habi ts: f mergans er, Ame rican. 

Lagl er, i Karl F. Submarine fisherman, Hunting and Fishing (350 E. 
22nd St., Chicago," 111. 5 cents a copy), 17(4), April 1940 (March) , 
pp. 13, 20-21, illus. 

Popular article based on the findings of the investigation abstracted 
under Salyer and Lagler (below) . The merganser feeds largely on trout, taking 
many of legal size, but damage can be controlled by driving the birds from 
trout streaios to waters where there is little opportunity for them to do damage 

Food Ha b its: Of m er ganser , Ameri can 

Salyer, J. Clark, II, and Karl F. Lagler. The food and habits of 
the American merganser during winter in Michigan, considered in relation 
to fish management, Journ. Wildlife Management (Frank C. Edminstor, Soil 
Conservation Service, Upper Darby, Pa. 75 cents a copy), 4(2), April 
1940, pp. 186-219, 2 pis., 2 charts, 17 tables. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 27 May, 1940 

Authors 1 abstract: "Areas of maximum autumn and spring concentrations 
for the American merganser (Mergus merganser americanus ) in Michigan are the 
waters margining the northern half of the Lower Peninsula. During unusually 
cold or prolonged winters when these waters freeze over, large numbers of mer- 
gansers are forced onto inland waters, frequently trout streams. The food of 
345 specimens from all types of fishing waters showed that the species at times 
on trout streams constitutes a serious menace tfi the sport fishery whereas on 
other natural waters it is either innocuous or beneficial. •Morgans or drives* 
•arc described as a means for controlling concentrations on trout streams. 
Mechanical devices which exclude or frighten mergansers are adequate for pro- 
tecting fishes in rearing ponds. Feeding is largely diurnal and by sight; one- 
third to one-half of the body weight is estimated as tho average daily food 
consumption of wintering birds. Because of their food and habits, the red- 
breasted ( Mergus sorrator), and hooded (L ophodytes cucullatus ), mergansers aro 
considered to be of no importance to fish management in Michigan." 

Foo d Habits: Of mus krat 

Butler, L. A quantitative study of muskrat food, Canadian Field- 
Naturalist (582 Mariposa Ave. , Rockcliffo Park, Ottawa, Canada. 25 cents 
a copy), 54(3), March 1940, pp. 37-40, 3 tables. 

Food plants of a marsh near Mafeking, Manitoba, are listed in the order 
of their importance, and their percentage consumption during tho summer months 
tabulated. Bulrush, cattail, sweet flag, and sedge lead. From feeding 
experiments, the amount each of 7 species of plants consumed per day was cal- 
culated. Counts of tho stands of the herbs in the marsh woro used in estimat- 
ing their carrying capacity per acre. Amounts eaten varied from 20 to 128 
stems or plants and carrying capacity from 3 to 26 muskrats per acre. 

F ood Habits: Of opossum 

AllQfl -v Durward L. Nobody loves the 'possum, Michigan Conservation 
(Michigan Dept. of Conservation, Lansing), 9(G), March 1940, pp. 5, 10, 
2 photos. 

The possum is prolific, adaptable, and omnivorous. It preys to some 
extent upon eggs, including those of pheasants and wild ducks, raids poultry 
at times, but feeds more upon carrion, and takes also fruits and grain, seeds 
and grass, insects and worms — almost anything edible. In Michigan the species 
seems to be nearing the northorn limit of occupiablo range, as the animals lose 
the tips of their ears and tails by freezing. 

F ood Habits: Of owl, barn 

.Davis, Wm. B . Mammals compose more than 92 percent of food of the 
barn owl in Texas, Texas Come, Fish, and Oyster Commission (Austin) Monthly 
Bulletin, 3(2), Jan. 1940, p. 6, 1 fig. 

List of animals identified from a collection of pellets that yielded 542, 
food items. Percentage representation by groups was: mammals, 92.3; non-game ■ 
birds, 4.1; game birds, 1.1; and insects, 2,5. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 27 May, 1940 

Food Ha b its: O f owl, gre at horn ed 

Fitch, Henry S. Some observations on horned owl nests, The Condor 
(W. Lee Chambers, 2068 Escarpa Drive, Eagle Rock, Calif. 50 cents a copy) , 
42(1), Ian. -Feb. 1940, pp. 75-75. 

Attempted counts of the population gave results around 6.6 birds per 
square mile. Nesting sites and nests are described and their occupancy briefly 
recorded. The prey brought to 5 nests is listed; it consisted chiefly of 
rabbits and large rodents: wood rats, kangaroo rats, pocket gophers, and 
ground squirrels. No birds were included, 

Food, Habits: Of pheasant 

Minro, J, k, p and St anley Saugsta d. The ring -necked pheasant. Fall 
and winter feeding habits in southeastern North Dakota, North Dakota Agr, 
Expt. Sta. (Fargo) Bimonthly Bui., 2(4), March 1940, pp. 7-8, 5 tables. 

Tabulation of the frequency of occurrence of food items in an undis- 
closed number of crops and gizzards collected in the fall of 1936, winter of 
1937, and fall of 1938, and also of percentages by weight of the principal 
foods taken in 1938. "The pheasant subsists largely upon waste grains, corn 
and wheat principally, weed seeds, wild fruits, and insects." Table 3 shows 
the maximum number of each of several kinds of foods taken by individual birds; 
largest item: 11,540 seeds of pigeon grass. 

Food H abits; Of quai l, California 

Glading, B v? _ H. H. Biswell, and C. F. Smith . Studies on the food 
of the California quail in 1937, Journ. Wildlife Management (Frank C. 
Edminster, Soil Conservation Service, Upper Darby, Pa. 75 cents a copy), 
4(2), April 1940, pp. 128-144, 2 pis., 2 figs., 3 tables. 

Authors* abstract: "A bio-ecological study was made of the food habits 
of the California quail (Lophortyx californica) in relation to food materials 
available to them in the calendar year 1937, at the San Joaquin Experimental 
Range in Madera County, California. A wide discrepancy was found between the 
relative amounts of certain items present in the plant cover and the propor- 
tions in which they were taken by the quail. Some species, though sparse in 
the plant cover, e.g. Trif olium sop. and Lupinus bi c olor , undo up a large per- 
centage of the quail diet, whereas, other common species, e.g. Bromu s spp., 
contributed only small percentages of the quail food. Other species, e.g. 
Erod ium spp., wore common both in the quail diet and the plant cover. An ex- 
pression developed to show 'desirability* for various food items is as follows: 

~ . . ... . . „ __. . Per cent of Diet X Per cent of Frequency, _ „_„ 

Desirability Coefficient = — r — — r= ~- — * *■ Loaves 

Per cent of Forage Composition 

form the bulk of the diet during the rainy winter soason and seeds during the 

dry summer. The birds did not make use of summer greens such as Hcmizonia 

v irga ta leaves, but relied on open watering places as sources of moisture. 

Food shortage is not considered to be a management problem on this area in 

years of normal rainfall. Animal food, largely insects, made up less than .5$ 

of the annual diet and wore taken mostly by laying females." 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 27 May, 1940 

J.°. A Habits: Of rabb it, Eu r o_p e an 

Southern, H. N , Coprophagy in the wild rabbit, Nature (St. Martin's 
St., London, "17. C. 2, En-land. 1 shilling a copy), 145(5668), Feb. 17, 1940, 
p. 2S2. 

Supplementing the paper by Madsen (abstracted in WILDLIFE RE7IEJ, No. 
24, Nov. 1939, p. 21), the author reports several observations on coprophagy. 

Food Habits: Of turtles 

Lagler, Karl E. A turtle loss?, American Wildlife (Investment 
Bldg. , Washington, D.~ C. 2b" cents a copy), 29 (l), Jan. -Feb. 1940, pp. 
41-44, 2 photos, 1 diagram. 

Summary of investigation of food habits of 6 species of turtles in 
Michigan. Most space is devoted to snapping turtles, 186 stomachs of which 
were examined. The food contaired in tJicse"was made up as follows: one-third 
water plants, the second third, game fishes, and the last third, dead fishes, 
and other carrion, insects, crayfishes, snails, and clams." Tic probable loss 
of game fishes to snappers is estimated at 1 fish per acre daily. This is not 
enough in itself to determine the quality of the fishing. In some waters, 
"reduction of the numbers o± sub-legal fishes by this turtle and other fish 
predators is beneficial to the angler" in concentrating the rather fixed 
quantity of fish the water can produce into a smaller number of large fishes. 
Turtles compete for food with fishes bud do much useful scavenging. 'The 
problem varies with the water and should be investigated before action is 
taken. At hatcheries, summary removal is warranted; a trap is illustrated 
and its use described. 

Food Habits: _ Of weasel, mo untain 

Baysingei^ Verliii G^. Mountain weasel catches golden-mantled 
ground squirrel, Yosemite Nature Notes (Yosemite National Parle, Calif.), 
19(3), March 1940, pp. 22-23. 

Food_ Habits :_ _ _0f_ we asel 

LiJ2Pirco_fc_t_,_ JTocej\h_ W. I trap no more weasels, Pennsylvania Game 
News .( Pennsylvania Game Commission, Harrlsburg. 10 cents a copy), 10(12), 
March 1940, pp. 6, 25, 4 photos. 

Observations convinced the writer that weasels prey far more on mice, 
rats, and ground and red squirrels than upon larger game and he recommends 
their protection. 

Life ili_ s jL°J'l_ c . s J.^ _S? v °j Whl tcg-wii:g cd_ 

Np ffy Johnson A. Range, population, and game status of the western 
white-winged dove in Arizona, Journ. Wildlife Management (Frank C. 
Edminster, Soil Conservation Service, Upper Darby, Pa. 75 cents a copy) , 
4(2), April 1940, pp. 117*1^7. 


WILDLIFE REVIEW: No. 27 May, 1940 

Author's abstract: "The western white-winged dove ( Melopelia asiatica 
m earns i ) is an important game species in Arizona. To obtain information needed 
for its management , studies of the life history of the species were begun in 
1938; this article combines observations of the 1938 and 1939 seasons. Many of 
the foods taken by white- wings arc listed; fraits of the giant cactus 
( Carncgioa ^gant_ca) arc the most favored. The known range of tho species is 
extended somewhat to the northward, and to an elevation of 6,400 feet. Dates 
of arrival in spring and of departure in autumn arc presented. Distribution 
and density of summer populations are discussed and their relation to food and 
water is shown. The flocking habits of the species make it especially sus- 
ceptible to concentrated heavy shooting and frequently whole flights are deci- 
mated. Age analysis of 1,684 birds in hunters' bags showed 33-1 /Zf adult and 
66-2/3$ juvenile doves. Heavy shooting is more influential in causing early 
migration to Mexico than are violent storms. The general population trend has j 
been consistently do\mward and vigorous protective measures arc recommended." 

Li f c__ Hist eric sj E lk 

_Yo_un;;_, ^ Vo rnon A . , and r W. Loslio Robinotto . A study of the range 
habits of elk on the Sclway Came Preserve, University of Idaho (Moscow) 
Bui., 54(16), 48 pp., 3 figs., 5 tables, Dec. 1939. 

Review of pertinent literature of which 6 titles arc cited. The methods 
of the investigation, and topography, climate, and biotic history of the study 
area are described. Elk charact eristics and habits are detailed with special 
attention to calf development, feeding, and habits. The number of calves is 
equal to about 80 percent of that of the cows. Forage and palatability studies 
wore featured and the results are presented in tabular form. Key species for 
the summer range .arc: Sal is spp. , Acer glabrum, Bror mis ca rinatus , Elymus 
gla ucus, and Ca_rcx ^cjori, Tho last-named because of its great abundance and 
high palatability is the most important herbaceous forage species. Besides th< 
plants named, Amclanchicr alnif olia , Morbus scopulina , P riim.i s omarg inata , and 
Jj2ii G .t^°ii ^J-I 1 ^^!}^. .-- J- s ° arc ospooially valuable. Palatability varies con- 
siderably with the sec son. Salt requirements wore highest from early July to 
early August; artificial salting is recommended. Coyotes arc the only impor- 
tant predators (on calves). Insect pests and ticks arc briefly mentioned. 

Life J^istpricsj Hyla ^ocularis 

Earpcr, Francis. Distribution, taxonomy, nomenclature, and habits 
of the little tree-frog (Hyla ocularis) , American Midland Naturalist 
(Notre Dame, Ina. $1.00 a copy), 22(1), July 1939, pp. 134-149, 5 figs. 

Distribution, synonymy, history, habitat, structure and locomotion, 
voice, measurejocnts. Bibliography of 19 titles, "tiniest of North American 


I/ILDLITE REVIEW: No. 27 May, 1940 

Life Histories: Leucosticte 

Twinging _, Howard . Foraging behavior arid survival in the Sierra 
Nevada rosy finch, The Condor (W. Leo Chambers, 2063 Escarpa Drive, 
Eagle Rock, Calif. 50 cents a copy), 42(1), Jan. -Fob. 1940, pp. 64-72, 
figs. 19-22. 

Leucosticte tephrocotis daws on i; habitat and habits in tho northern part 
of Yos emit e National Park; chief enemy, tho chipmunk ( Eu t ami as alp inus ) . 

3j4.fe Histories: Moose 

Ba i 1 oy , Ve mon . Our North American moose, Nature Magazine (1214 
Sixteenth St. , N. W. , Washington, D. C. 35 cents a copy), 33(D), May 1940, 
pp. 269-272, 3 photos, 1 snap. 

Popular account of these animals and their habits and life history. 
Brief description and measur . .ents and a map of distribution of 3 subspecies. 

L ife His to ri c s: I'v sj : rat 

E rring ton, Paul L. Natural restocking of muskrat -vacant habitats, 
Journ. Wildlife Management (Frank C. Edminstcr, Soil Conservation Service, 
Upper Darby, Pa. 75 cent, a copy), 4(2), April 1940, pp. 173-185. 

Author's abstract: "Spring dispersal of brooding muskrats ( Ondatra 
zibothica ) from locally favorable and protected wintering habitats results in 
a variable degree of repopulation of neighboring areas on which survival is 
low because of natural emergencies or excessive trapping. This movement, 
Which seems duo chiefly to accentuated territorial intolerances, occurs in 
central and northwestern Iowa from about the middle of March to the first of 
June, and the distribution of the animals tends to become equalized in attrac- 
tive environment for some miles array from the areas where they wintered; 
formerly used ranskrat lodges and burrows are often taken over by now-comors, 
bat selection of breading territories in areas that have not been recently 
occupied by the species may bo rather haphazard except as concerns spatial 
relationships. The numbers of young actually raised per brooding pair by late 
fall and early winter ranged from four to 17, with moderate breeding densities 
being most productive; there is no evidence from the present studies that Iowa 
muskrats breed in the calendar year of their birth, end movements of animals 
after the breeding season do not generally appear to be of much consequence in 
repopulating vacant habitats. Recommendation for tho ma